Kerstin Abreau (Mendon, New York) [Norris Muth]
Cold stress induced disease resistance to grapevine powdery mildew in Vitis species
Temperature has a substantial impact on epidemics of grapevine powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe necator. Although cultivars of the European grapevine, Vitis vinifera, are highly susceptible to E. necator, and early-season temperatures are in the favorable range for rapid pathogen growth and sporulation, epidemic progress is often stalled for 6 weeks or more after vines begin growth. We recently discovered that acute cold events that occur overnight (<10C for at least 2h) induce resistance to infection by E. necator. This trait is referred to as cold Stress Induced Disease Resistance (cSIDR). We also previously discovered a single accession of the North American grapevine V. rupestris that did not exhibit cSIDR. In the present study, we assessed cSIDR in a F1 family derived from cross-hybridizing that V. rupestris with V. vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. We also assessed other V. rupestris accessions for cSIDR. Among five V. rupestris accessions assessed, only the original V. rupestris exhibited cSIDR. None of the F1 progeny exhibited cSIDR, and all exhibited greater susceptibility to E. necator than the V. vinifera check. Thus, lack of cSIDR may be rare not only across Vitis spp. but also within V. rupestris. Our results suggest that cSIDR may be inherited as a recessive trait, and the increased susceptibility of the F1 progeny may be evidence of transgressive segregation.


Haldis Andersen (Mooresville, North Carolina) [Dr. Powell]
Analysis of Single-Species Mass Distribution in Brachiopods of the Keyser Limestone
One of the challenges within paleontology is accurately projecting a fossil population using the limited sample size of fossil organisms available. With the purpose of increasing the information that could be extrapolated from these limited samples, a recent study that calculated a body size distribution universal to many species of living unicellular eukaryote was investigated. The model allows the body mass distribution of a single-species population to be calculated using the mean mass of a sample of the species. It was proposed this distribution could potentially be applied to multicellular eukaryotic fossil populations. In order to test this, a sample of brachiopods was collected from the Keyser Limestone and sorted to ensure all brachiopods used were of the same species and were well preserved without extensive deformation. All samples were massed and volume was approximated as an ellipsoid. Using the same mathematical manipulations as were performed on data of the prokaryote samples, a body size distribution was created for our sample. The two distributions were overlaid, and it was determined that the Universal Body Size distribution for living prokaryotes was not the same as the eukaryotic fossil samples, and therefore could not be utilized to predict population body size distributions for multicellular fossilized eukaryotes.


Daniel Angelozzi (West Chester, PA) [William Thomas]
The Ineffectiveness of Digital Rights Management in Digital Media
While digital media is readily available for anyone with a computer, access to this media comes at a price. Most digital media are produced with Digital Rights Management hardware and software. Digital Rights Management is meant to prevent the end user from using the media in a way that the producer does not want. Producers want this control over their product so that they can force the end user to avoid other sources of media and to prevent the end-user from making copies of copyrighted material. Digital Rights Management is ineffective at forcing the user to buy solely from the producer and preventing copyright infringement because it is easily circumvented by the public. This presentation describes simple methods of breaking or avoiding the restrictions applied to the digital media of video games, eBooks, and videos.


Amy Ankney (Somerset, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Kim Roth]
Analysis of Friendship Networks at Juniata College
Actor oriented social networks are a type of sociological analysis of the structure of friendship networks and how they change over time. This type of social network analysis was applied to students in two small POEs at Juniata to observe what contributes to the presence and strength of friendships. Students from the Math and Art departments were surveyed for their POE, gender, and year. The data will be analyzed to see how these variables affect their friendship networks, enjoyment of classes, and overall enjoyment of POE. We are looking to observe if people who enjoy their POEs are more likely to be friends with people who enjoy theirs. The results were statistically analyzed to quantify the influence of the variables on their friendship choices. This will provide insight into what affects social networks in small POEs at Juniata. Also, it can be expanded to show how one's friendship network affect their attitude about their classes and POE. We will explore the differences in social networks based on gender and POE.


Jennifer Arbella (Miami, Florida) |Taylor Stefanik-South Fork, Pennsylvania [Dr. Daniel Dries]
Transcriptional Changes in cKO Mice
gamma-secretase is an intramembrane protease composed of four transmembrane proteins: presenilin, nicastrin, Pen-2, and Aph-1. Several studies have examined the role of gamma-secretase in neurons but none have done so in non-neuronal cells. Therefore, our lab developed a conditional knockout mouse in which gamma-secretase was conditionally deleted from the myelinating cells of the brain. Here, we use quantitative PCR to confirm the specificity of the conditional deletion and to probe a series of putative genes for their altered expression in conditional knockout mice. Moreover, we begin to look at transcriptional changes in the conditional knockout animals using using RNA-seq.


Victoria Arthur (Lancaster, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Kim Roth]
A Survey of Statistical Clustering Techniques Using Biological Data
In the growing field of genomics research, there are generally accepted practices used when sorting, filtering, clustering, and displaying genomic data. In the case of bacterial genomes, sequences are clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs), since reliable species identification cannot often be determined using a bacterial genome. These OTUs can then be used to calculate β-diversity between samples, which is visualized using a PCoA plot. For this project, we investigated the underlying statistics used in these various practices, including the calculations of different types of distance measures used to compare samples as well as the mathematics behind the UCLUST clustering method and the UNIFRAC β-diversity measure. We also explored how PCoA plots are created and how they scale down data to make visualization easier. In addition, we are testing whether the use of an additional clustering method, K-means clustering, will improve the original clustering done with UCLUST. PCoA plots of the same bacterial genome data will be compared after the use of UCLUST and UNIFRAC only to PCoA plots made from data that has been clustered with both UCLUST and K-mean clustering in R before being submitted to UNIFRAC for β-diversity analysis. We hope that our method will help refine the bioinformatics process to make results more reliable.


Tristan Avelis (Hebron, Connecticut) |Abigail Rosenberger-, |Shayna Yeates-, [Xinli Wang]
An Open Discussion on the Philosophies of Love: An Interdisciplinary and Modern Interpretation
What is Love? Love is a dynamic and highly influential force experienced by humanity. Countless individuals have attempted to understand its nature in order to gain clarity over this force's vague definition. This panel will attempt to further the understanding of Love through three unique and different interpretations. First is a more formal description of Love based on the three types: Philia, Agape, and Eros. Philia is the name given to "Brotherly" Love, Agape is that of "Godly" Love, and Eros is that of "Erotic" Love. There are a few combinations to be discussed: Agape-Eros, Philia-Agape, and Eros-Philia-Agape. Each of these combinations, in a sense, prioritizes each type and can be used to further expand the understanding of Love in its different forms. The second concerns whether Love can truly and equally be reciprocated when the definition of mutuality depends on sameness. Under this assumption of sameness, only partners who are equal with nothing to gain over the other can attain this state. This implies that mutuality cannot exist in the presence of difference. However, a fuller sense of self can be attained by accepting differences rather than striving to change and neutralize the differences found in others as required by sameness; these differences should be embraced and used as the framework for mutuality. Finally, based on the traditions of Philia and Eros, it is argued that romantic Love is an expression of Philia fueled by an intense desire to be near to another and the security that comes from intimacy with that person. Together, these factors intensify feelings of Love to the point of making one feel like they are "in love." Although a single, concrete definition of Love may not be entirely possible, this panel will attempt to further clarify this universal, powerful force.


Devin Beck (Nottingham, NH) |Kaitlyn Yoder-Bellville, PA|Dylan Krycinski-Huntington, NY [Chuck Yohn]
Effects of management on regeneration of forest in Central Pennsylvania
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) around the Raystown Lake Flood Control Project have been a focal point of management because high densities were inhibiting forest regeneration. Three locations around Raystown Lake were sampled. At each location a recently managed forest (< 10 years since the forest was harvested for timber) was compared to an adjacent unmanaged forest (>10 years since the last timber harvest). We counted stems, and recorded species composition of forest regeneration in those three locations.
The combined hickory spp. (Carya spp.) and ash spp. (Fraxinus spp.) as well as sassafras (Sassafras albidum) and northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin) as a group had significantly greater stem counts in managed compared to those of unmanaged (p �?�0.0179 W�?�191.5). Overall stem density appeared to be greater in the managed forest. However, species richness was not significantly different when managed forest richness was compared to that of unmanaged. This study indicates that management increases the amount of quality regeneration.


Allison Blumling (Hummelstown, PA) [Dr. Donna Weimer]
Disease, Identity and Disenfranchisement: A Pentadic Examination of Cancer Survivorship
In The Cancer Journals, breast cancer survivor and social activist Audre Lorde once said, "We must learn to count the living with that same particular attention with which we number the dead." Cancer patients today are released from treatment once they are determined to be cancer-free, but oftentimes the disease's lingering psychological, relational and emotional effects continue beyond physical remission. There has been an alarming rate of depression and suicidal ideation documented in cancer survivorship literature, which seems to counter-intuit the victorious portrayals in the media. One purpose of this study was to exchange damaging representations of reality, such as the "ideal" experience that is portrayed in survivorship media, for a more accurate understanding of real survivors' experiences. I argue that, while the nature of cancer diagnosis, treatment and recovery holds the potential to reduce patient agency, many survivors find creative ways to exercise control over their lives during and after cancer.

In the last two weeks of October 2013, I conducted seven 40- to 60-minute interviews with cancer survivors from within the Huntingdon, Pa. area. Participants were asked to describe the ways that their disease impacted their lives and relationships, and largely directed the flow of the interviews in the depth and breadth of topics they chose to explore. Within the context of these descriptions, each subject reveals shifting attitudes toward their cancer, toward survivorship, and toward themselves.

To document these shifts in attitude, I utilized Kenneth Burke's Dramatistic pentad to determine the act, scene, agent, agency and purpose of each rhetorical situation the subjects described. These were not always internally consistent ?" for example, the "agent" of a situation could be patient, the doctor, or even the disease in a single excerpt from an interview. From a quality improvement perspective, it may be possible to use this information in developing educational materials for cancer patients and after-care programming for survivors that help them to maximize the agency they feel during treatment and recovery process.


Christian Bomgardner (Huntingdon, Pennsylvania) [Professor Thomas]
Myths and Faults of Air Gap Security
Myths and Faults of Air Gap Security:
This poster is meant to give a visual representation of air gap security and the failures when implemented. Air gap security is designed to physically isolate and protect key computer systems from any unsecured network. This isolation is meant to keep unwanted guests from accessing the systems, but individuals have discovered methods to break such defenses.


Justin Bookhammer (Williamsburg, PA) |Anthony Glossner-Centre Hall, PA|Paul Kuhn-York, PA|Mark Feiler -Mountville, PA [Bill Thomas]
Juniata I4I - Flashpoint
Flashpoint is a rapidly growing company located in State College, Pennsylvania. Flashpoint specializes in system administration, software developments, and server and desktop virtualization. It is the I4I teams jobs to work with Asterisk, a phone system, to allow no hold time for customers when calling and all agents are busy. The second part of the project is to create a web form that allows customers to submit tickets and then automatically prioritize the tickets based on importance. The final phase to to create a case study of the improvements to their customer service after our changes are implemented.


Christina Briggs (Brooklyn, New York) [Donna S. Weimer]
Creating a Digital Identity: Developing the Integrated Media Arts Presence
In 2012, the Integrated Media Arts program at Juniata College began its first year as an official Program of Emphasis (POE), Juniata's version of a college major. Integrated Media Arts combines the academic departments of Art, Communication, Information Technology/Computer Science, and English, to allow students to study media in a variety of ways. Because of its status as a new program, there are few promotional items available to express the value of the program to prospective students. As a result, I created a series of marketing materials for Integrated Media Arts, including a website, identifying mark or logotype, poster, and mailing pamphlet. I conducted my research and design work through three stages: pre-production, production, and post-production. Pre-production involved interviewing staff members and members of the student body, preliminary research into graphic design, and putting together several examples of my own design work to obtain feedback and adjust accordingly. During production, I moved these designs to their respective printed and digital formats, continuing to make any fine alterations to ensure legibility and ability to catch the eye. Finally, in post-production, after a final check for last-minute changes, I sent the final publications to be printed, and delivered the completed website to the Integrated Media Arts professors. This paper represents the culmination of a year's worth of research and the combination of academic and creative work into a cohesive marketing campaign for Integrated Media Arts. The finished work gives a means for the various components of Integrated Media Arts to fully unite under one identity.


Colin Brislawn (Tumwater, WA) |Colin Brislawn-Olympia, WA [Gina Lamendella]
An Accessible, High-Quality Pipeline for Analyzing Microbial Communities
Advances in high throughput sequencing have revolutionized the discipline of microbial ecology by providing deep coverage of microbial populations in their in situ environments. The sequencing-by-synthesis technologies used by the 454 Roche and Illumina platforms produce deep sequencing coverage at a comparatively low time and cost. Once sequenced, these communities can be analyzed using bioinformatics tools like QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology). Due to the large datasets produced by high throughput sequencing technologies, bioinformatics analysis must be performed in a compute cluster environment. However, many researchers have little experience working with linux-based tools in a cluster environment and thus face a difficult learning curve. The objective of this research is to develop a user-friendly bioinformatics pipeline on the HHMI Juniata compute cluster, which makes QIIME accessible to microbial ecologists with little formal training in computer science. This pipeline encapsulates the core QIIME scripts into a series of job files that can be submitted into a TORQUE queue or run directly from a Linux terminal. These templates are highly reproducible on typical rRNA gene datasets, they automatically document the steps taken in data analysis, and are highly customizable by research scientists.


Colin Brislawn (Tumwater, WA) |Heidi Kleber-Morrisdale, PA|Chau Tran-Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam [Dr. Cockett]
Comparison between observed and percieved ability in facial experssion identification
Previous research shows that identifying emotions through facial expressions is a difficult task for most people, especially with only subtle changes in some regions of the face. In this research, we assessed how well students and professors could accurately identify emotions via facial expressions. Our study analyzed participants using a slideshow of still images and a survey to record the demographic information and answers. We can conclude that people are very bad at identifying emotions based on facial expressions with no context and significantly overestimate their ability regardless of gender, age, or major.


Katharine Brown (Venango, PA) [Dr. Unger]
Selenazoles: A Review
Selenazoles are organic five-membered rings that consist of three carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom, and one selenium atom. The most common isomer is 1,3-selenazole, and its derivatives have many interesting biological properties, including anticancer, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects. Several syntheses of 1,3-selenazole derivatives have recently been developed to make the synthesis more efficient, less time-consuming, and greener.


Kathryn Brown (Manchester, MI) [Jill Keeney]
Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Developmental Stage-dependent Structural Changes in the Immature Small Intestine
Premature infants are commonly exposed to intestinal inflammation due to normal treatments such as formula feeding, as well as acute disease states including necrotizing enterocolitis, the leading cause of gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Since the human small intestine does not reach maturity until term gestation, premature infants face a unique challenge, as exposure to either acute or chronic inflammation may alter the normal development of the intestinal tract. The potent inflammatory cytokine TNF-α has been shown to acutely alter goblet cell numbers and intestinal villous length in adult mice. In this study we sought to determine the effects of TNF-α on villous architecture and epithelial cells at different stages throughout the development of the murine small intestine. To examine the effects of TNF-α-induced inflammation, we injected neonatal and juvenile mice with TNF-α (0.5μg/gbw) at various developmental stages. To model different types of inflammatory situations, TNF-α was given as acute (8 hours prior to tissue harvest), brief (1 week prior to tissue harvest), or chronic (weekly doses ending 1 week prior to tissue harvest) exposures. Our studies show that TNF-α exposure can significantly blunt villous height through a TNFR1-mediated loss of villous area. We demonstrate that TNFR1 expression remains constant through the development of the small intestine, suggesting that TNF-α-induced villous blunting is dependent on the stage of intestinal development. Furthermore, we show that acute TNFR1-mediated signaling induces a significant decrease in the number of Paneth cells. Taken together, these morphologic changes caused by TNF-α exposure provide insight as to the effects of inflammatory exposure on the developing intestinal tract, and suggest why the immature intestine is uniquely susceptible to inflammatory diseases such as neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.


Samantha Buckley (Odenton, Maryland) [Dr. Chris Grant]
Rapid Detection of Wild Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Populations using Environmental DNA
In Pennsylvania there are about 86,000 miles of flowing streams and only 22,000 miles have been assessed for fish assemblages. Many of these unassessed streams are likely to contain wild trout populations that are at risk of exposure to anthropogenic pressures such as Marcellus Shale. After the detection of these populations they can put under protection by the PADEP. Environmental DNA (eDNA) testing is a new, cutting edge, technique that can help to monitor aquatic species populations rapidly with a higher chance of detecting smaller populations compared to more invasive techniques such as electrofishing. While eDNA has been widely used in a number of ecological systems, the methodology is in its infancy when being used in freshwater streams. The purpose of this project was to develop a working method of stream water filtration and DNA extraction techniques to be employed in assessing streams for brook trout and brown trout populations. Positive PCR results have been obtained from buckets of stream water containing a high density of trout collected at the location proving that both brook trout and brown trout DNA can be selected for in stream water. On going work includes obtaining positive results from flowing stream water in which case the eDNA will be more dispersed. Once positive results are obtained, electrofishing will be used in conjunction with eDNA stream water filtration to determine the low end detection limits for trout. Long-term goals of the project include incorporating a component to determine rough abundance numbers from eDNA sampling.


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How to Make a Graphaghan
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Victoria Buser (Allentown, Pennsylvania) [Anne Gilman]
Auditory Clipping Complicates Pitch Change Detection
Frequency-modulated octave sweeps are used to measure auditory global-local precedence. Forty-four octave sweep stimuli from prior studies were analyzed for audio clipping. Global-upward stimuli showed more clipping than global- downward stimuli, with 12.7% and 11.6% clipping on average, respectively. Although the presence of clipping had a main effect on accuracy, there was no interaction detected between amount of clipping and the differing global-local precedence based on musical expertise found in Gilman and Ebbets (2013).


Charlotte Caddick (Lancaster, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Sharon Yohn]
The Effects of Millfoil on Phosphorus Concentrations in Sediment from Lake Raystown
The input of phosphorous to a lake can cause eutrophication, which may result in algal blooms and low dissolved oxygen levels, making the lake less suitable for recreational activities. Phosphorous (P) may enter a lake through external sources or from internal loading, via release from the sediments due to anoxia or release from aquatic plants. In Raystown Lake there has been a significant increase in the density of aquatic plants over the last several years, which may result in an increase of internal phosphorous loading. This study looks at the sediment within aquatic plant beds in comparison to nearby sediment to determine if there are lower P concentrations in the sediment where aquatic plants are present, potentially indicating uptake and release of P to the water column.

Sediment was collected at three different areas along the lake, dried, digested in acid and analyzed for total phosphorus using spectrophotometry. The soil was also sifted to look at percent composition of different grain sizes. The results showed no correlation between phosphorus concentration and site or type of vegetation. The results also showed no correlation between grain size and site or type of vegetation. These results may be related to the digestion method chosen, site selection, or may indicate that aquatic plants are not a significant source of internal loading to the lake.


Gabrielle Cannon (Hummelstown, PA) [Dr. Norris Muth]
Assessment of soil fungal community variation in native and introduced maples
Nearly one third of Pennsylvania's flora is made up of species that are not native to North America (933 of 3004 total species, data available from the Morris Arboretum's Pennsylvania Flora Project). A small subset of these introduced species exhibit extremely high population growth rates and become prolific in their new ranges, often excluding native species by their formation of near monocultures. It is worth noting, however, that weediness is not limited to introduced species. Many native species are also considered weeds due to their high population growth rates and ecological or economic impacts (e.g. poison ivy, grape, and black locusts). Introduction status and weediness, then, are independent concepts, referring to biogeographic history of a species (native or introduced) or its population demography and/or ecological impact (weedy or benign), respectively. Despite extensive research, few generalizations have been found to explain or predict which introduced plant species will become weedy or otherwise problematic. The purpose of this study was to elucidate patterns in belowground fungal communities of maples (Sapindaceae : Acer) that may contribute to weediness and furthermore, to assess whether any associations with weediness (or lack thereof) were common to native and non-native species. Rhizospheric soil samples were collected for five species of maples from six common sites across central Pennsylvania and high throughput sequencing was used to determine fungal community composition. Despite largely indistinguishable alpha diversity across samples, variation in the beta diversity of rhizospheric fungal communities may be dependent upon introduction status, weediness, or a combination thereof. This information provides insight into the belowground etiology of weediness and could be a useful tool in invasive plant management strategies.


Gabrielle Cannon (Hummelstown, PA) |Alexandra Witter-Short Hills, NJ [Professor Roy Nagle]
Population ecology of Raystown Lake wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta)
Wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta) are a nationally vulnerable, semi-aquatic species occupying diverse wetland habitats. In this study we characterized the demographic, physical, and behavioral traits of a population of wood turtles found at the Raystown Field Station in an effort to appropriately conserve the population and its associated habitat. Fifty-nine individual wood turtles were captured from January 1998 to October 2013; total population size was estimated to be 79 ± 18 individuals using Bailey's triple catch method. Forty-two percent of the population were juveniles, and the ratio of males to females (1.3:1) did not differ significantly from an expected 1:1 ratio (G=0.193; df=1; p=0.66). Minimum ages at maturity of females were estimated at 12 years (n=1) and 13 years (n=2) from annuli counts. Mean male carapace length was larger than that of females (t=2.04, p=0.03), but mean male body mass was not significantly greater (t=2.05, p=0.64). Wood turtles were active both on land and in water from mid-April until November, when turtles began overwintering in Raystown Lake. Mating occurred in the water during spring and fall and females were reproductive from 25 May through 16 June. Average clutch size was 9 eggs. We suggest targeted preservation of the adult female cohort and protection of critical habitats would be the most effective conservation measures for the Raystown wood turtle population.


Harris Cauler (Moorestown, New Jersey) [Bill Thomas]
Security Issues in the Modern Home
As the home technology market continues to grow, we are presented with security issues that homeowners are not even aware of. Every day, consumers add smart appliances and electronics to their home that introduce new ways for attackers to invade your privacy and physical well-being. This poster will explain some of these new threats, which devices you should think twice about before integrating into your home network, tips and tricks for homeowners, and some suggestions for protecting your home in this electronic era.


Daniel Chessen (Chevy, Maryland) [David Sowell]
The Reagan Administration and the Soviet-Afghanistan War: Decisions, Implementations and Impacts
The Soviet War in Afghanistan was a watershed moment in the final decade of the Cold War, a Soviet quagmire resulting in an unsustainable drain of money, materiel, and national legitimacy. However, the efforts of the United States in deepening the morass are often overlooked by historians attributing credit for the end of the Cold War. I argue that the efforts of the United States in Afghanistan played a crucial and underappreciated role in hastening the end of the Cold War.


Mackenzie Coulter-Kern (North Manchester, Indiana) [Professor Frazier-Yoder]
El ?xito y el Fracaso para mujeres en la economía de Argentina: Success and Failure for Women in the Argentinean Economy
stract:

Walking into a plaza in Córdoba Argentina and hearing the words "¡Ccambio!, ¡Ccambio!, ¡Ccambio!" ?"meaning "Exchange!, Exchange! Exchange!change, change" ?" one can see how the 2001 financial crisis and plunge of the Argentinean currency has transformed the lives of many Argentines. The 2001 economic crisis in Argentina prompted high levels of economic inflation, caused an extreme devaluation of the Argentinean peso, and changed the lives of women over a spectrum of income levels and socioeconomic statuses. For this qualitative study, I conducted interviews in Spanish with one to two Argentinean women within each of the three, primary income levels. Each participant was asked for their personal definitions of success and failure before, during, and after times of inflation. Interviews were transcribed and translated and unique themes emerged for women at each income level. In addition there was a general theme that emerged among all income groups. It was an increased interpersonal independence that came as a result of their financial independence. This research suggests women at differing economic levels are impacted in different ways in times of an economic downturn. Additionally, studies of the national economies and developmental assessments based on GDP may overlook some of the positive changes that this study reveals; increased opportunities in employment and increased independence as a result of their ability to generate their own income. Further, women in each of the three primary economic classes may each be affected differently by inflation depending upon their unique circumstances.


Nathan Deitcher (Cheltenham , Pennsylvania) [Wade Roberts]
An Hypothetical Solution to the Third Man problem in Parmenides
In Plato's dialogue Parmenides, he critiques his own theory of forms via the voice persona of the philosopher. The most famous criticisms is what is called the Third Man argument. Simply put, he argues that the theory of forms is incorherant because the forms which predicate certain properties of objects are themselves self predicated and thus must participate in an infinite regress of forms to ensure this self predication. But if we modify an article in the theory of forms slightly, we may be able to avoid this problem.


Robert Dellamotta (West Chester, Pennsylvania) [Dr Richard Hark]
Reactions of 2,3,9,10-tetrahydrodiindeno[5,4-b:4',5'-d]thiophen-1,11-dione
2,3,9,10-Tetrahydrodiindeno[5,4-b:4',5'-d]thiophen-1,11-dione is a diketone with a helical shape that can be prepared in 50% yield by the tandem cyclization of 3,3'-(dibenzo[b,d]thiophene-2,8-diyl)dipropanoic acid in polyphosphoric acid. This compound has not been isolated in homochiral form, presumably due to the low calculated barrier to interconversion of the enantiomers. In general, our goal was to explore the chemistry of this unusual diketone by carrying out a variety of reactions, including hydride reduction, Schiff base and oxime formation, and McMurry coupling. Molecular modeling calculations will be performed to determine how 1 might be converted into a kinetically stable chiral compound that could be used as a ligand to form new coordination complexes.


Derek Deshaies (Cumberland, MD) [Dr. Dries]
Screening nicastrin antibodies for specificity for immunofluorescence (IF)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a type of dementia that can cause problems with memory, learning and behavior. Nicastrin is a component of the protein complex thought to be involved in the development of AD. In our lab, tissue specific nicastrin conditional knockout (cKO) mice were developed with the nicastrin gene deleted from oligodendrocyte cells. The aim of this research project is to confirm tissue-specific knockout by using immunofluorescence (IF). In order to ask this question, we must first identify an IF-compatible antibody that is specific for the nicastrin protein. This is important due to the cross reactivity of many antibodies that are thought to be anti-nicastrin. In an effort to test for antibody specificity, researchers use pre-blocking techniques to pre-absorb (block) their antibodies with antigen before doing their experiment. However, this only proves that the antibody produced is specific for the antigen it was raised against. By staining nicastrin-/- cells, our approach will prove whether an antibody is binding antigens in IF experiments other than the one against which it was raised.


Clarissa Diniz (Recife, Brazil) [Dr. Jill Keeney]
Loss of Epithelial IKKβ Alters the Esophageal Microenvironment
Diseases of the esophagus are among the most common ailments in the United States and throughout the world, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures. The emergence of new models has exemplified that the esophageal microenvironment plays a critical role in the development and progression of esophageal diseases. Deregulation of the IKKβ/NFκB pathway is associated with various inflammatory diseases and cancer, including esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Our research in the laboratory identified important changes in the epithelia and surrounding stroma of mice with tissue-specific ablation of IKKβ (L2/Cre;IKKβL/L). L2/Cre;IKKβL/L mice have increased epithelial proliferation at one month of age, demonstrate blood vessel abnormalities at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of age, have an increase numbers of myofibroblasts in the esophageal stroma starting at 6 months of age, and have an increase of collagen fibers beneath the epithelium.


Jacob Diviney (Altoona, PA) [Sarah Clarkson]
Henry Wharton Shoemaker
Jake Diviney
Title: Who is Henry Wharton Shoemaker?

Abstract:
Henry Wharton Shoemaker was an enlightened Pennsylvania state official and industrialist who was born in New York City in 1880. He had family connections and relatives in Lock Haven and he summered in that area as a boy, which built a lifelong affection and commitment to rural central Pennsylvania. Long before it was fashionable or even apparent, he raised alarms about the damage and effects to wildlife, the landscape, and indigenous culture brought about by development and the extraction industries. He made it his life's work to study and document local folklore (including that of the Native Americans), the history of the region and its natural resources, and wrote stories he had heard from those who lived in the region. As state folklorist, state archivist, president of the Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies, and chair of the Pennsylvania Historical Commission, Shoemaker worked to preserve Pennsylvania's unique culture, history, and natural resources, and was prescient about challenges that still face the state today.


Robert Draham (Port Republic, MD) [Dr. Matthew Beaky]
Single Photon Experiments
In recent years, companies have been releasing educational models of laboratory equipment that are significantly less expensive than regular models, allowing for more sophisticated experiments to be performed in undergraduate research. One such piece of equipment is the single photon counter, which are essential to experiments that use correlated photons. By shining a laser through a crystal designed for parametric down conversion, pairs of correlated photons are created. The pairs can then be sent through different optical paths to the counters. When the counters detect photons at the same time, it is called a coincidence. Modifying the individual paths of the photons affects the detection of coincidences, confirming certain principles in the field of quantum mechanics such as entanglement and the uncertainty principle. The goal of this project is to produce an experiment using single photon counters that demonstrates these principles and would be incorporated into a physics lab course.


John Dubensky (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) [Hannah Bellwoar]
How to Publish Your Writing
In a world where it seems like everyone has their own idea for a book, how many people actually know the procedure for getting a book published? My presentation will showcase my research into the different kinds of publishing in what is essentially a crash course in how to get your writing published. The presentation will also include my own experiences with professional writing.


Paul Ejups (West Islip , New York) [Randy Rosenberger]
NBA draft value chart derived from advanced statistical metrics for basketball
I have an interest in all sports, and I had noticed there was an interesting movement happening in the National Basketball Association. Many teams have begun to analyze statistics in order to help in making decisions regarding basketball operations. With advanced statistical metrics for basketball becoming more evident in the NBA, I decided to independently investigate and study the value of NBA draft picks as well as create an NBA Draft Value Chart.

I have evaluated the past 35 NBA drafts dating back to 1978. One of my goals was to highlight any trends or abnormalities in a player's performance over the span of their careers through Win Shares. The idea was to determine if there was any pick position(s) that were statistically superior than others based on the performance of the players selected in that pick slot.

The data collected for this study included the draft year, the pick number, the team selecting the player, the Win Share (WS) the player accumulated over his career, the number of years played, and the Win Share per Year (WS/YR).


Caitlin Everhart (Diamond Bar, California) [Dr. Matthew Beaky]
Occultations at the Paul E. Hickes Observatory
In observational astronomy, an occultation occurs when one object passes directly in front of another object, casting a shadow onto the Earth. When properly observed and analyzed, this shadow can lead to a wealth of information about the objects themselves. Asteroid occultations occur when an asteroid passes in front of a star; the shadow accurately represents the size and shape of the asteroid itself. Lunar occultations occur when the moon passes in front of a star or planet, and can be used to determine surface features of the moon, or whether the star it occults is a binary system. Several occultation candidates have been selected to observe from the Paul E. Hickes Observatory, including the lunar occultation of Hyades on April 3-4. Results of ongoing occultation observations will be presented.


Ethan Farrell (Damascus, Maryland) |Alexander Sickler-Edwardsvile, Pennsylvania|Johannes Hessling-Raesfeld, Gemany|Gregory Williams-Upper St. Clair, Pennsylvania [William Thomas]
Innovations 4 Industry - New Pig
Search engines such as Google and Bing regularly crawl websites to determine the data and types of data on them. These crawled pages then become the "hits" one can find in their search results. In order to assist these crawlers to move more quickly, and therefore index more of the website, there are certain tasks done to "optimize" the site. One such task is to implement a sitemap in a specific programming language (such as XML). The sitemap is then used by a search engine's crawlers to more efficiently traverse their website and index more pages to provide in search results.

This semester, students worked with New Pig Corporation in order to design and develop a tool to assist with Search Engine Optimization (SEO). This tool collects information from a database and collates it into an XML sitemap. Ideally, it will be updated with any changes on a daily basis in order to provide the most accurate version possible. The project is due to be delivered to New Pig by the end of April.


Ethan Farrell (Damascus, Maryland) |Michael Melvin-Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Doriana Hyman-Port Washington, New York [Donna Weimer]
Consumer and Home Technologies
"Home" technologies are increasing our consumption of online and digital products. These products are changing our family and community relationships, and challenging our offline understanding of physical space in ways both intended, and otherwise. The three fastest growing sectors of home technologies include consumer, family, and urban planning technologies.


Mark Feiler (Mountville, PA) |Dan Attner-Melville, NY|Ana Carolina Marques-São Paulo, Brazil [Donna Weimer]
Avatar Representation Online



Amy Fenstermacher (Palmyra, PA) |Nathaniel Alter-Pittsburgh , PA|Kelly Russo-San Luis Obispo, CA|Brittany Heidler-Gilbertsville, PA|Kristin Zupko-Nanticoke, PA|Maggie Burkett-Granville, Ohio|Katya Rebman-Elizabethtown, PA [Chuck Yohn]
Assessment of Raystown Lake as Habitat for Migrating Waterfowl
Raystown Lake is an important wintering site for migrating waterfowl in the Eastern United States. The local winter of 2014 was one of the most severe on record, resulting in a high accumulation of ice on Raystown Lake in January and February. Ice coverage may have caused waterfowl to avoid their wintering site at Raystown by either a) displacing them to the river system or b) causing birds and waterfowl to leave the region entirely. Waterfowl populations were compared between 2013 and 2014 at Raystown Lake and the Juniata river system during the wintering months (January and February) to determine whether birds were displaced into the rivers or missing altogether from the region. Observations were made throughout January and February of 2014. Data was collected through bird surveys along the Juniata River for 3 weeks in February. The remaining data for comparison between the wintering months of 2013 and 2014 was harvested from E-bird for the Raystown region and Juniata river system.


Avery Fordham (Clarks Summit, PA) [Dr. Peter Baran]
Influence of various Cu(II) salts on formation of pyridine N-oxide Schiff bases derived from o-phenylenediamine
Synthesis of a tetradentate Schiff-base ligand (L) via condensation of 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde N-oxide (poxal) and two equivalents of o-phenylenediamine yields the bidentate ligand 2-(2-benzimidazolyl)pyridine N-oxide (poxbim) in a low yield. When a similar tridentate ligand (poxpam) is complexed with Cu(NO3)2, CuCl2, and Cu(SO4)2 a poxbim complex forms in different ratios depending on the stoichiometries. This is thought to be caused by oxidation due to the complexations being done under ambient atmosphere. The complexations were repeated under inert, argon atmosphere and compared to the poxbim-Cu(NO3)2 complexes previously performed for which crystal structures have been determined.


Larissa Fox (Milford, Pennsylvania) |Ryan Wickes-Oakdale, New York|Johnathan Abend-Hanover, Pennsylvania|Mingwei Song-Chengdu, Sichuan [Philip Dunwoody]
Discipline-Specific Measure of Critical Thinking in Psychology
Our purpose was to re-evaluate one subsection of a previously studied discipline-specific measure of critical thinking, the Psychological Critical Thinking Inventory (PCTI). Participants in the study were asked questions meant to assess their ability to evaluate statistical and psychological information within a peer-reviewed journal article. Seniors scored significantly higher than freshman in this subsection when given a full-length peer-reviewed article (in place of an edited version used in a previous study). Our results indicate that the lack of significant gains previously exhibited between freshman and seniors, in the peer-reviewed article subsection of the PCTI, can be explained by the article editing process.


Benedicte Gnangnon (Lille, France) [Dr. Peter Baran]
Existence or Nonexistence of Cu(II) complexes with Triphenylphosphine
Several recent papers report using the Cu(II) complex with triphenylphosphine of the composition CuCl2(PPh3)2. Our studies show that the oxidation state of II cannot be stabilized for copper in the presence of such a reducing ligand like triphenylphosphine. Repetition of published procedures for the assumed CuCl2(PPh3)2 complex yield different Cu(I) complexes. Their syntheses and characterization will be presented.


Samantha Goebel (Luray, VA) |Curtis Sherwood-Wellsboro, Pennsylvania |Evan Decker-, Pennsylvania|Ryan Dempsey-, Pennsylvania [Thorpe Halloran]
Geospatial analysis of wild turkey hen populations in Pennsylvania
Eastern Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) populations are distributed across eastern North America and are a popular game species. A geospatial analysis was conducted on hen populations in Pennsylvania to determine land use strategies and movement patterns in relation to breeding seasons. We examined percentage land use of hens and if there was preference for specific habitats that could be influence by anthropogenic activities. The data was from a four-year study conducted by the Pennsylvania Game Commission using satellite tracking of hens from 6am to noon every three days. The birds chosen for this study had radio-telemetry points that spanned six months or more. Poor data quality points were omitted.


Jennifer Graves (Amston, Connecticut) |Morgan Decker-Tyrone, Pennsylvania [Dr. Chris Grant]
Elevated mercury concentrations in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative to co-habitating brown trout (Salmo trutta): implications for growth rate, food source, and watershed characteristics
As the only native trout and state fish of Pennsylvania, understanding the biology of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is crucial for their conservation. Introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta), a species of the same order (Salmonidae) and niche, are infrequently documented in the same streams as brook trout. Normally, organisms that occupy the same niche tend to exclude each other. Therefore, it is unusual to find sustainable populations of brook and brown trout co-habitating for an extended period of time. Despite extensive literature on each species, minimal work has been completed concerning the co-habitation of the two species, specifically in regards to their mercury (Hg) concentrations. The current study's aim was to document Hg concentrations in brook and brown trout living in sympatry across 13 streams in central Pennsylvania. Results indicate that brook trout have significantly higher Hg concentrations than brown trout, using length normalized Hg concentrations (p<0.05). Explanations for these differences presumably include growth rate, food source, and watershed characteristics. Statistical analysis of food source, aquatic or terrestrial in origin, indicate no relation to Hg concentration (p=0.095 aquatic, p=0.524 terrestrial). The analysis of watershed characteristics reveals no patterns that may explain the difference in Hg concentration. Growth rate analysis is ongoing, and it is anticipated to be the driving force for differences in Hg concentration between brook and brown trout.


Leah Grubb (Huntingdon, PA) |Alexis Hadden-, |Alexandra Roemer-, |Miranda Wales-, [Hannah Bellwoar]
Grounded
This video explores the life of a local working-class man. The story mixes voice-overs with footage of the seemingly mundane, but important tasks of the life he lives. It is meant to challenge viewers' attitudes towards members of the lower working class. Viewers are forced to reconcile their initial perceptions of this local with the reality that this video reveals.


Alyssa Grube (Lititz, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Lamendella]
The Impact of Cultivation on Bacterial Community Structure in the Great Prairie Microbiome
The Great Prairie spans 1.4 million square miles of fertile land in North America, representing 35% of the soil carbon in the continental United States.1 However, little is known about the effects of cultivation on the microbial diversity of this region.
Here, we elucidate the relationship between prairie soil functional potential and land use practices by probing the microbial community of soil from matched crop monoculture and native prairie sites in Iowa, Kansas, and Wisconsin. In addition, samples were taken from a restored prairie and a Switchgrass plot in Wisconsin. Environmental metadata included land management history, lipid profiles, and soil chemical properties. Amplification of the V8 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene on the Roche 454 platform yielded 645,500 sequences. Microbial community composition and biomass were assessed using a hybrid phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) method. Environmental metadata and lipid profiles were compared to sequence data to reveal statistically significant correlations to the bacterial diversity. Comparison of unweighted Unifrac distances revealed strong clustering according to cultivation practice and state, with the combined effects explaining 81.8% of variation. Cultivation practice alone explained 18.9% of variation in beta diversity. Core microbiome analyses showed that all native prairie soil microbial communities grouped separately from cultivated soils. Some specific microbial populations were consistently higher in abundance according to sample type, including the increased abundance of species of the Rhizobiales order in native prairie samples compared to cultivated samples. Additionally, higher microbial biomass was observed in the native prairie samples compared to the cultivated samples. Future work will focus on the integration of lipid profiles with microbial community structure data. This information will lead to a better understanding of how specific members of the soil microbial community contribute to the function of prairie ecosystems.


Trevor Guyer (Lewistown, PA) [Cynthia Merriwether deVries]
Macro-Level Analysis of the relationship between Depression and Physical Activity in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania
Research on the physical effects of depression states that physical exertion has a positive effect on depression. Centered in the inner brain (Amygdala, Hippocampus, and Thalamus), depression diminishes human ability to remain physically active and stimulated. Depression has also been shown to reduce motivation. Physical exercise promotes brain activity and creates the necessary chemicals which can inhibit the effects of depression. In a community with fitness programs present, an analysis of depression levels in reference to accessibility and attendance of programs is needed. This project presents a macro level analysis of an aged population; seeing if there is a correlation between accessibility of fitness programs and depression levels among the elderly of Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania.


Alexis Hadden (Franklin, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Hannah Bellwoar]
Finding My Beauty
Images that we see in the media often have very exaggerated portrayals of how an "attractive person" should look. Because of this, many people struggle to perfect themselves and their bodies. In reality, everyone is beautiful and has a way of showing their inner beauty. This visual narrative is aimed to portray the struggle of body image but how it can be overcome through personal growth.


Wyatt Hall (Lock Haven, Pennsylvania) |David Knecht-Simsbury, Connecticut [Larry Mutti]
Growth Patterns of Huntingdon Quartz Crystal
C-crystallographic Comparison of Euhedral Quartz Layers Using SEM-CL Mapping
Hall, Wyatt1; Knecht, David2;Mutti, Laurence3
1 Department of Geology, Juniata College, hallwr10@juniata.edu
2Department of Geology, Juniata College, knechdm11@juniata.edu
3Department of Geology, Juniata College, mutti@juniata.edu

Crystal growth histories of quartz can be explored through the analysis of scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence imaging (SEM-CL). This study aims to determine whether or not growth patterns continue vertical along the C-crystallographic axis. This idea is a continuation of research from "Elaborate Growth History in Secondary Euhedral Quartz as Revealed by SEM-Cl Mapping, Mahantango Formation, PA" (McGrath, 2013). Systematic SEM-CL images were captured and compiled to create a full image map of euhedral quartz crystal of the Mahantango formation in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania from Fairgrounds Road quartz sample number two. "Top" and "bottom" sections based on crystal orientation were categorized from samples of two progressive layers of the crystal. The layers were cut and polished into thin sections, mapped and compared. The cryptic textures revealed growth patterns, fluid inclusions and crystal fractures that can be used to yield insight into the physical conditions of quartz growth. The first thin section (top) revealed differences in CL brightness, inhomogeneous orientations of growth planes, dissolution and truncation of growth bands as well as erosion features. Non-concentric growth of the top section has been shown in conjunction with previous research (McGrath, 2013). The second thin section (bottom) however, revealed minimal differences in growth patterns suggesting that growth was concentric. This research has revealed that growth patterns along the C-crystallographic axis are anomalous within a single crystal.


Emily Harakal (Schnecksville, Pennsylvania) |Michael C. Burin-Vienna, Virginia|Ben Krouse-Holland, Pennsylvania|Morgan Slovin-Hockessin, Delaware|Andy Blunk-State College, Pennsylvania|Sam Frey-Manheim, Pennsylvania [Jeffrey Krause]
The Peace Chapel: Past and Present Vegetative and Geophysical Characterization and Future Management Recommendations
Our team will create a comprehensive ecological evaluation of the Juniata College Peace Chapel property (Huntingdon, PA) including land-use history, present vegetative biodiversity and future site management recommendations. The group will compile data on the past land use of the Peace Chapel based on college records. We will execute a vegetative biodiversity characterization of soils and plants, including vegetative composition, presence of invasive species, and soil composition. The vegetative composition will be measured by plot sampling, including the density and frequency of species or vegetation type in accordance with the national vegetation classification system (NVCS). An assessment using the NatureServe protocols for assessing ecological integrity will be completed on each vegetation type. The final product of our research will be a Geographic Information Systems maps that display the results of the existing site conditions and the ecological integrity assessment. The information provided by the assessments will enable the group to make recommendations for site management, invasive plant eradication, and native plant restoration to preserve both the ecological and aesthetic value of the Peace Chapel property.


Brandon Hark (Collegeville, PA) |Dustin Servello-Hollidaysburg, PA|Jaylene Brown-Chambersburg, PA [Dr. Jason Chan]
Role of Sphingolipids in Healthspan and Aging Processes in Caenorhabiditis elegans
According to the National Council of Aging, approximately 92% of older adults have at least one chronic disease. As the human lifespan extends to upwards of 100 years, greater burden exists to improve healthspan, or the health and quality of life in the aging population. To examine the genetic and cellular components that regulate healthspan, we used the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. In particular, we examine a sphingolipid enzymatic pathway, comprising the sphingolipids ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate; these lipids are key to cell survival and death, suggesting that they impact aging processes. Preliminary data show that mutants lacking sphingosine kinase (sphk-1 in worms), the enzyme that converts sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), do not behave as well as wild-type counterparts as adults. They exhibit a 39% increased death in response to heat stress (from 22°C to 37°C degrees) and showed a 60% decrease in locomotion capability as compared to wild-type worms. This suggests that either increased sphingosine, or decreased S1P, contributes to behavioral defects. Future experiments will explore this question using C. elegans mutants for other enzymes in sphingolipid signaling. Insulin has been shown to have an impact on aging, and animals with defects in insulin signaling have extended lifespan. Interestingly, we have shown that sphingosine kinase is important for neuropeptide secretion, suggesting that sphingolipids may regulate aging processes through the regulation of insulin secretion. To examine this, we will examine a mutant lacking the 7β2 (SBT-1 in worms), a protein required for neuropeptide processing. We are in the process of generating mutants for both sphk-1 and sbt-1 to examine their effects on lifespan, stress response, and locomotion. By identifying novel players that improve healthspan, we can better understand cellular changes that occur in aging animals and discover therapeutic strategies for a better quality of life.


Nokota Harpster (Lewistown, PA) [Chuck Yohn]
Changes in Odocoileus virginianus Population Density and Demographics on the Raystown Lake Project
There have been many arguments about the deer population, whether it is too high or too low. The Pennsylvania Game Commission has different ways of determining the population, such as harvest reports, aerial infrared, and line transect surveys. After doing line transect surveys, we looked at data from 2012 and 2013 to see if the population around Raystown Lake, specifically the James Creek area, had changed within a year or had not changed. We found there was a decrease in deer per square mile from 7.2 in 2012 to 5.3 in 2013. Some reasons for this could be increased hunting, disease, or low mast production.


Erica Jackson (Ebensburg, Pennsylvania) [Amy Frazier-Yoder]
La humanización de los productos y la deshmanización de la mujer en los anuncios
Hoy en día, vemos los anuncios constantemente. Aunque el número real de anuncios a los que cada individuo está expuesto varíe, son aproximadamente 250 hasta 3.000 diariamente (El-Hady). No podemos evitarlos. Es una lucha para las mujeres, especialmente por su autoestima, porque la mayoría de los anuncios se convierten a las mujeres en objetos. Sin embargo, los anuncios estudiados aquí hacen el opuesto de esa norma. Los creadores de los anuncios toman sus productos y los dan características humanas (o los humanizan). Casi siempre son las partes del cuerpo femenino más deseadas o más sexy como las tetas, las nalgas o las piernas. Este estudio propone analizar varios anuncios que deshumanizan a las mujeres y humanizan los productos, tan como estos anuncios afectan a la gente del mundo hispanohablante. Paradójicamente, en el proceso de humanizar sus productos, deshumanizan a las mujeres. Por ejemplo, hay algunos anuncios que desmiembran los cuerpos femeninos y hay otros que añaden el producto al cuerpo de la mujer. Con menos frecuencia, presentan los hombres deshumanizados, pero hay pocos ejemplos que existen también. Las compañías tienen una razón sencilla para hacer eso: el sexo vende. Pero cuando vendemos el sexo, despreciamos al ser humano.


Russell Jacobsen (Half Moon Bay , California) [Jim Tuten]
Courage and Double Barreled Shotguns
When most historians discuss the campaigns and battles of the Civil War, names like Vicksburg, Gettysburg and Cold Harbor appear. They consider Stonewall Jackson's ingenious Valley Campaign, or General Sherman's controversial March to the Sea. But rarely are names like Albuquerque, Val Verde, Santa Fe, or Glorieta mentioned; nor are officers, like Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley, Lt. Colonel John Baylor, or Colonel Edward Canby. The events that unfolded across the desert of what is now the state of New Mexico in late 1861 and 1862 form a crucial, yet dramatically underrepresented, facet of the Civil War. The campaign in the Southwest represents an element of Confederate strategy that is interwoven into the greater narrative of the war. The strategic, monetary and personnel difficulties suffered by the Confederacy were severe, and Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley, the Confederate officer in charge of the invasion of New Mexico, had a plan for the West that presented solutions to all of these issues. The Texan invasion of the New Mexico Territory represented a Confederate attempt to seize the initiative in the west, expectantly gaining munitions, territory and supplies at the expense of the Union. While success in the campaign promised the Confederacy solutions to some of its most dire problems, poor planning, poor intelligence, and a lack of support from Richmond led to the campaign's ultimate failure and one of the largest missed opportunities of the war.


Taylor Johnston (Altoona, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Chuck Yohn]
Effect of Trophic Status on Macrophyte Communities in Raystown Lake
We examined the effect of trophic status on macrophyte communities in Raystown Lake during the fall of 2013. With the use of a sampling rake, macrophytes were collected at sites representing three trophic conditions. Nine species of macrophytes were collected including the invasive species Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian water-milfoil) and Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrilla). Eurasian water-milfoil had a greater relative frequency (p?0.05) at the oligotrophic and eutrophic sampling sites when compared to the mesotrophic sampling location. Hydrilla was found to be most abundant at the mesotrophic sampling point. This may suggest that Hydrilla is a recent introduction to the Lake. Density of macrophytes varied (chi-square p<0.0001) among the sampling sites, suggesting that the trophic condition affects macrophyte communities.


Jerika Jordan (Lakeway, TX) [Karen Rosell]
Cataloging a Collection
Under the instruction and guidance of Dr. Karen Rosell, we began the process of creating a professional catalog for approximately 500 works of art donated by Quayton Stottlemyer which comprise the majority of the Juniata College Museum of Art's permanent collection. A monumental project, this first required examining each work in the collection, updating the museum's database records, and obtaining high-quality digital images of every piece?"a project for which we enlisted professional photographer, recent Pratt graduate and Juniata alum, Erica Quinn. Next, we selected some of the artworks to research, and are now in the process of composing written entries to appear alongside each image. As the project gained momentum, more students joined the research and design team; by the spring semester, there were twelve in total. For each selected piece, students are responsible for gleaning the most applicable information collected from a variety of sources which provide insight into the artist's background (when known), working methods, style and comparable artworks. This knowledge is then synthesized with each student's own interpretive analysis to form a brief catalog entry that provides readers with an avenue into understanding each corresponding artwork in the collection. This project provides students with a unique and invaluable opportunity to gain hands-on experience as we learn to view and understand works of art, and to convey concise yet engaging analyses to our readers.


Thomas Jordan (Derwood, Maryland) [Dr. Peter Baran]
The Inorganic Chemistry of Wine: Coordination Chemistry of Naringenin with Manganese, Iron, Nickel, Cobalt, and Zinc Salts
Wine is among the most complex aqueous solutions known to man, and despite decades of characterizing the components of wine, very little is actually known about their complex equilibria. There are many metallic species present in wine that are capable of forming coordination complexes with the numerous organic species that are present. This pilot research focuses on first row d-block metals salts with metal ions in oxidation state II and the polyphenolic compound naringenin. The behavior of polyphenolic compounds are of particular interest because they play a major role in determining the color and organoleptic properties of wine. Stoichiometric syntheses conducted under standard conditions with varying salt to naringenin molar ratio have been completed for most salts. Carbonate salts were refluxed, using various combinations of water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Characterization of isolated products with IR, melting point, elemental analysis, and solubility will be discussed as clues to the structure of these coordination complexes. Most of the isolated products appear to be inorganic polymers that are most likely metal deficient.


Zane Kelton (Jersey City, NJ - New Jersey) |Chris Ingersoll-West Chester, Pennsylvania|Haining Zhu-Wutan, China [Bill Thomas]
Docker.io GUI Project
The Docker.io GUI Project is a project adding onto the open source project Docker.io. Docker.io is an open source software that allows for the easy management, creation, and deployment of images to cloud servers. Currently Docker.io only runs on Linux command line, our project is creating a web application that allows you to do everything that the docker command line allows but with a button based interface instead of code.


Candice Kerestan (Huntingdon, Pennsylvania) [Dennis Plane]
German Environmental Policy Success: What the United States Can Learn to Launch Its Own Successful Environmental Transition
My research examines how European energy and environmental policy initiatives, particularly in Germany, have been so successful. More importantly, it examines what the United States can learn from their models to kickstart a strong environmental movement in the United States. This solution is found through a mixture of historical, cultural, and political analysis.


Caleb King (Long Prairie, Minnesota) [Prof. Xinli Wang]
Human Morality and Society
The essay presents an alternative view of morality as a byproduct of society and socialization. It delves deeply into issues of original human nature and natural morality, as well as the roles nature and morality play within our society.


Emily King (Belford, New Jersey) [Dennis Plane]
America's Most Dishonest Profession? Exploring Public Opinion of Lobbyists
In 2013, Americans rated lobbyists as having the lowest ethics and honesty levels out of every other group of professionals in the nation. This negative opinion toward lobbyists is well-documented, however, there is a gap in existing literature regarding the implications of this negativity. Through the use of surveys, this study seeks to understand the attitude of Juniata students toward lobbyists. Particularly, it seeks to investigate whether thinking about lobbyists makes students feel less trusting of government or less able to effect political change. The author hypothesizes that when prompted to think about lobbyists in American politics, students will report lower feelings of trust and efficacy. Low trust and efficacy may give rise to political cynicism, which could potentially undermine a democratic system. Therefore, if salience of lobbyists causes students to feel less trusting and less efficacious, there may be overarching implications for the democratic functions.


Sven Koetterjohann (Ladbergen, Germany) [Thomas William]
Threema - A secure and quiet App in a listening World
In a world where everyone is listening, where privacy is not longer available; the NSA reads our emails, and our telephone calls are recorded by the government. All our shopping habits are collected, and those who have the data can sell and use them.

But we can protect ourselves with small things, and I will give you an example for your mobile phone. How can we text on the phone, without being watched? How can we send messages safe, and keep our privacy? I will introduce you to an option of secure messaging for your smartphone, and show you disadvantages of actual used apps.
Feel free to come with questions and to join the discussion about the need of security apps, and encryption software.


Kelsey Kohrs (Honesdale, PA) [John Matter]
Population size and nest damage reconstruction estimation in Apterostigma collare (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
Co-evolution between farming ants and the fungus they harvest occurred more than 5 million years ago. Apterostigma collare are ants that also utilize fungus for nest construction on leaves and trees. These poorly understood insects have a relationship with fungi that is vital to their survival. Understanding the relationship between these ants and their fungal nests and population sizes will provide insight into the speed in which they can rebuild their nests. Results show an extremely significant regression correlation between the number of individuals within the population inside a particular nest and the total area (mm2) of the same nest. Also found was a significant regression correlation between the number of winged individuals vs. individuals that are non-winged. Significances were also found in the number of winged individuals and total area (mm2) and non-winged individuals and total area (mm2). Further studies must be conducted to get a better understanding of A. collare and their population size within a nest, nest size and rate of nest reconstruction.


Rachel Krantz (Bradford, PA) [Dr. Sarah DeHaas]
Protecting Our Seniors: Elder Abuse in Skilled Care Facilities
During the Twentieth Century alone, the number of elderly citizens in the United States has tripled; and population projections estimate that as many as one in five United States citizens could be considered "elderly" by the year 2050. Despite this, reported cases of elder abuse, especially within nursing homes and other skilled care facilities, have continued to rise dramatically. Prior to the Elder Justice Act, a breakthrough provision that was signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010, as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, there was not a single piece of federal legislation that granted elderly citizens any formal rights or protections under the law. This presentation explores the social and cultural reasons behind the tragedy of elder abuse in the United States and why little attention is being drawn to this issue, as well as the political change efforts that are currently being led to put an end to elder abuse worldwide.


Emily Krause (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) |Adam Caraballo -Brooklyn, NY|Brittni Devlin-New Haven, CT|Forest Miller-, PA|Shannon Manley-Pittsburgh, PA [David Widman]
Assessment of Violent Religious Videos, Secular Violent Videos, and Secular Non-Violent Videos by Christians and Non-Christians
Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that religion evolved because it enhanced in-group formation. By extension, due to enhanced out-group aggression usually seen with strong in-groups, religious individuals may find religious violence more tolerable. The present study tests this hypothesis. Christian and non-Christian participants assessed video clips, three of which contained religious violence, three contained secular violence and three contained secular non-violent content, on ten emotional dimensions. We would expect that if religious violence is more tolerated, then it may be perceived as less disgusting and distressing and more exciting and inspiring. Results did not support this hypothesis; Christians did not perceive the religious violent clips differently from the non-Christians on any dimension. Possible reasons for this result are discussed.


Tobias Krebs (Gelsenkirchen, Germany) [Dr. Donna Weimer]
The violence of 9/11; A comparison between a documentary and a fictional movie of a day that changed our lives forever
Abstract:
??It´s not what a movie is about, it´s how it is about it." ?" Roger Ebert
The research conducted for this study contributes to an understanding of how movies are made and how they use violence. One fictional movie World Trade Center (2006) and one documentary 9/11 (2002) were chosen to represent movies and documentaries and I argue that they strategically present the violence which happened that day to recreate and even sensationalise the director's reality of that day. The day of 9/11 made us all aware of terrorism, violence and grief ?" and many works of art have interpreted these events and have helped us to understand what happened but none so compelling as film.
While both use formal elements of filmmaking and storytelling, the documentary and fictional movie have different purposes - one to entertain and one to inform. Both also want to deliver their own intention, their Point of view and every director has a unique signature. How a movie is made differs according to the director's intent, regardless oft he documentary and fictional movie formats. Even though a documentary seeks to educate and a fictional movie primarily seeks to entertain, both have a relationship to the actual event and reflect different theories on the impact of violence in the media portrayal.
For the purposes of my research, I analyzed scenes from each movie. I chose the scenes that are the most important to an understanding of violence they chose to portray and how they portrayed it: the attack number one and the first collapse. Both are shown in each movie ?" but in totally different ways. I looked at special effects, point of view, and the emotions portrayed by people in these scenes to assess the violence portrayal and significance.
This paper explores the realism of the 9/11 portrayal and the attempts to be authentic to the events of that day. To do so the films include certain ways of portraying violence that were shown in the news and in pictures. It was very interesting to move forward in my research and to find answers to questions like ??Does the director´s point of view sensationalize or reflect violence of the event?" ??Does the purpose of violence differ in documentary and fictional film?" and ??Did the director chose to use violence because it helped to underline his interpretation of the 9/11 events?".


Gerald Kruse (,) |Heather Bumbarger-undefined, undefined|Megan Brenneman-undefined, undefined [Gerald Kruse]
This Is A Test



Paul Kuhn (York, PA) [William Thomas]
Phone Security
This is a poster that will describe my research in phone security. It will mainly be based on the risks of mobile phone use, and some things you can do to combat phone hackers. I may also include some information about my I4I project and integrate an example of how I can use a sophisticated phone system to change my caller ID and disguise myself as someone else when calling. I will describe the risks of this such as social engineering, and human error.


Kathleen LaForce (State College, Pennsylvania) [Neil Pelkey]
New Instance of Microboring Cyanobacteria Occurring in Freshwater Mollusk Shells?
This study evaluates the presence of microboring cyanobacteria in shells of freshwater gastropods from two locations in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. Populations of the snail, Elimia (=Pleurocera) virginica, from the Juniata River system were analyzed for the presence of euendolithic cyanobacteria. Three methods of analysis were used to confirm presence and identity of microboring cyanobacteria colonizing these calcareous shells. Petrographic thin sections of shell samples were prepared and analyzed using bright-field microscopy. Fragments of each shell sample were completely decalcified by placing them in a 5% HCL solution to facilitate morphological identification, also via bright-field microscopy. DNA extraction and PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene was performed on twelve samples (six from each location). Based on morphologic characteristics, preliminary identification places these cyanobacteria in the genera Plectonema and Hyella, taxa that are confirmed as euendolithic cyanobacteria. We are awaiting genetic confirmation of this classification. This is believed to be the first validated occurrence of colonization of freshwater gastropod shells by microboring cyanobacteria in the United States.


Kathleen LaForce (State College, Pennsylvania) |Jeremy Papuga-Johnstown, Pennsylvania |Samantha DiLorenzo-Freehold, New Jersey|Hailey McCandless-Harmony, PA [Uma Ramakrishnan]
Regional Variation in pelt coloration and morphology of Pennsylvanian Coyotes
Members of the Canid family are known to exhibit a wide array of pelt colorations within populations, even within litters. This phenomenon is evident in Eastern coyotes. Our research was conducted to determine if pelt color variations may be linked to age, sex, diet, region, and morphological characteristics. Recently published research has revealed that almost all Eastern coyotes have varying degrees of hybridization with grey wolves (Canis lupus) and domestic dogs. In this study, we collected data from 108 coyotes brought to local sportsman's competitions in the month of February. For each animal, photographs were taken of the ear, muzzle, side, and hind leg under controlled lighting conditions. Additional measurements of the head, body, teeth, and feet were taken for morphometric analysis. The selected areas were averaged using Photoshop CS6. We are running a spatial analysis in ArcGIS and R is being used for statistical analysis. The results of this study can complement genetic analysis being conducted by other researchers.


John Lavender-Stott (Blacksburg, Virginia) [Dr. Douglas Stiffler]
The Denby Family: Anti-foreignism, Foreign Rapacity, and U.S. Policy in China, 1895-1905
Despite increasing danger for foreigners in the later 19th century, the United States did not alter its policy toward China. Diplomats Charles Denby, Sr. and Charles Denby, Jr. in fact pushed for more aggressive economic, diplomatic, and even military policies. Increasingly frequent riots and murders perpetrated against foreigners made China an increasingly dangerous place for them to live. Simultaneously, the economic opportunities that China and Southeast Asia seemed to offer made China an enticing place for American businesses. Consequently, popular opinion in the United States pushed for the government to pursue an aggressive policy in the region. However, the U.S. risked being shut out of China entirely, as foreign powers took advantage of the weakness of the Qing Dynasty government to carve out spheres of influence in the country. Policy concerns, not any benevolent regard for the fate of China, thus resulted in the promulgation of the Open Door policy in 1899. Despite the apparent danger for foreigners, Minister to China Charles Harvey Denby and his son, Charles Denby, Jr., agreed with domestic opinion and sought to facilitate commercial expansion in the region, placing themselves on the forefront of business and policy in China. Regardless of the potential for violence against foreigners, the Denby family continually and actively used their influence to push for an aggressive policy toward Asia.


Jin Lee (Seoul, South Korea, Seoul) [Daniel Dries]
Is Arabidopsis thaliana gamma-secretase a functional protease?
Gamma-secretase is a multisubunit proteolytic complex responsible for the final step of the formation of beta-amyloid peptides. Neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptides are the primary components of amyloid plaques that, along with neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein, are found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. The gamma-secretase complex contains four proteins _ presenilin, nicastrin, Aph-1, and Pen-2 _ and the presence of all four components is required for proteolytic activity of the complex. Surprisingly, all four proteins co-evolved in plants, suggesting that a shared function was also conserved. However, since plants do not have nervous system, nor do they suffer from Alzheimer's disease, the function of plant gamma-secretase is still a mystery. In this study, we subclone four components of Arabidopsis thaliana gamma-secretase into a single plasmid in order to generate recombinant baculovirus for expression of Arabidopsis gamma- secretase in Sf9 host cells. This allows for the simultaneous recombinant expression of four proteins in the same cell and from a single plasmid, thereby ensuring 100% co-infection by all four gamma-secretase components. This, then, gives us a powerful tool to study the putative proteolytic function of recombinant Arabidopsis gamma-secretase in vitro.


Jin Lee (Seoul, South Korea, Seoul) [Daniel Dries]
Is Arabidopsis thaliana gamma-secretase a functional protease?
Gamma-secretase is a multisubunit proteolytic complex responsible for the final step of the formation of beta-amyloid peptides. Neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptides are the primary components of amyloid plaques that, along with neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein, are found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. The gamma-secretase complex contains four proteins _ presenilin, nicastrin, Aph-1, and Pen-2 _ and the presence of all four components is required for proteolytic activity of the complex. Surprisingly, all four proteins co-evolved in plants, suggesting that a shared function was also conserved. However, since plants do not have nervous system, nor do they suffer from Alzheimer's disease, the function of plant gamma-secretase is still a mystery. In this study, we subclone four components of Arabidopsis thaliana gamma-secretase into a single plasmid in order to generate recombinant baculovirus for expression of Arabidopsis gamma- secretase in Sf9 host cells. This allows for the simultaneous recombinant expression of four proteins in the same cell and from a single plasmid, thereby ensuring 100% co-infection by all four gamma-secretase components. This, then, gives us a powerful tool to study the putative proteolytic function of recombinant Arabidopsis gamma-secretase in vitro.


Zachary Lemon (New Bloomfield, PA) [Dennis Plane]
Competing Frames of Egypt's Arab Spring in International News
News sources serving different international audiences tailor their content to meet their audiences' expectations. News sources also tend to focus on conflict over consensus. Therefore, different international news sources will likely present foreign conflicts differently to suit their readers. One such recent conflict which received extensive coverage in the U.S. and the Arab world was the Egyptian revolution, part of the 2011 Arab Spring. Since the Muslim Brotherhood, a fundamentalist Islamic group, won the democratic presidential election against a candidate associated with Hosni Mubarak's U.S.-backed regime, one can expect that the Washington Post, an American paper, will treat the Brotherhood with more hostility and mistrust than does Al Jazeera. To address this question of divergent news coverage, I conduct a content analysis using 47 Washington Post articles and 50 Al Jazeera articles from March to July of 2012, focusing on three areas where news likely differs. First, I tally each article's usage of the words Islamist, Islamists, and Islamic because these words play to U.S. stereotypes about the Arab world and oversimplify political ideologies. Second, I compare the political affiliations behind each news sources' quotations, with the expectation that the Washington Post will include fewer quotations by the Muslim Brotherhood. Third, in order to examine which side is favored in each news sources' articles, I look at accusations and other rhetorical attacks against both the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian government. My content analysis shows that the Washington Post, when compared with Al Jazeera, focuses more heavily on political parties' Islamic roots, is more hostile towards the Muslim Brotherhood, and de-emphasizes the Egyptian military-ruled government's involvement in the turmoil. These findings show that the cultural expectations of an audience greatly dictate how stories are presented.


Zachary Lemon (New Bloomfield, PA) [Dennis Plane]
Trade Liberalization and Food for Peace



Zachary Lemon (New Bloomfield, PA) [Dennis Plane]
Competing Frames of the Muslim Brotherhood
This research looks at some recent scholarship concerning U.S. food aid programs. Specifically, I researched how the modern food system and macroeconomic conditions had influenced the modern practices of food donation and distribution. My research shows that food aid is now structured in a way which benefits private interest groups and that developed nations' policies of agricultural support, combined with inefficient policies, place food security needs far outside of the range of U.S. food aid programs.


Oyinlola Lesi (Lagos, Nigeria) [Kim Roth]
Dieception: Die within a die
We will be testing the fairness of a 20 sided die within a 20 sided die. Unlike loaded and weighted dice which are biased to specific faces of the dice and unfair, there is uncertainty as to whether a die within a die is fair. The die could be unfair because it is know that the drilled numbers on the die faces affect the fairness of dice. Another reason for the uncertainty is because the inner die is not fixed but rather rolls on the inside, constantly changing the center of gravity of the outer die. Also, the inner die is constrained by the outer die and has a limited space to move which could affect the fairness of the inner die. To conduct this analysis, we collected data from a 1,000 die rolls and we will test our data for randomness and fairness using tests such as the frequency, runs, and serial tests.


Jinshu Li (Chengdu, Sichuan) [Yu Wang]
Assistant of Enterprise Credit Guarantee
From July2 to August 2, 2013, I found an internship in my hometown, Chengdu, China, in order to gain work experience and apply what I learned at Juniata. Chengdu Small& Medium Enterprise Credit Guarantee Co.,LTD, acts as a third-party guarantee of small and medium companies, and helps them borrow loans from the bank. As an assistant of the marketing and operating department, my job was helping project managers with preparing materials, taking notes, and visiting the companies who wanted to cooperate with us. This work required many skills like, reading financial reports, public speaking and so on.
Guarantee Company operates only in China. However, the Chinese economic system is not capitalistic, so only China needs to guarantee companies to reduce the risk of borrowing loans to small businesses. Once a company wants to use capital assets like a house or land to borrow a loan from bank, they can only get fifty percent of the value of the assets from the bank. Cooperating with guarantee companies can help small businesses borrow the full value of their collateral; on the other hand, the small businesses have to pay two point five percent of the loan to guarantee companies as cooperating fee. It is very hard for small companies to borrow loans from banks, and they need guarantee companies to be their third-party guarantee.
The majority of my work was being an assistant to the managers, who investigate companies who want to cooperate with us, and preparing materials for reports about that firm. Since a guarantee manager will finish at least one project every week, before writing a report, we would go to a company for further investigating. Once we became the third-guarantee of a company, we would investigate that company to make sure that they had the ability to pay the loan and interest. Also, we had to investigate if the company runs well, including the management, finance, organization, production and sale network. The reports have lots of information about that company, which has a brief introduction, the history of that firm, financial reports, companies related to this industry, fixed assets, prediction of future profit, and the risk of this company. Furthermore, this job helped me in applying what I have learned from school, specifically the ability to read financial reports, and my knowledge of management.
As a finance student, it is very important for me to learn how to read financial reports, and know the economic trends. Because of this job, I have been able to work with many different companies, and acquire knowledge about these varied industries.


Alyson Lush (Spring Mills, Pennsylvania) [James Roney]
The Impact of Market Principles on Our Global Food System
This paper applies the assertions of Michael Sandel, a Harvard political philosopher, to the global food system. Sandel contests that allowing market principles to take the place of societal values creates the space for inequity and corruption of the meaning of a good or service. Food, as an integral component in power structures throughout the history of the world, is not immune to the prevalence of the way of thinking Sandel describes. Though the global food system has undeniably increased the productivity of agriculture and subsequently increased the amount of food in the world, strict application of market principles has also caused inequality of access to food and livelihoods, inefficient and detrimental externalities, and degradation of human nutrition, a perversion of the very purpose of food and agriculture. Evidence of the inequity, inefficiency, and corruption of the global food system is demonstrated through numerous examples from around the world ranging from human nutrition, external costs, and environmental impacts. Though the negative aspects of the global food system are expansive, significant improvements can be attained through technology, changes in policy, and educational efforts.


Allison Lutz (Lewistown, PA) [Dr. Grant]
Comparative Analysis of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) Stomach Contents from Fracked and Non-Fracked Streams
Fracking and its effects have not been widely studied and not much is known about the consequences of this practice on aquatic ecosystems. In this study we set out to determine whether there was a difference in the feeding habits of Brook Trout from fracked streams compared to non-fracked streams. Stomach contents from streams that are impacted by fracking (either from nearby drilling or spills) and stomach contents from streams not impacted by fracking were analyzed to determine if fracking has had any effects in the diet of Brook Trout. Fish were collected from 26 streams (n=12 fracked, n=11 non-fracked) from Northwestern Pennsylvania during the summer of 2013. Fish stomachs were removed and the contents identified to the lowest possible classification and then categorized as either aquatic or terrestrial. Percent aquatic and terrestrial from each stream were analyzed, and fracked streams had significantly lower aquatic invertebrates compared to not fracked streams (p-value = 0.032). Percent terrestrial was significantly higher than percent aquatic in fracked streams (p-value = 0.000) and that was also the case in non-fracked streams (p-value = 0.026). The results of this research suggest that significantly fewer aquatic food sources are being consumed in fracked streams, presumably indicating a decrease in the availability of aquatic invertebrates. Differences observed may be due to Marcellus development but more research on Brook Trout feeding habits and macroinvertebrate communities is needed to determine causality.


Derrick Magnotta (Tafton, PA) [Dr. Dennis Plane]
Citizens' Perceptions of Media Bias
With the emergence of cable and internet news, citizens now can choose ideologically biased news sources that are congruent with their own opinions. This selective exposure isolates individuals from other neutral news sources and from sources with different ideological perspectives. Does this selective exposure hinder citizens' ability to identify ideological bias in the news? Furthermore, does this selective exposure to ideological bias in the news?"whether ideologically favorable or not?"affect attitudes towards the media and the government? To address these questions, I employ an experimental design with a pre- and post-attitude survey. The experimental manipulation is exposure to ideologically biased internet news articles. Across three research groups, a set of five identical articles were used, except one set was manipulated to have a clear liberal bias and another a clear conservative bias. The control group was asked to read unmodified, neutral articles, while the two experimental groups were provided with the liberally biased and conservatively biased articles. The post-survey determines whether subjects recognized the bias and measures attitude changes as a result of exposure to biased news articles. I find that readers are able to identify when political bias occurs in news articles, however, they tend to show a negative attitude toward ideologically biased articles and decreased trust in the media for fair and accurate reporting.


Katelynn Maley (Warrington, PA - Pennsylvania) [Mark McKellop]
Does Open Communication With Parents Influence Alcohol Consumption of College Freshman?
The present study focused on Juniata College Freshman's alcohol consumption and their open communication with their parents. One hundred students filled out an online survey that measured individuals, peer and parent alcohol consumption and communication with parents or care givers. The hypothesis is open communication between parents and their children that are freshman in college will have a significant effect on the amount of alcohol consumption of the freshman in college. The more open a parent is when communicating about alcohol to their children the less likely that child will consume alcohol.


Sean Mann (York, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Pearson]
Using an Arduino Controlled Camera to Take Pictures to Render 3D Models
Arduinos are electronic microcontrollers that are useful in many different applications from controlling devices to reading sensors. 3D printers have recently become commercially available and more affordable, but creating models requires time and knowledge of advanced drafting programs. Methods for simplifying this would mean that 3D printers will be used in more complex and varied applications. They can be used for artistic purposes, for replacing broken machine parts, or to make a copy of an artifact in a museum, just to name a few applications. There exist many free software packages that allow a person to take pictures of an object with any digital camera, and render those pictures into a 3D model. In this project, Autodesk 123D Catch software will be used to render 3D models. This project uses an Arduino Uno microcontroller to automate a camera and rotate a turntable to photograph objects and render them into 3D models.


Alex Manwiller (Reading, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Neil Pelkey]
Bicycle Friendly Community Certification for Jekyll Island
Jekyll Island offers a unique opportunity to visit National historic landmarks, preserved mature maritime forests and coastal ecosystems, and many other amenities. A primary focus of the Jekyll Island Authority is to run a sustainable system that also appeals to residents and visitors to the island. The 25 mile long bike trail that runs around the island offers just that. Due to its inter connectivity between the dunes, maritime forests, beaches, coastal marshes, National Historic Landmark Historic district, Horton House historic site, residential communities, and hotels the bike path is a prime example of a scenic trail that is both user-friendly and immersive into natural history. Through my summer internship as a conservation management intern, I prepared an application to the Bicycle Friendly Community program and successfully certified Jekyll Island as a Bicycle Friendly Community at the bronze level. My involvement consisted of preparing the application, writing and editing multiple essays, gathering information from local and government sources, traveling the bike trail and learning about the different regions it goes through, and submitting the completed application. This success has led to attracting national recognition to a unique model of environmental sustainability. Furthermore, the Jekyll Island Authority has improvements and additions planned outlined in the application, that will continue to make Jekyll's bike trail truly a unique attraction to everyday visitors and even avid cyclists.


Alex Manwiller (Reading, Pennsylvania) |Scott Thomas-Johnstown, Pennsylvania|Bradley Medelin-Dover, Pennsylvania|Andrew Caudill-Reston, Virginia|Richard Schur-Blairs Mills, Pennsylvania [Dr. Dennis Johnson]
Environmental Assessment of the Little Juniata River
The current status of the Little Juniata River is assessed and is an update to a previous work completed in 2001. This report entailed finding past and current studies as well as contacting individuals and organizations to get data for evaluation. The Little Juniata River or "Little J" is broken into five reaches that include the headwaters, Upper 1, Upper 2, Middle 1, Middle 2, and Lower. Each of these reaches is characterized by various physical, biological, and chemical features. In addition, each reach also is susceptible to various threats such as streambank erosion, natural fish habitat and macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance, water temperature variations, and pollution sites. Furthermore the Little J, as a system, is threatened by larger pollution threats such as water withdrawal and fracking. Organizations such as the Little Juniata River Association with public support help protect and improve the "Little J" and are essential to its continued use for recreation, fish habitat, and a water source for nearby industries.


Nicole Marks (Gardners, PA) [Dr. Grant]
Utilizing carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis to assess impacts of Marcellus Shale exploration on the biomagnification of methyl mercury in forested headwater ecosystems
Methyl mercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin with the ability to significantly affect organisms at elevated concentrations. As MeHg is biomagnified through trophic levels of aquatic ecosystems, the top predators, brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), accumulate the highest concentrations of the toxin. Marcellus shale natural gas exploration has been shown to affect various aspects of headwater stream ecosystems. If baseline MeHg concentrations were higher in streams impacted by Marcellus shale fracturing (fracked streams) in comparison to unaffected streams, the impacts of MeHg would be heightened over all ecosystem biota, particularly brook trout. During the summer of 2013, water chemistry measurements were obtained from 15 fracked and 13 non-fracked stream ecosystems. Biota types were also collected and included periphyton, macroinvertebrates (by feeding group), crayfish, and three different size classes of brook trout. These samples were analyzed for total mercury (a subset of these for methyl mercury) concentrations as well as carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. Nitrogen isotope ratios were utilized to determine trophic level of organisms while carbon isotope ratios were utilized to compare food webs of ecosystems. Comparison of MeHg concentrations of consecutive trophic level pairs with dietary and environmental parameters enables determination of the factor(s) affecting MeHg biomagnification at specific points in the food web. Trophic interaction pairs whose MeHg biomagnification is result of dietary composition are the lower trophic interactions; shredder macroinvertebrates/periphyton (r-sq=69.9%, p-value=0.001), collector macroinvertebrates/shredders (r-sq=37.8%, p-value=0.020), and crayfish/collectors (r-sq=75.6%, p-value<0.001). All upper trophic level interactions are not result of dietary composition but are likely determined by environmental parameters. Upper trophic level interaction as well as all fracked stream analysis is ongoing. The types of interactions between specific trophic levels in fracked and non-fracked ecosystems are essential to understand in order to determine potential impacts on methyl mercury biomagnification in headwater ecosystems resulting from Marcellus shale exploration.


Trey Mathews (Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania) [Dr. John Unger]
Asymmetric Synthesis of Aryl Aziridines
Chiral aziridines are featured in several biologically-active natural products and are commonly used as reactive intermediates in organic synthesis. Although several strategies exist that allow researchers access to chiral aziridines, one method that remains largely unexplored is the stereoselective reduction of prochiral 2H-azirines. Nonracemically-ligated copper-catalyzed reduction has been shown to effect enantioselective formation of aryl 2H-azirines to yield aryl aziridines. This body of research will focus on the optimization of this method with respect to nonracemic ligand, hydride source, and solvent. The methods used to generate 2H-azirine starting materials, and to derivatize and resolve the chiral aziridine products will also be reported.


Grace Mauger (Collinsville, Connecticut) [Richard Hark]
Factors affecting the cyclization of dicarboxylic acids to form hydrindacene diones
Symmetric and asymmetric hydrindacene diones can be prepared by cyclization of a 3,3'-phenylenedipropanoic acid precursor. Conversion of ortho-, meta-, or para-phthaldialdehyde into the corresponding dicinnamic acid using a Knoevenagel or Perkin condensation, followed by hydrogenation over Pd catalyst affords the desired saturated acids. It was previously reported that treatment of the diacid with para-substitution in neat AlCl3/NaCl gives a 65-70% yield of as?"hydrindacene-1,8-dione along with a small amount of s?"hydrindacene-1,5-dione. The goal of this project was to try to explain the preference for the less thermodynamically stable asymmetric isomer. This was accomplished by repeating the reaction using different Lewis acids (e.g., BBr3, TiCl4, FeCl3, SnCl2, BF3?Et2O) to see how this affected the isomer distribution and overall yield. The corresponding meta diacid was similarly cyclized using neat AlCl3/NaCl to give as?"hydrindacene-1,6-dione and s?"hydrindacene-1,7-dione, respectively. Full spectroscopic characterization and the product distribution for the reaction was completed. Molecular modeling was also to compare the energies of the isomers. From the reactions with the different Lewis acids, it was determined that BF3?Et2O could be used for esterification and this unexpected result was explored further using various carboxylic acids and anhydrides.


Andrew Maul (Portage, PA) [Dr. Regina Lamendella]
Microbial Community Response to a Resistant Starch Diet: An Integration of Multi-omics Approaches
Excessive body weight and its associated metabolic disorders, including diabetes, have reached epidemic proportions over the last few decades. Identification of effective strategies for prevention and management of these conditions proves imperative. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate digestibility on host metabolism and the dynamics of the human gut microbiome. The effects of diets enriched with high-amylose maize resistant starch (RS) versus high-amylopectin maize, a rapidly digested starch (RDS), were studied in a randomized crossover design in 39 participants with reduced insulin sensitivity. The subjects consumed a baseline diet for 14 days followed by two diets, one with RS and one with RDS for 14 days each, separated by a 14-day washout. Several metadata factors, including those relating to insulin and lipids, were collected from each participant. DNA was extracted in duplicate from each fecal sample and PCR-amplified using barcoded Illumina primers. The 16S rRNA gene libraries were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform and analyzed using QIIME. Metabolites were also extracted from fecal samples and measured using FT-ICR-MS. Analysis of 28 million sequences revealed significant differences in specific members of the microbial community associated with different diet regimes. Changes in insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia were also associated with beneficial changes in the microbial community. Hierarchical clustering of significant metabolites revealed that lipid metabolism pathways differentiated the two diets. Fecal metabolites related to arachidonic acid biosynthesis, primary bile acid biosynthesis, and steroid hormone biosynthesis increased under the RS diet. Additionally, fatty-acid chain length appeared to increase in response to the RS diet. Future work will focus on the correlation of microbial community structure to metabolite data and other multi-omics datasets, including metaproteomics profiles. The results of this study provide further insight into the management of chronic disease through dietary changes.


Ethan Maxey (Abington, Pennsylvania) [Dennis Plane]
Development Aid in Africa: Effectiveness and Alternative Methods
This research explores the previous and current methods of development aid given to Africa and evaluates the effectiveness of these methods. What this research finds is that development aid has not been effective, and that it is currently not effective, because the methods for delivering development aid has damaged Sub Saharan African nations ability to develop. This is due to the lack of emphasis on human development, and the focus on causing growth and development by opening Sub Saharan African nations economies internationally and reducing the size and scope of the state. Because of this emphasis on reducing the size and scope of the state in Sub Saharan Africa the state does not have the adequate power that it needs to promote human development and to ensure equality. This research finds that the best method to promote development is to shift development policies to building state capacity while also focusing on human development so that Sub Saharan African states will have the ability to become self-sufficient and not have to rely on aid in the future.


Daniel McClung (Chambersburg, Pennsylvania) |Eli Murphy-Poland , Maine|Shayna Yeates-Alburtis , Pennsylvania|Claire Moulder-Downingtown, Pennsylvania|Kathryn McElwee-North Manchester, Indiana|Elana Levine-Johnson City, New York [Dr. Philip Dunwoody]
What Would Authoritarians Do? Social Norms versus Submission to Authority
Authoritarianism research has traditionally measured submission to authority and conventionalism using the F-scale and the Right Wing Authoritarianism scale (Adorno, et al. 1950; Altemeyer, 1981). Feldman's (2003) Social-Conformity Autonomy (SCA) scale adopts a social norm centered view of authoritarianism, arguing that those high in authoritarianism hold attitudes that value social conformity over autonomy and are motivated to maintain social order. Since previous research has confounded submission to authority with conventionalism/social norms, it is unclear which construct is more important for authoritarians. The current research presented scenarios where leader preference and social norms conflict to determine if authoritarians have a consistent bias for leader preference or social norms. 283 Introduction to Psychology students and their parents/guardians responded on SurveyMonkey. Students had the option to complete the survey as a class research requirement. Students' parents/guardians who filled out the questionnaire counted as a second research credit. Participants completed demographic questions, two authoritarian measures, and 15 scenarios. Dunwoody and Funke's Aggression, Submission, and Conventionalism (ASC) scale was used to independently measure submission to authority and conventionalism while Feldman's SCA scale focused only on conventionalism/social norms. To measure leader versus social norm bias we coded each response as supporting the leader or supporting the social norm. Responses were summed for each participant. Bias for the leader or for social norm was correlated with the SCA and ASC subscales measuring conventionalism and submission to authority. A comparison of the correlations was made between leader and social norm biases across the different authoritarianism measures. Support for the Leader had a positive correlation with SCA (r=.250; p<.05), a positive correlation for ASC (r=.264, p=.01), a positive correlation for the ASC conventionalism subscale (r=.268, p=.01), and a positive correlation for ASC submission (r=.245, p<.05). The data suggests that Feldman's claims about authoritarian social norm support are too narrow.


Rebecca McFadden (Goshen, Indiana) [Amy Frazier-Yoder]
Cultural Barriers in Healthcare Facing Latinos
For my independent study in Spanish, I traveled to my hometown of Goshen, Indiana and conducted interviews to discern some of the specifically cultural barriers faced by Latinos when trying to use our local health system. I found that different social factors (like race, economic status) trigger different issues, but that the issues often overlap in complex ways. In this presentation I hope to explain some of these barriers, how they are interrelated, and then offer some suggestions of how health care providers can be sensitive to the needs of their entire community.


William McGrew (Beavercreek, OH) [Dr. Beaky]
Saturated Absorption of Rubidium Atoms
A variety of techniques are employed to investigate phenomena relating to atomic physics. Saturated absorption allows examination of hyper-fine splitting of atomic energy levels in Rubidium. Saturated absorption is achieved by splitting a beam, and sending these two through the same Rb test cell, but in opposite directions. Hyper-fine structure is observed in the spectrum of Rubidium. Such phenomena would usually be obscured by Doppler broadening. Additionally, by increasing the heat of the Rubidium, the width of the Doppler well increases, in agreement with theory. Finally, two infrared laser beams are used to excite Rubidium. In some cases, the atom decays by a schema that involves the emission of light in the visible spectrum. This visible light was observed to emanate from the test cell.


Caleb McMullen (Huntingdon, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Ryan Mathur]
Iron Oxide Staining in the Tuscarora Sandstone
Iron oxides were analyzed from the Tuscarora sandstone
using X-ray difraction and SEM methods. A series of twenty
samples were collected from the Tuscarora formation located
Jack's Mountain that showed iron-oxide staining. The surface of
the usually white quartz arenite exhibited varying hues of red,
yellow, blue, and green. The iron oxide present in the rock is
either residual from the weather of sulfides or it was transported
into the rock from an iron-bearing fluid. Chemical analysis with
the SEM revealed that the rock contain no residual sulfide but,
an abundance of in-situ iron oxide. Along with the in-situ iron,
elements associated with alkali and plagioclase feldspars were
found. The abundance of calcium, sodium, and potassium
found in the samples suggest that a calcium rich brine owed
through fissures in the rock during deformation producing
altered silicates. The salts, iron oxides, and silicates were more
than likely associated with a fluid that was transported through
the rock, not with the weathering of the sulfide out of the rock.


Andrew Mellinger (Palmyra, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Unger]
Developing a new Synthesis of α-Diazocarboxylic Acids
Carboxylate carbenes have the potential to become versatile building blocks for organic
synthesis, as their nucleophilic reactivity is unique among related carbonyl carbenes
that initially express electrophilic character. Although the synthesis of carboxylate
carbenes has been previously realized, it was primarily achieved for the purpose of a
physical investigation, precluding the need for an optimized synthetic route. For this
body of research, a new strategy is being developed to synthesize α-diazocarboxylic
acids, the direct precursors of carboxylate carbenes. The synthesis can be approached
from two different classes of starting material and involves the exploration and
optimization of carboxylic acid protection and deprotection, as well as carbonyl α-
diazotization.


Michelle Merola (Massapequa, NY) [R. Miller]
Saint cults in Andean Catholicism: a cultural analysis of post-Conquest religion
The purpose of this study is to pool a multiplicity of sources together to examine popular Andean religion, and the influencing forces that caused its formation. The Spanish developed their new territories as Catholic nations, and today the Andean region of South America remains a highly Catholic area of the world. However, the Catholicism practiced in the Andes is not the same as European or Vatican Catholicism, but instead a form of popular religion focused heavily on saint worship. The rise of popular Andean Catholicism resulted from the sharing of ideas between Andean religion and Spanish Catholicism and the strict conversion methods used by the Spanish religious authorities. The result is a syncretic religious system that contains elements of both Catholicism and Andean religion. My study is separated into five parts: analysis of Andean and Incan religion, Spanish Conquest and Conversion Efforts, the Role of Saints in the Colonial Andean Region, Syncretism in Art and Practice, and Modern Popular Religion.


Eric Merrell (Rockaway, NJ) [Dr. Wade Roberts]
Sartre's Look and its Relation to Authentic Communication
To summarize, Sartre's negative attitude toward the look of the Other in his book, Being and Nothingness, is unreasonable; although it does cause a person to be objectified by this look, it is also the root of the subjectivity and freedom of a human being. Additionally, Sartre is wrong in his assertion that the for-itself is a completely independent entity because the for-itself is created amidst interpersonal relationships, historical situations, and cultural norms. As a result, human consciousness, while separated from other human consciousnesses, is fundamentally intertwined with them and shaped by them. This reveals a strong correlation with Gadamer's theory of the fusion of horizons. Sartre's look remains the primordial form of communication, but it also becomes the foundation for linguistic communication and ultimately dialogue. Furthermore, the look's ability to create a subject to subject relation between individuals is really the primordial foundation for the fusion of horizons before language. Using this critique, Sartre's look can be shown to be the first necessary step before Gadamer's fusion of horizons can take place. This ultimately supports the first critique of Sartre ?" his negative attitude ?" by showing that the look is beneficial since it is the enabler of authentic communication.


Jacob Messer (Kennebunkport, Maine) [Plane]
Kennedy, his religion, and the civil rights movement



Elise Mihranian (Chester Springs, PA) [Donna Weimer]
America the Be-You-Tiful: A Content Analysis of Advertising & the "Ideal" Face of Beauty
In recent years, beauty advertising has experienced a paradigm shift that combats traditional racial perceptions of beauty within American culture. Campaigns like the Dove Real Beauty advertisements have been at the forefront of this movement, yet limited views of beauty are still fluid within our society. After the crowning of Nina Davuluri, the first Indian woman to win the Miss America pageant, a wave of racism and hatred exploded online- exposing a clear expectation and ideal of what a modern American woman should look like. These expectations of what women "should" look like and ideal beauty within our society is the central focus of my work. My research project is a content analysis of advertisements, which argues that ideal beauty still exists in terms of race and facial features.
Specifically, I analyze ads in the top 5 subscribed women's fashion magazines; Vogue, Cosmopolitan, Elle, Marie Claire, and Harpers Bazaar of November 2013. Within these magazines I identify the recurring facial dimensions put forth in four categories 1) cosmetic advertisements, 2) perfume advertisements, 3) cover shoots, and 4) Vouge fashion ads overall. The facial dimensions I record for each ad are hair color, eye color, race, and any abnormalities or visible flaws. This method allows me to classify frequencies of these features among the various categories and identify patterns and trends. Through this work I also compare and contrast the ratios and findings of the four categories I observed.
My findings in cosmetic ads somewhat represent and reflect the racial demographics we see in American women today. But despite some recent attempts to shift perceptions of ideal beauty, an in depth and detailed content analysis reveals continuing issues surrounding ideal beauty preferences in magazine advertisements in the cosmetic industry. Expanding my research to perfume ads, cover photos, and Vouge fashion overall revealed that white racial preference still dominates the beauty and fashion industries.


Jessica Mills (Huntingdon , PA) [Dr. Amy Mathur]
Which Anne Frank to teach?
Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl has been an essential part of many middle school curriculums. Educators have the option of teaching the original edition published in 1952 or the Definitive Edition published in 1995 which was edited by Otto Frank and includes previously omitted entries. This paper looks at the similarities and differences between the two editions and the pros and cons of teaching each edition to a middle school classroom.


Kelsey Molseed (Allentown, Pennsylvania) [James Tuten]
Conscientious Objectors of the American Civil War
This thesis research looks at Pennsylvania's three most prominent groups of Civil War Conscientious Objectors (COs): Quakers, Mennonites and Amish, and Brethren "Dunkers." This presentation will describe each group's involvement in obtaining conscientious objector rights and in utilizing those rights, as well as the reactions of outside groups toward nonresistants.

The thesis argues that while each of the three peace churches were opposed to war, each came from different theological backgrounds that resulted in different reactions to the Civil War. Each group was involved in to varying degrees in political activism for CO rights, and each was cooperative to varying degrees regarding fees and substitute draftee requirements for COs. Consequently, outside groups reacted to each church with varying levels of criticism and support. These variations existed because of each church's beliefs regarding nonresistance, government, and swearing oaths.


Olivia Moody (Covington, VA) |Victoria Rehr-Reading, PA|Victoria Buser-Allentown, PA|Meagan Floyd-New York, NY|Alexandra Eby-Huntingdon, PA [Anne Gilman]
Preference for speaking a second language does not depend on working memory.
Working memory has been found in some studies to predict more successful second-language learning. Composing utterances in any language relies on working memory, thus WM capacity could indirectly affect learners' willingness to communicate in the new language, mediating WM's contributions to proficiency gains. Undergraduate participants in our sample (N=70) demonstrated no relations between WM ?" measured by operation span ?" and language study in general or in speaking preferences in a second language.


Nicholas Morgan (Millburn, New Jersey) [Dr. Baran]
Synthesis and Study of 3-Hydroxyimidazole 1-Oxide Single Molecule Magnet Precursors
Single molecule magnets are of great interest in the current computing age as prospective materials for construction of quantum computers. Quantum computers can take advantage of quantum magnetic properties and give a far greater power and processing output than the computers of today. Suitably designed coordination compounds that are clusters of many metal centers connected together by bridging ligands exhibit properties of single molecule magnets. In an effort to synthesize such clusters, 3-hydroxyimidazole 1-oxide was coordinated with various copper(II) salts (chloride, nitrate, acetate, and carbonate) under different stoichiometries (1:1 and 2:1) in methanol. Isolated solid products were characterized by elemental analysis, melting point measurements, and infrared spectroscopy. The characterization of these products determined that different stoichiometries of the same copper(II) salts yielded identical products. The crystal structures of the chloride and acetate products were studied by X-ray diffraction. The chloride product with an overall composition of [Cu2(µ4-imzO2)(µ-imzO2)2(H2O)Cl]5H2O forms a two-dimensional planar inorganic polymer, while the acetate product, [Cu3(µ3-imzO2)4(OAc)2], shows a three-dimensional polymeric structure. Details of the structures and characterization of all products will be presented.


Sean Morrissey (tyrone, pa) [bill thomas]
COMSEC
Communication Security (COMSEC)

The importance of the military cannot be gainsaid as far as the stability and wellbeing of any country are concerned. Indeed, the military is charged with the responsibility of protecting a country from external aggression, although it may sometimes be called upon to assist in internal affairs. While a large proportion of financial resources in the military are channeled towards enhancing the weaponry capability, there has been an increased investment in intelligence gathering. Research and development, as well as intelligence gathering usually involve a substantial amount of communication. Unfortunately, the military always runs the risk of having its communications intercepted by rival forces in an effort to gain an upper hand against it and probably defeat it in combat. This underlines the importance of protecting communication channels in the military through communication security (COMSEC). COMSEC safeguards the security, integrity and confidentiality of telecommunications, which are the pillars of information assurance. Communications security in the military incorporates a number of components including cryptosecurity, emission security (EMSEC), Transmission Security (TRANSEC) and physical Security.


Colton Myers (State College, Pennsylvania) |Duc Vu-Hanoi, Vietnam|Kenneth Kysor-Port Allegany, Pennsylvania|Dr. Benjamin Smith-Huntingdon, Pennsylvania [Dr. Benjamin Smith]
Determining Physical Traits and Categorizing Defects in Nanowires Produced Through Templated Electrodeposition
Our lives could be revolutionized by nanotechnology, technology based on the use of nano- and microparticles. These particles, which are defined by their dimensions, have both new and enhanced properties compared to bulk materials. Currently, particles have been studied for applications in a wide variety of fields such as medicine, renewable energy, and electronics. Often, particle assemblies are required for these applications. For instance, ordered arrays of semiconductor nanowires have been used in electronic chemo- and biosensors as well as solar cells.

Nanowires can be synthesized through templated electrodeposition within porous alumina filtration membranes. Briefly, after coating one side of the membrane with a conductive layer, isolated pores can be used to electrochemically synthesize individual nanowires. The plating solution sets the composition, the plating time determines the length, while the pore diameter decides the particle width. Dissolution of the template releases the wires.

Although nanowires assemble themselves via interparticle forces; a majority of which form a system with a larger functionality, defects are present. Even with a small portion of wires possessing relatively minor defects, including fins, joined wires, and incomplete construction, perfect assembly is required for the projects that are planned.

Our project aims to classify and analyze images of nanowires to determine
relationships between the defects of wires and their physical properties. By measuring nanowire composition, counting and categorizing defects, we will determine relationships between processes and outcomes of wire creation and account for the common defects and abnormalities. Therefore, the process can be altered to yield the most ideal wires. In addition, ideal wires will be harvested and integrated into ordered arrays separated from the ones that have common defects. Understanding nanowire defects could provide a better capacity to improve nanoparticle assembly in the future.


Austin Nace (Littlestown, Pennsylvania) [Dave Hsiung]
Football and Brown: How a Budding Southern Pastime Helped Integrate Universities in North Carolina
This paper analyzes the importance of football in the process of integration and desegregation at universities in North Carolina in the years following the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case in 1954. The author looks at the differences in public and private universities and concludes that there were two different ways in which football helped to integrate and desegregate. In the two public universities researched, the University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, the main impact of the football team was shown through the fans who demanded desegregated seating and an improved product on the field by allowing African-Americans to play. At the two private universities, Duke University and Wake Forest University, the teams themselves accepted African-American students around the same time that the school started to admit black students.


Thanh Nguyen (Vietnam, Vietnam) [Dominick Peruso]
Professional Skepticism and Critical Thinking in Business Professions



Ethan Nichols (Johnstown, PA) [Dr. Loren Rhodes]
Active Directory Management Applications
My research involves managing active directory objects from a web application. This includes the integration of Active Directory Domain Services, LDAP, VBScripting, and PHP.


Ethan Nichols (Johnstown, PA) [Prof. Bill Thomas]
Bitcoin and Security
My research involves an explanation of the Bitcoin Network from a security engineering perspective. This includes mining, storing, spending and accepting bitcoins in a secure fashion.


Gregory Nixon (Baltimore, Maryland) [Dr.Mattew Beaky and Dr.Mark Pearson]
Modeling Thermal Expansion with a Two Wheel Rubber Band Heat Engine
Heat engines convert thermal energy into mechanical work by taking a working substance from a higher temperature to a lower temperature. Energy is added from a hot reservoir, some of which is used to perform work, while the rest is removed to a cold reservoir. Heat engines have lead to wonderful machines such as automobile engines and household refrigerators that we all use today. A two-wheel rubber band heat engine models this core thermal physics idea. The two wheels are connected by a metal rod with rubber bands joining the axis to the wheel. Their lower halves are submerged in water, which acts as the hot reservoir of the system. The wheels rotate with a smooth motion that displays the mechanical work due to the interaction of the rubber bands with the hot reservoir and their resulting thermal expansion and contraction. The construction of a rubber band heat engine can enhance physics and non-physics students' conceptual understanding of thermal energy will be described.


Jacob Oster (Lusby, Maryland) [Dr. Christopher Grant]
Do the benefits of metal precipitation in organic substrates outweigh potential mercury bioaccumulation? Impacts of Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Ponds on Wild Trout Streams
In the eastern United States, some 20,000 km of streams and rivers have been affected by acid mine drainage (AMD). Passive remediation systems for AMD utilize a series of treatment ponds to lower the concentration of metal ions and raise the pH and alkalinity of the AMD discharge water before it enters receiving streams. Two commonly used treatment ponds, limestone drains and wetlands, require anaerobic conditions with organic substrates. The organic substrate facilitates reactions causing the metals ions to precipitate out of the discharge water and the limestone contains calcium which dissolves into the streams and raises the alkalinity and pH of the streams, both of which require low concentrations of dissolved oxygen for optimum efficiency. Anaerobic conditions combined with the high concentrations of sulfurous compounds in the water, presumably harboring sulfur-reducing bacteria, have the potential to elevate methylation of inorganic mercury. We sampled Middle Branch of Two Mile Run in northern Pennsylvania, a stream with documented AMD and a passive treatment system. We sampled three portions upstream and three downstream of the treatment system for brook trout, benthic macroinvertebrates, moss and sediment and analyzed the samples for mercury concentrations. Sediment samples were also taken from the limestone drain pond and the wetland ponds and analyzed for mercury. Benthic macroinvertebrates were identified to the family or genus level and an Index of Biotic Integrity was calculated. Sample collection and mercury analysis is ongoing. Preliminary morphometric differences between brook trout population suggest that the downstream populations may be exposed to elevated methylmercury concentrations.


Elena Ostock (Bethlehem, PA) [James Tuten]
Photojournalism During the Vietnam War: A Snapshot of Cultural Propaganda
Conflict raged in Vietnam for decades involving at different times, both France and the United States. This presentation will explore the photographic coverage of the American war in Vietnam in Time Magazine and Paris Match Magazine. Considering France had already suffered through the war, Paris Match was openly critical of American efforts in Vietnam long before Time. The tone of the American news evolves significantly over the course of the war as well, indicative of a changing public opinion toward the war. Moreover, cultural bias is further exposed in the portrayals of race, death, and war found in these magazines.


Jenna Palmer (Palmyra, Pennsylvania) [Matthew Powell]
Evolutionary Origins of Sponge Cell Reaggregation
Sponges are organisms that lie between the protozoa and metazoa classifications. Sponges are known to have no differentiated cells and do not contain any nervous, vascular, digestive, or circulatory systems. As a result, when pushed through a sieve they are able to reaggregate, through their calcium-dependent cell-to-cell adhesion factors. The ability to note this cell-to-cell adhesion will determine whether or not the ability to reaggregate is found in all sponges as a homologous trait or whether the trait evolved independently in multiple species. I had addressed this through a list of reaggregating sponge species and mapping it onto an evolutionary tree of sponges. My hypothesis is that all sponges will show aggregation because the molecular mechanism of aggregation was developed at one point in which all sponge species now have the ability.


Jonathan Partsch (Salix, PA) |Gregory Van Dongen-Churchville, NY| Daniella Rodriguez-Albuquerque, NM [Dr. Peterson]
Testosterone and sex: the role of hormones in sexual dimorphism
Males and females have generally similar phenotypic responses to sex hormones. In both sexes, the effects of testosterone (T) appear to masculinize behavior and physiology. However, it is unclear if the mechanism is simple masculinization of gene expression, or something more complex. The dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), a temperate North American sparrow with well-characterized life history traits, was used to study the effects of experimentally elevated T on the gene expression of males and females, and to compare expression to sex differences. Testosterone levels that mimic maximum natural levels were administered to the juncos. Multiple tissues were analyzed by microarray to determine sex differences in gene expression and the transcriptional response to T in each sex. There are significant gene expression differences between T-treated and control individuals in both males and females and a significant sex difference in each tissue. However, the relationship between sex differences and hormones is far from clear. It appears that, despite the masculinizing phenotypic effects, a far more complicated pattern of gene expression underlies these outcomes. By combining these outcomes with the extensive natural history knowledge of the junco, we hope to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms in this system. Further, these complex outcomes, in light of other recent discoveries, underscore the needed for greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying seeming simple traits.


David Paul (Mercer, Pennsylvania) |David Paul-Mercer, Pennsylvania [Dr. Douglas Glazier]
Effects of Temperature and Predation Regime on the Body-size Scaling of Activity in the Freshwater Amphipod Gammarus minus
Previous work in our laboratory has shown that the scaling of resting metabolic rate with body mass in the freshwater amphipod crustacean, Gammarus minus, varies with temperature and predation regime. Surprisingly, the temperature-related variation did not completely conform to predictions of two different theoretical models of metabolic scaling. A possible explanation for this unexpected variation may be thermal stress, resulting in unseen increases in activity. If so, we may have measured active rather than resting metabolic rates, thus explaining deviations from metabolic scaling theory. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of temperature on the activity of G. minus from the previously tested populations. Activity, measured as body lengths moved per minute, was recorded from four populations of G. minus, factorially varying in predation (present/absent) and temperature (10/17 °C). Surprisingly, the data did not suggest a relationship between dry body mass and activity (r2 < 0.35). When calculated independently of body size, a Kruskall-Wallis one-way analysis of variance suggested that activity positively correlated with temperature. This observation is similar to that seen in ant species (Shapely 1920). Activity did not appear to be affected by native temperature or predation regime. These data do not support the hypothesis that temperature-related variation in metabolic scaling is due to thermal stress.


Elliott Perow (Huntingdon, PA) [Dr. Chris Grant]
Morphological changes in telencephalon of Salvelinus fontinalis related to mercury and Marcellus Shale Fracturing
Mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin that can have detrimental health effects on aquatic organisms and humans. The objective of this research was to determine whether brook trout with higher muscle mercury concentrations have 1) larger relative telencephalon volumes and 2) histopathological changes in the telencephalon region. Brook trout from 14 streams were caught in northwestern Pennsylvania via standard electro-fishing protocol in 2013 and were measured, dissected, and analyzed for mercury. Among the 14 streams, 11 streams had Marcellus shale activity present including one that has had documented frackwater contamination. Volume calculations and histological analysis of the telencephalon have begun and we hope to relate the results to mercury concentrations as well as compare the results between fracked and non-fracked streams. This research not only will provide insight as to how environmental Hg exposure affects brain morphology, but also will elucidate potential impacts of Marcellus shale development.


Michael Plumer (Edgewood, Maryland) [Dr. Jim Roney]
The Role of Orthodox Notions of Suffering in Dostoevsky
This presentation will analyze the relationship between the concepts of suffering and redemption and their role in Fyodor Dostoevsky's novel "Crime and Punishment". The basis for the definitions of suffering and redemption comes from their presence and qualities in the tradition of Russian Orthodoxy. The notable conclusion from the analysis of this relationship is that suffering in the Orthodox tradition is inseparable from redemption as expressed in the narrative of Jesus Christ. "Crime and Punishment", however, presents suffering with the possibility of redemption, but redemption is not fully realized or completed at the close of the novel.


Pargorn Puttapirat (Bangkok, Thailand) [YuJung Han]
How Student-Generated Content Can Enhance Learning
A considerable amount of evidence shows that students who generate their own content from what they have studied or learned could enhance their learning which leads to better understanding of the topics. In order to generate some content, mastery in the topic is required. This presentation will show how students can improve their learning strategy by developing web-based educational content that first started in Thailand, summer 2010. There are different methodologies used for student-generated content in different formats such as notes, diagrams, and videos. This is similar to project-based learning, the difference is each piece of work has been made by self-motivation; these are even more comprehensive projects. In this presentation, the relation between the format of student-generated content and its impact on the level of understanding will be discussed. By contributing the contents to the public via internet, it will also help students be more confident about what they know. Finally, this online activity could be developed to be peer education in the future.


Gustav Redmond (Bethesda, Maryland) |Alexander Heicher-Hummelstown, Pennsylvania|Adam Cline-Reston, Virginia [Chad Herzog]
Interactive LED Design
Students have been exploring the use of new technologies in art. By integrating microcontrollers and LED lights, students are creating interactive sculptures to be both aesthetically beautiful and to raise awareness about cyber security.


Victoria Rehr (Wernersville, PA) [Anne Gilman]
Effectiveness of "Global to Local" Program on Cultural Self-Awareness
The expansion of educational policy focused on internationalization is regarded as both an opportunity and a challenge for institutions of higher education (Green & Olson, 2003; Rosenfield & Berninger, 2009). An emerging trend includes "global to local" programs, in which the skills and knowledge gained from cultural exposure are applied to the community and campus (Rizvi & Lingard, 2010; Alamuddin & Zebian, 2010). The efforts to incorporate international experiences with on-campus learning have generally been understudied, as institutions continue to focus on sending students abroad with little attention to readjustment and integration of new knowledge into existing curriculum.

In this study, student surveys from a "global to local" program on a small, liberal arts college in the United States (U.S.) were evaluated as to meeting various cultural competencies. The Language in Motion (LIM) program invites guest speakers from the college campus to teach lessons on non-U.S. cultures to secondary public school students. The LIM program was hypothesized to have a positive effect on students' ability to analyze encounters with non-native cultures and incorporate these experiences into college academics.

All participants in LIM (n = 60) were surveyed across three academic years. Participants evaluated their competencies on several items, including knowledge of U.S. culture, knowledge of non-U.S. culture, speaking ability in a non-native language, and ability to critique personal cultural biases. All data were anonymized to protect the identity of the participants.

Preliminary analysis of data from prior semesters suggests that students completing the LIM program display increased awareness of birth culture and greater comfort in the non-native language. Expansion of these "global to local" programs provide unique opportunities for both institutions and students, including improved reintegration of students upon returning from a cultural learning experience and hands-on learning within the international studies curriculum.


Samantha Ringer (Baltimore, MD) [Donna Weimer]
A Frame Analysis of "Alternative Medicine" in the New York Times (2000-2010)
In communication theory, frames are embedded in discourse and provide the interpretive cues that are necessary for us to negotiate understanding. Within mainstream media, it has been argued that frames play an agenda-setting role as the language used shapes discourse and therefore our understanding of what is being reported and its importance. I first conducted a qualitative content analysis of 45 articles in the New York Times from January 2000 to December 2010 in an effort to understand what language is used that shapes the discourse on "alternative medicine." I noted the changes and continuities over time of the discursive formations surrounding "alternative medicine." Specifically, I analyzed the dichotomous interactions between "alternative medicine" and "conventional medicine" and their synonyms. I coded the context of each article as either "positive," "negative," or "neutral" in relation to "alternative medicine." I then used the theory of framing to discuss how discourse on alternative medicine shapes the reality of its practice and our perceptions of that reality. I argue that in the New York Times the constructed frame is largely skeptical, maintaining the power distance between alternative and conventional ways of healing and downplaying the legitimacy of the field of "alternative medicine." The broader implications of this research suggest that media discourse can and should be analyzed to assess the normative value of language and how it is legitimized and perpetuated through culture.


Jenna Rodrigue (Manchester, Connecticut) |Kevin Snyder-Indiana, Pennsylvania|Michael Dunkleburger-Bainbridge , Pennsylvania|Avery Fordham-Clarks Summit, Pennsylvania [Dr. Kathy Jones]
Squatch Watch 2013
During the Spring semester of 2013 we planned and executed a science focused interdisciplinary field trip relating different domains of forestry. Subjects that were integrated included biology, chemistry, geology, environmental science, and mathematics. To give students a sneak peek of what to expect from the field trip, we created movie that briefly introduced us and the modules they would participate in. This video was then sent to the school two weeks before the field trip would occur. Three separate modules were created to alleviate stress of educating and managing all of the students at once. One module focused on the identification of trees (i.e. deciduous or coniferous, leaf arrangement, etc.) and assessing biodiversity by creating land plots. Another module addressed tree measurement using Biltmore sticks and using coordinate planes for mapping. Students were split up into three groups and asked to graph three trees on a coordinate plane using the cardinal directions as their axis. They were able to count distances between trees with their steps. They learned the process of measuring tree heights, about estimation, and also measurement units. The final module further separated into stratification levels in relation to root systems, stomata function, and using dyes to assess age of trees. When students arrived at 9 we introduced ourselves (for any individuals that did not see the video and to refresh the students' memories). The overarching theme of the field trip was "SQUATCH WATCH 2013" and topics that were discussed in all of the modules related in some way, shape, or form, back to an aspect of how to find a Sasquatch at the Raystown field station. This trip got students engaged, interested, and outside the classroom which all promoted a solid day of learning.


Alexandra Roemer (Lehighton, PA) Alexis Candii Hadden-, |Miranda Wales-, |Leah Grubb-, [Hannah Bellwoar]
Fire in the Forge: a documentary of Blacksmithing
Students explore the role as the person behind the camera in their documentary and visual argument videos. After screening their video projects, there will be time for Q & A to discuss their choices in representing their ideas through video.


Abigail Rosenberger (Duncannon, Pennsylvania) |Avelis, Tristan-, CT|Yeates, Shayna-, PA [Xingli Wang]
An Open Discussion on the Philosophies of Love: An Interdisciplinary and Modern Interpretation
What is Love? Love is a dynamic and highly influential force experienced by humanity. Countless individuals have attempted to understand its nature in order to gain clarity over this force's vague definition. This panel will attempt to further the understanding of Love through three unique and different interpretations. First is a more formal description of Love based on the three types: Philia, Agape, and Eros. Philia is the name given to "Brotherly" Love, Agape is that of "Godly" Love, and Eros is that of "Erotic" Love. There are a few combinations to be discussed: Agape-Eros, Philia-Agape, and Eros-Philia-Agape. Each of these combinations, in a sense, prioritizes each type and can be used to further expand the understanding of Love in its different forms. The second concerns whether Love can truly and equally be reciprocated when the definition of mutuality depends on sameness. Under this assumption of sameness, only partners who are equal with nothing to gain over the other can attain this state. This implies that mutuality cannot exist in the presence of difference. However, a fuller sense of self can be attained by accepting differences rather than striving to change and neutralize the differences found in others as required by sameness; these differences should be embraced and used as the framework for mutuality. Finally, based on the traditions of Philia and Eros, it is argued that romantic Love is an expression of Philia fueled by an intense desire to be near to another and the security that comes from intimacy with that person. Together, these factors intensify feelings of Love to the point of making one feel like they are "in love." Although a single, concrete definition of Love may not be entirely possible, this panel will attempt to further clarify this universal, powerful force.


Abigail Rosenberger (Duncannon, PA) |Morgan-Decker, Tyrone, PA [Dr. Regina Lamendella]
The relationship between fish gut microbiota and organismal and stream mercury concentrations
Previous research has shown mercury (Hg) methylation and demethylation by bacteria is one of the primary mechanisms for bioaccumulation and mercury cycling in aquatic ecosystems. The role of the fish gut in mercury transformation is not currently well understood. This study examines brook trout gut microbial communities and their relationship to fish-specific measures of total Hg (THg) and environmental measures of THg and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in stream water. Water samples and brook trout were collected from 19 streams in northwestern Pennsylvania. Stream water samples collected using ultra trace clean techniques were analyzed for particulate and dissolved measures of THg and MeHg by CVFAS. Fish muscle tissue and organs were analyzed for THg using thermal decomposition (DMA-80). Bacterial DNA was extracted from brook trout gut contents and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using Illumina-tag PCR. Bacteria were assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using QIIME v 1.7 and the 2013 Greengenes database. The abundance of bacterial OTUs was correlated to Hg concentrations using Pearson correlation. The family Enterococcaceae was positively correlated with Hg concentrations in both the fish liver as well as dissolved MeHg in stream water. The order Lactobacillales and family Enterococcaceae showed a strong, positive correlation to both particulate mercury and dissolved methylmercury concentrations in the water and have the potential to demethylate and detoxify mercury and have been shown to contain genes related to Hg resistance, including the Mer operon. The families Desulfovibrionaceae and Dethiosulfovibrionaceae were positively correlated with stream particulate mercury and are known to be mercury methylators. The relationship between these bacteria and Hg concentrations suggests brook trout gut microbiota are responding to differences in environmental Hg concentrations. While further research is warranted, this study highlights which members of the brook trout gut microbiomes are likely involved in the bioaccumulation of mercury.


Timothy Rule (Annville, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Robert Miller]
Contemporary Faith in the Face of the Holocaust: a changing perception of God
The impact of the Holocaust was not just in the damage done to humanity, but also the damage done to the image of God. The traditional Christian God is all-knowing, all-loving, and all-powerful. But can these attributes remain consistent with a God who would "allow" the Holocaust to happen? The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the compelling, revolutionary ideas of German philosopher, Gregory Baum, and invite Christians to rethink what they mean by "God". Can Christians retain their traditional view of God, or is it time to rebuild our contemporary faith with a reworked vision of an all-knowing, all-loving, and all-powerful God?


Timothy Rule (Annville, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Grace Fala]
Emotional Labor and Music Therapy: an analysis of medical field emotion regulation and a potential solution for its negative effects
With so many pre-medical students at Juniata, it is critical that we understand the concept of emotional labor. This is the process that all medical professionals engage in every day in order to maintain their "professional distance" from the patients they serve. What our healers may not know is that their efforts to stay emotionally detached bring out many different physiological and psychological consequences. With emotional exhaustion and weakened immune systems running rampant in the medical field, something needs to be done to address this problem. However, emotional labor is both inevitable and necessary. This presentation will discuss the difficult issue of emotional labor and its negative effects, as well as a potential solution of music therapy integration meant to counter them. ¬


Kelly Russo (San Luis Obispo, CA) [Chuck Yohn]
Comparing Winter Owl Invasions
The winter of 2014 experienced an unprecedented invasion of snowy owls well south of their normal winter range. In many years, snowy owl invasions are correlated with invasions of other boreal owl species, such as great gray owls, boreal owls, and northern hawk owls. We compared historic data of owl invasions to see if such a correlation existed this year and found there was actually an inverse relationship between snowy owl sightings and sightings of other boreal owls. This project also explores possible reasons for this.


Killian Sampo (Lowman, Idaho) [Jim Borgardt]
Innovating the recycling of printed circuit boards and other e-waste



Jessica Scales (Westerly, Rhode Island) [Dr. Jill B. Keeney]
RTT105 in Ty1 retrotransposition: a role in gag particle formation?
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, numerous candidate genes have been identified in genome wide screens to characterize host factors mediating Ty1 transposition. S. cerevisiae contains several families of retrotransposons, with the Ty1 element in highest abundance. Structurally, Ty1 contains long terminal repeat (LTR) regions flanking gag and pol genes that encode proteins required for Ty1 mobility. As a temperature sensitive process, a sharp drop-off in retroelement mobility occurs at temperatures exceeding 30°C. Using a galactose inducible Ty1 element (pGTy1 mobility) to screen for high-copy suppressors of temperature sensitivity, RTT105 (Regulator of Ty1 Transposition) was identified as a positive regulator of Ty1 mobility at high temperature. Subsequent studies reveal that rtt105 deletion reduces Ty1 mobility at permissive temperature. Previously, RTT105 had been found as a negative regulator of Ty1 mobility in a Tn3 mutational insertion screen, utilizing an endogenous Ty1 element. Because the host function of Rtt105 is unknown, fluorescence microscopy has been utilized to identify protein localization. GFP-labeled Rtt105p has been shown to localize to distinct foci in the cytoplasm and prompts localization studies involving cytoplasmic RNA-protein (RNP) compartments. Additionally, colocalization of Rtt105p and Ty1 Gag indicate regulation of cytoplasmic sorting and RNA processing of Gag during the transposition process. Absence of rtt105 causes Ty1 Gag to form larger protein aggregates, but at decreased quantities per cell. Further studies using RNA-seq analysis will investigate the host function of Rtt105 on Ty1 mobility in isogenic wild type and mutant strains. Owing to the functional homology of Ty1 gag and pol to their retroviral counterparts, further studies of RTT105 on Ty1 retromobility may give insight to retroviral life cycles within mammalian cells.


Jessica Scales (Westerly, Rhode Island) [Dr. Jill B. Keeney]
A multifaceted approach to species delimitation: characterizing a novel bryozoan larval form in the NE Pacific
In 2013, three morphologically distinct Gymnolaemate cyphonautes possessing a novel larval form were collected from the North East Pacific Ocean offshore from Charleston, Oregon. Generally, Gymnolaemate cyphonautes retain a vertical ciliated ridge within the exhalent chamber to aid with feeding and movement. Multiple studies by Riisgård et.al (2004) and Strathmann et.al (2006) report that the placement of this ciliated ridge is crucial to deliver algae and assorted food particles to the mouth located at the anterior end of the specimen. Interestingly, cyphonautes collected in the NE Pacific possessed a novel larval form with a horizontally placed ciliated ridge. To determine if specimens retaining this larval form share a common ancestor, multiple nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA loci were sequenced from the three morphologically distinct larvae. Morphological data and pairwise genetic distances calculated from all sequenced loci indicated the presence of two genera comprised by three distinct species of unknown origin. Phylogenetic analyses of all loci revealed that Species 'A' was genetically comparable to Alcyonidioides mytili, while Species 'B' and 'C' were genetically similar to both each other and Anguinella palmate, two species with global populations. Tethering experiments with the three morphologically distinct cyphonautes demonstrated previously undescribed feeding behaviors such as ciliary beating patterns and food particle capturing mechanisms. As a preliminary study, these data represent the presence of three uncharacterized cyphonautes species possessing a novel larval form; however, further extensive sampling approaches and phylogenetic analyses will be required to determine the origin and adaptive advantages of this horizontal ciliated ridge.


Stephanie Scavone (Wapwallopen, Pennsylvania) |Julia Noack-Downingtown, Pennsylvania|Valerie Hersh-Huntingdon, Pennsylvania|-, |-, [Lynn Cockett]
Loves Me, Loves Me Not: "College Students' Ability to Interpret Romantic Interest of Peers"
We studied peers ability to interpret romantic interest of others using a speed dating event. We collected data from 82 participants, which we then analyzed. Specifically, we hypothesized individuals with a background in humanities would be more perceptive of human behavior, than individuals with a scientific background. Additionally, we hypothesized that women would be better at interpreting romantic interest, but men would be better at displaying romantic interest. We concluded that our first hypothesis was invalid because Humanities' students were the worst at interpreting romantic interest of peers. Our second hypothesis was valid showing that females are more in tune with nonverbal immediacy.


Alexandra Schmidt (Westlake, OH) |Abby Nolan-Mifflinburg, Pennsylvania|Alexandra Schmidt-Westlake, Ohio|Luke Gangi-Wellman-Florence, Massachusetts [Jason Chan]
Exposure of C. elegans to Different Bacterial Diets
The human gut encompasses an estimated 1000 different species of bacteria, whose cell counts may be ten-fold greater than human cells. Thus, it's not surprising that the physiology of the gut bacteria is intertwined with that of the host organism. Indeed, gut bacteria are linked to obesity, digestion, and brain function. Our project focuses on sphingolipid signaling pathways that may mediate interactions between the gut microbiome and host. Sphingolipids are lipids found on cell membranes and are bioactive signaling molecules; thus, they are ideally situated to bridge communication between the bacteria and host intestine. To examine how sphingolipids mediate this communication, we utilize the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, which are microscopic roundworms (~1mm long) that feed off soil bacteria. We hypothesize that development in a nutrient rich soil (diverse microbial community) will positively affect growth and neuronal function. To create a nutrient rich soil, we supplemented normal soil with rotting fruit. Preliminary experiments show that both C. elegans wild-type animals and mutants with defects in sphingolipid signaling successfully grow in both soil types. Future experiments will compare wild-type animals with mutants in growth (body size), reproductive capacity (brood size), and neuronal functions in the different soil types. Furthermore, we will use cellular and genomic analyses to explore how the host intestine uses sphingolipids to respond to bacteria. Finally, because sphingolipids also affect bacterial survival and colonization, mutants with defective sphingolipid signaling (and altered sphingolipid membrane composition compared to wild-type) may contain different gut bacteria. To examine this, we will identify different bacterial species in the gut by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene, used to differentiate bacterial species. These experiments will provide a foundation to better understand the components important for bacteria-host communication, and how gut bacteria impact human physiology, behavior and disease.


Arnold Schwemmlein (Huntingdon, PA) [Dr. Pearson]
Interactions between a laser beam and x-rays
It is a famous and counterintuitive result of quantum physics that entities considered waves behave like particles and vice versa. Most frequently, elementary particles, such as electrons, and light particles, photons, are considered. A collision, the interaction typical for particles, is known to occur between two electrons or between an electron and a photon. Following such logic, collisions should also occur between two photons, which is not what current theories suggest. In fact, it is proposed that photons have no particle character when interacting with each other. This study investigates if, despite these theories, photon-photon collisions take place by sending a laser beam through an x-ray beam, and using a low intensity light detector to detect any scattered photons. The evolving experiment will be presented, together with the latest results.


Maria Scudder (Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania) [Larry Mutti]
Fluid inclusion assessment of secondary quartz mineralization near Huntingdon, PA
Fluid inclusion studies of quartz collected from an open vein-fracture system crosscutting Hamilton Group rocks just south of Huntingdon reveal a complex history of quartz growth and fluid entrapment with the vein system. Aqueous inclusions within a single quartz sample show vapor-phase homogenization temperatures, Th, ranging from 269 to 398.3. This diversity in value of Th is surprising giving the lack of conspicuous growth zonation observed in the sample, or evidence of secondary quartz re-mineralization. This pattern of quartz growth and fluid entrapment also contrasts strongly with observations of McGrath (2013) on another sample from the same locality. Assuming a typical geothermal gradient of 25oC/km, a Th value of 333.7 argues for vein mineralization at a depth of at least 13km. Freezing point depression observed in the same suite of aqueous inclusions indicates fluid salinities on the order of 15-20 weight % NaCl equivalent, much more saline than sea water, but less saline than the most common oilfield brines. These results, taken in combination, suggest diverse sourcing of the fluids responsible for vein mineral growth. Non-aqueous inclusions occur alongside the aqueous inclusions. Freezing studies on these single-phase gas inclusions indicate entrapment of nearly pure methane, which was most likely sourced from the black organic-rich shale of the Marcellus Fm lying immediately beneath the rocks sampled in this occurrence, and suggest that at least locally a significant amount of gas escaped from the sedimentary basin rather than remaining trapped within this normally tight reservoir rock. The occurrence of nearly pure methane gas in inclusions is in contrast to inclusions bearing gas condensates and liquid petroleum collected less than two miles away in similar quartz veins in overlying strata of the Braillier Fm. (Curry, 2012)


Khine Sein (Yangon, Myanmar) |Colin Brislawn-Olympia, Washington|Danielle Boothe-Kingston, Jamaica [Regina Lamendella]
Exploring the Microbiome of Beer
The brewing industry utilizes microorganisms that play a significant role in beer production. Microorganisms can aid in the quality and flavor of beers, but also can disrupt the means of production. Microorganisms are extremely diverse and are able to thrive throughout the beer production process. The purpose of this study is to track the microbial communities within the brewing process as a way to optimize the quality controls within the brewing process.
Beer samples from the different stages of the brewing process were collected from microbreweries located in the state of Pennsylvania. Genomic DNA was extracted and the16S rRNA V4 hypervariable region was amplified using itag PCR. Samples were sequenced using the Illumina Miseq platform and the data will be analyzed using the QIIME bioinformatics pipeline. The results of this study will provide a better understanding of the microbial communities associated with beer during various steps in the brewing process and will provide a baseline for determining potential microbial populations relevant to flavor profiles and beer spoilage.
This technology will be useful to breweries to help better inform quality controls in the brewing. This project will be made into a business in association with Juniata College Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership (JCEL).


Hannah Shultz (Baltimore , Maryland) [Don Braxton]
Religious Tradition and Intergroup Contact in Predicting Christian College Student's Attitudes toward Homosexuality
Recent years have indicated a trend toward greater acceptance of homosexuality in mainstream American society. However, research has shown continued resistance from theologically conservatively Christians. Based on these two social tendencies, this research focuses on the attitudes about homosexuality held by Christian students on campus. An important element of the research looks at the effect of social interaction with gays and lesbians on overriding religious beliefs and changing attitudes. Participants completed an anonymous questionnaire that measured their attitudes towards homosexuality, their religiosity and their degree of social interaction. Results were consistent with previous studies and indicated a positive correlation between high levels of religiosity and low scores of acceptance. The research also concluded that increased social interaction and exposure to homosexuality led to higher degrees of acceptance. Some of the results deviated from other studies and these differences are explained. Implications for the future of religion and homosexuality on college campuses are discussed.


Alexander Sickler (Edwardsville, Pennsylvania) [Vincent Buonaccorsi]
ddRADseq Analysis of Genomic Divergence Patterns in Six Pacific Rockfishes (Genus Sebastes)
Pacific rockfishes, are comprised of over 120 different species, a majority of which are clustered in coastal waters between Alaska and Baja California. An open question in evolutionary biology is what type and how many changes occur within genomes at different stages of the speciation process. To explore how rockfish genomes have diverged during speciation, a double digestion restriction enzyme associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) protocol was used to randomly sequence 100,000 different loci from three species pairs of rockfishes that differ in time since speciation, and proposed speciation mechanism. Data was analyzed using the Stacks pipeline, and reads were mapped to a reference genome from another rockfish. Divergence times were estimated for highly divergent regions using the Isolation with Migration program to identify genes that diverged earliest in the speciation process. Genome wide patterns of diversity and divergence are also contrasted among the three species pairs.


Alexander Sickler (Edwardsville, Pennsylvania) [Vincent Buonaccorsi]
ddRADseq Analysis of Genomic Divergence Patterns in Six Pacific Rockfishes (Genus Sebastes)
Pacific rockfishes, are comprised of over 120 different species, a majority of which are clustered in coastal waters between Alaska and Baja California. An open question in evolutionary biology is what type and how many changes occur within genomes at different stages of the speciation process. To explore how rockfish genomes have diverged during speciation, a double digestion restriction enzyme associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) protocol was used to randomly sequence 100,000 different loci from three species pairs of rockfishes that differ in time since speciation, and proposed speciation mechanism. Data was analyzed using the Stacks pipeline, and reads were mapped to a reference genome from another rockfish. Divergence times were estimated for highly divergent regions using the Isolation with Migration program to identify genes that diverged earliest in the speciation process. Genome wide patterns of diversity and divergence are also contrasted among the three species pairs.


Sarah Simeone (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) [Jackie Kaminski]
Rankings in Round Robin Tournaments
Imagine a round robin tournament where we want to rank the teams. There are multiple ways to rank such a tournament because every team plays everyone else. After the tournament is played and teams have won and lost their games, how many possible rankings are there? Graph theory can be used to determine the answer to this question. Starting from the simplest case where the "best" team wins every game and the second "best" team beats all but the "best" team, etc., we analyze specific cases to find patterns. These patterns ultimately result in formulas for the number of rankings based on how different the outcomes are from that simplest case. The simplest formula will be presented as well as an explanation for why it works. This is the original work of the presenters.


Ashley Snyder (Huntingdon, Pennsylvania) |IT 375 Class-, [Marlene Burkhardt]
Technology Management Project Demos
Managing Advanced Technologies class has created a number of technology demonstrations/research projects including:

1.
The Cloud: Cloud software is quickly taking the IT world by storm, becoming ever more prevalent in companies and organizations around the world. This semester, a couple Managing Advanced Technology students were able to successfully develop a beta version of a cloud using ownCloud open source software and VMware virtual machine technology. Our hope is that Juniata finds a way to implement this solution into its technology suite.

2.
3-D Printing: Students from the class have acquired a 3D printer with the goal of printing and selling finalized products, rather than creating and testing prototype projects. Examples of products can be found on Thingiverse.com. We will also work with customers to design a custom product of their own design Anybody can submit a design or ideas to our Facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/JC3DPrinting.
3.
Evaluation of Course Management/Moodle: Students have developed a survey assessing different types of course management, specifically focusing on Moodle. Some of our questions also address student's feelings about online learning in general and whether or not it is effective.

4.
Fitness Blog: Students are creating a blog centered around health and fitness directed at Juniata students. Our goal is to educate students and faculty alike in how they can more feasibly live a healthier lifestyle.

5.
Emerging Technologies Blog: This group is developing a blog that features interesting gadgets and useful information about emerging technologies. It incorporates interviews and videos as well as other information formats that showcase new technologies.


Taylor Stefanik (South Fork, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Daniel Dries]
Identifying transcriptional changes in an oligodendrocyte-specific conditional knockout mouse
γ-secretase is a proteolytic complex involved in development and implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. We recently developed a conditional knockout mouse in which γ-secretase was specifically deleted from oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the brain. The conditional knockout mouse had a profound neurological phenotype, including hyperactivity and decreased prepulse inhibition. Here, we use RNA-seq to compare the transcriptional profiles of conditional knockout and control mice in an effort to identify a set of candidate genes that may explain the complex neurological phenotype of our conditional knockout mouse.


Cara Stough (Friendsville, MD) [Dr. Baran]
The study of cupric complexes with naringenin as possible species in wine.
Wine is a complex aqueous solution, and while the components in the wine matrix have been characterized, very little is know about their complex equillbria. The metallic and organic species present in wine are capable of forming coordination complexes. This research focuses on cupric salts with metal ions in the oxidation state II and the polyphenolic compound naringenin. The behavior of polyphenolic compounds are of particular interest because they impact the organoleptic properties of the wine. Stoichiometric syntheses conducted under standard state conditions and reflux with varying salt to naringenin molar ratios were performed. Copper (II) salts were also used to study the possible formation of ternary complexes with naringenin and citric or tartaric acids, and to study the effects of temperature, pH, solvent, and stoichiometric ratio on the formation of coordination complexes. Characterization of isolated products with IR, melting point, elemental analysis, and solubility will be discussed as clues to the structure of these coordination complexes. Most of the isolated products appear to be inorganic polymers that are most likely metal deficient.


Nathan Strom (Ebensburg , Pennsylvania) [Dr. Peter Baran]
Synthesis and characterization of reduced Schiff base ligands and their complexes
There has been a lot of work done in the field of Schiff base complexes and their magnetic and biological properties. However, work on reduced Schiff base ligands is less extensive. Four new Schiff base ligands were synthesized via condensations of salicylaldehyde with β-alanine, α-amino-isobutyric acid, β-amino-iosbutyric acid, and γ-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Reductions with sodium borohydride yielded corresponding amines. Characterization of all isolated ligands and their first row transition metal complexes will be discussed.


Zachary Strouse (Renovo, Pennsylvania) [Alison Fletcher]
"His Little Shimmy Torn Open": A Crisis of Masculine Identity in Rudyard Kipling's Kim
Edward Said in his acclaimed Orientalism describes how colonial authority in the British Empire was maintained through interpreting and appropriating the culture of its Eastern colonies through a Western lens, legitimizing its dominance through an accumulation of this often-fabricated knowledge. This acted to separate Empire into interlinking dichotomies: white and 'native', masculine and feminine, dominant and subservient. British men serving in the colonial Raj were then held as pillars of white imperial authority, an authority dependent on their exhibition of masculine virility, physical prowess, and unquestionable honor. Yet in Rudyard Kipling's Kim, a novel published at the height of New Imperial anxieties over the sustainability of British authority overseas, his titular white male hero threatens these carefully constructed roles. Kim's guile, deceit and 'feminine' trickery exhibited throughout the narrative reject traditional British hypermasculinity: which is problematic, considering Kim's place in the canon of British literature. Included in Baden-Powells Scouting for Boys, essentially a New Imperial manual for British manhood, an engendered reading of the arch-imperialist Kipling's Kim uncoveres a crisis of white masculine identity whose fractures reverberate across Empire, and change our understanding of both the text and the British man.


Leila Terrab (Tangier, Morocco) |Andrew Kalbach-New Castle, Delaware [Dr. Unger]
Developing a Synthesis of α-Diazoamides
Carbenes that are stabilized by an anionic β-heteroatom have been shown to have
unique nucleophilic reactivity. While carboxylate carbenes have been synthesized and
their physical properties have been studied, the analogous amidate carbenes, which
have the potential to serve as important building blocks for organic synthesis, have not
yet been realized. This body of research investigates two different strategies that would
allow the synthesis of α-diazoamides, the immediate precursors of amidate carbenes.
One strategy involves accessing α-diazoamides from benzoyl cyanide through a three
step procedure. The other strategy investigates the use and derivatization of α-
diazocarboxylic acids as starting materials. The development and optimization of each
strategy will be reported.


Tessa Thomas (Huntingdon, Pennsylvania) |Harris Cauler-Moorestown, New Jersey|Alexander Hansen-Reynoldsburg, Ohio|Samuel Hairston-Darnestown, Maryland [William Thomas]
Innovations for Industry - Mutual Benefit Group
We have four students on the Innovations for Industry team from Juniata College working with Mutual Benefit Group to deliver two projects. The first is an automated system of determining the month-end date. The second is creating new screens on the company's intranet to allow users to modify base tables of different pricing structures. The projects must be completed by April 25, 2014.

We are using Microsoft SQL Server 2005 and Visual Studio 2010 to develop intranet pages that allow MBG staff to view a list of month-end dates up to and including ten years in the future. MBG staff will have the ability to add, edit, and delete holidays, which will be kept in a database table. We developed an interface that allows a user to select a year or month and the month-end date(s) will be displayed in both a list view and calendar view.

There are 57 homeowner's tables that are not currently a part of the Mutual Benefit Group intranet. Our team is working to create data entry screens that allow MBG staff to search through table data, update or expired records, and add additional records to a specific database table. Some of these tables will also have the ability to update multiple records at one time.

The design for the intranet screens for the additional tables are based off of the current Homeowner's table screens. Each screen will contain form elements with options that can be used to search through the specific table and narrow-down results. Beneath the search options is where the results will be displayed.


Tessa Thomas (Huntingdon, Pennsylvania) [Sarah DeHaas]
Classroom Technology Research
Last semester I completed an independent study researching instructional technology at three local colleges. I had the privilege of visiting and interviewing college staff from three regional colleges/universities. The first area I researched was online learning, software they used, and employees who were involved. I researched classroom technology and how it was being used. I discussed with different faculty and staff members their technology resources including hardware (smartboards, laptops, ipads) and software (iMovie, Garageband, Microsoft office). Next I visited the Information Technology help desks and labs. I discussed their hours of operation, number of employees, and technology available for use. I also reviewed each college's help desk student employees and the roles they had as Instructional Technology employees.

With this research I have found many concepts to implement at Juniata College referring to online learning and the Technology Solutions Center. I have been working to improve the Technology Solutions Center and discussing new ways to create online classes. This research project was very informative for me due to my Instructional Technology Program of Emphasis and training manager job at the Technology Solutions Center.


Henry Thurston-Griswold (Huntingdon, PA) |Gabriela Atayde-Santa Ana, CA|Laura Berman-Frederick, MD|Madison Caso-Venetia, PA|Amber Castro-Alhambra, CA|Tyler Fletcher-Street, MD|Elizabeth Fuhrman-Fort Worth, TX|Andrea Gonzalez-Santa Ana, CA|Kaleigh Herron-Croton-on-Hudson, NY|Elainea Hess-Hopewell, PA|Michael Holt-Newark, DE|Jillian Loomis-Center Valley, PA|Sean Mann-York, PA|Ryan Mull-DPO, AE|Jillian Murphy-Chester, VT|Emily Ritter-Pennsylvania Furnace, PA|Katherine Thurston-Griswold-Huntingdon, PA|Anvy Tran-Boston, MA|Michael Wechsler-West Hempstead, NY [Henry Thurston-Griswold]
Spanish Short Film Festival
This semester's Spanish Conversation & Composition class will screen the six digital projects produced by the class this semester, utilizing the format of a short film festival in which the 5-6 minute "cortos" will be premiered and evaluated by a panel of judges and the audience.


Teresa Turmanian (Gaithersburg, Maryland) |Olivia Hockenbroch-Harrisburg, Pennsylvania|Kyle Schuck-Selinsgrove, Pa [Lynn Cockett]
Investigation of Possible Gender Differences in Length and Direction of Eye Gaze
Eye contact plays a vital role in the communication process. Previous research has shown that there could be differences between gender. We conducted our research as a replication of a study from fifty years ago to see whether a difference could still be seen. What are the social implications of the differences? Our study found that there was a difference of eye behaviors, but the findings were inconclusive.


Zhonghong Tu (Chengdu, Sichuan) [Loren Rhodes]
Data Mining Technologies and User Behavior
To understand users' behavior is becoming more essential in the current market. Resulting from the development of data mining techniques, we are able to analyze users' behavior based on the large data sets now. In order to benefit from the Web industry, applying data mining techniques will contribute to analyzing data structure and discovering potential monetary profits.


Laura Vannucci (New Fairfield, CT) [Dr. Thorpe Halloran]
Reintroduction and Colonization of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in a Chronically AMD Impaired Stream
Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected and subsequently transported between two adjacent streams in South Central, PA. The first stream, Miller Run, is an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) impacted stream outside of Dudley, PA. It is a first order cold water tributary of Shoup Run, which has been identified as a potential Superfund Site under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Over the last 10 years the Miller Run system has been remediated through a passive acid mine drainage treatment system, however it is suspected that certain episodic areas may have untreated water entering the system. Yellow Branch, a stream adjacent to the Miller Run watershed, near Cooks, PA, is a first order freestone creek that has had significant degradation of both its headwaters and terminus resulting from cattle grazing. This agricultural activity has altered nutrient cycles, bank stability, and overall ecological integrity in the system, however relatively pristine conditions exists in its mid-reaches. Preliminary studies have indicated that Miller Run has a significant brook trout population but lacks benthic macroinvertebrates, and that Yellow Branch has a healthy benthic macroinvertebrate population midstream, however it lacked salmonids. The objectives of this study are to collect, transport and introduce benthic macroinvertebrates from Yellow Branch using leaf packs to the Miller Run system. This is a baseline study to develop protocols that will facilitate the introduction of benthic macroinvertebrates into depauperate aquatic systems such as Miller Run. Eventually, as part of a concerted and long term natural resource management strategy, microhabitats in Miller Run will be improved to create a greater diversity of trophic levels within the stream. This will include creating more root wads for bank stabilization and pool riffle complexes to provide quality habitats for colonization.


Maximillian von Thaden (Flemington, New Jersey) |Maximillian von Thaden-Flemington, New Jersey [Dr. Mark Pearson]
Robotics : Remote Control of Raspberry Pi robot using Bluetooth technology
Raspberry Pi is a flexible, inexpensive, credit card sized computer platform, which is capable of the same functions that laptops and desktops perform. The portability of this device makes it ideal for applications that require a devoted computer, which is neither bulky or expensive. Raspberry Pi is therefore ideal for remote controlled robotics using a remote computer to communicate and command the Raspberry Pi to perform specific actions. This kind of system would be ideal for data collection in hazardous environments or if it is more reasonable for a small computer to collect the data. The goal of the project would be to create a basic robot system that could be remotely controlled from another computer. The latest robot system will be presented.


Alexis Waksmunski (Northern Cambria , Pennsylvania) |Alexis Waksmunski -Northern Cambria , Pennsylvania [Dr. Skelly]
Banal Nationalism and American Girl Dolls
Banal nationalism is all around us. In the United States banal nationalism is used to implicitly remind its citizens of their national identity or belonging. It recreates the nation in the eyes of its citizens. Based on Michael Billig's book Banal Nationalism, this presentation will focus on how the American Girl Doll Company tries to represent what is means to be an American girl and thereby creating for them a culture, a community, and a history they can relate to and idealize. Banal nationalism is when the culture surrounding a society is filled with national symbols and ideals without the public being entirely aware of it. Though this is a banal or implicit socialization, it has a profound impact on society. The American Girl Doll company has been in the industry for decades and uses specific techniques to give young girls a sense of national pride and identity. It utilizes historical, modern, and look-a-like-dolls while trying to be all encompassing and representative of girls and their interests today. The American Girl Doll company uses its ideology to create these historical, modern, and look-a-like dolls to demonstrate its banal nationalist qualities and by teaching girls how to understand themselves and the world around them. The girls are meant to take for granted that they are playing with American Girl Dolls and to begin to see the dolls as an extension of their own self-image. Although banal nationalism exists in male oriented toys there is no common equivalent of the American Girl Dolls for boys. What has happened is the creation of gendered nationalism targeting young children with the toys they play with. The American Girl Doll Company attempts at creating a shared national identity within a subgroup of the American population.


Andrea Waksmunski (Northern Cambria, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Regina Lamendella]
HUMAnN gut metabolic pathways associated with Crohn's disease
Although numerous advancements have been made in metagenomic studies, there are few effective ways to analyze the data. HUMAnN is a pipeline that could be used to determine the presence/absence and relative abundance of microbial pathways in a community from metagenomic data. The outputs produced describe the abundance of each orthologous gene family in the community, the presence/absence of each pathway in the community, and the relative abundance of each pathway in the community. In this study, we established a workflow for the use of HUMAnN on a Crohn's Disease gut metagenome dataset and determined the metabolic pathways present in the microbial communities of the Crohn's Disease patients and their relative abundances. The most abundant pathways included those involved in metabolism and genetic information processing. Future directions for this study include using this pipeline to compare our results to data from healthy patients to find differentially abundant metabolic pathways between the two groups.


Andrea Waksmunski (Northern Cambria, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Vincent Buonaccorsi]
De novo genome assembly in the rougheye rockfish, Sebastes aleutianus
Massively parallel sequencing technology has radically changed approaches to biological problems in the last five years. However, assembly of short, raw shotgun sequences into high-quality genomes remains challenging. De novo genome assembly programs attempt to piece together an organism's chromosomes from millions to billions of short reads of DNA without introducing errors. In de novo genome assembly from short read datasets, true overlaps between read segments called k-mers are found, false overlaps are avoided, and contigs and scaffolds are built from overlapping reads. While current genome assemblers can produce useful representations of genome structures, assemblers vary greatly in error correction strategy, algorithmic approach, speed, hardware requirements, and performance on alternative data structures. Error-corrected data has been shown to produce better assemblies, which are more connected and representative of the sequenced genome. Without a reference genome, superior assemblies are comprised of lower numbers of longer genome segments. I aim to determine the best de novo assembly method to obtain a more representative (820MBp) flag rockfish (Sebastes aleutianus) genome. This genome will be assembled with large genome assemblers called Ray, SPAdes, SOAPdenovo2, and ALLPATHS-LG using the computer cluster at Juniata College. These assemblers will be performed with varying error correction strategies, on flag rockfish, as well as other "practice" genomes of lower size and complexity. The best draft genome obtained in this project will be annotated with the software pipeline MAKER and compared to the sister species that does not exhibit negligible senescence with comparative genome analysis tools to compare gene models and variable sites that may be responsible for longevity differences among rockfishes.


Miranda Wales (Hollidaysburg, PA) [Hannah Bellwoar]
Red Lipstick



Colleen Wall (Altoona, PA) [Alison Fletcher]
Performing the Self: Fancy Dress and Spectacle in the Bright Young People
Wild, elusive, sometimes vulgar, and always ostentatious, the Bright Young People became the shimmering hallmark of London social life during the 1920s. Their lavish parties and blatant sense of rebellion made for the ultimate tabloid fodder, creating a spectacle so shocking and so dazzling that the British public could not dare to look away. The interwar period in Britain was characterized by changing modes of production, new commodity markets, increased levels of urbanization and democratization, and an obsession with the self. The modern self was largely brought into being through the performance of the body, and clothing played a significant role in allowing the individual to sculpt a public image. This presentation will examine the ways in which the Bright Young People used fancy dress as a means of constructing and deconstructing their visual identities. Fancy dress allowed for both an escape from the self and in some cases, yielded a more accurate representation of personal identity free from the gendered social constraints of modern British society.


Yulun Wang (Beijing, China) [Dr.Richard Hark]
The synthesis and mass spectrometric study of deuterium labeled 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene tribenzyl ether
It was previously reported that the collision-induced dissociation of the Na+ adduct ions of pyrogallol tribenzyl ethers generated by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-CID) results in what is presumed to be the rapid loss of two of the adjacent benzyl groups to form the Na+ adduct ions of stable ortho-quinone structures.1,2 We recently described the synthesis of two isotopomeric derivatives of this triether, one with a d7-benzyl group at the 2-position and another with d7-benzyl groups at both the 1- and 3-positions. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that, surprisingly, loss of the central benzyl group is substantially favored. In order to learn more about the fragmentation patterns of these benzylated polyphenolic compounds, we prepared derivatives of 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene with benzyl groups containing zero, two, and seven deuterium atoms and studied them using EI and ESI mass spectrometry. Differentially deuterated benzyl bromide could be selectively condensed at first with the 4- and then the 2-positions of 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone using potassium carbonate in dry DMF at 100 ºC. Subsequent Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement utilizing peracetic acid followed by hydrolysis was employed to convert the acetophenone derivative to the corresponding phenol, which was then benzylated at the 1-position. Complete characterization of all products using 1H and 13C NMR will be presented along with a discussion of the mass spectrometric results.


Michael Weintraub (,) [Wade Roberts]
Identity Categories and the Consumer Imperative
I would like to explore the construction as well as the maintenance of contemporary Western identity narratives and cultural rhetoric through readings of several recent philosophers such as Michel Foucault, Judith Butler, Gilles Deleuze and Slavoj Zizek. I intend to investigate the functional byproducts of the post-modernist consumption imperative along with how this aligns with appeals to affective hyper-individualized understandings of the self. In doing so I will attempt to illustrate how identity categories of various sorts act as disciplinary mechanisms in what are ultimately futile attempts to regulate through inscription upon the body a multiplicity of ongoing ontological processes of becoming. In addition to this, I wish to consider the modes by which individuals both constantly embrace and grapple with such identitarian micro-political conflicts which are then constituted or embodied in a performative manner. The desires to perform such bodily and speech utterances, even in as intended methods of supposed resistance, must be reconsidered as socially constructed and regulated by the demands derived from capitalist ideology for immaterial labor.


Michael Weintraub (Oakland, California) |Christian Eichenmuller -, |Michael Ebeling-, |Adam Cline-, [Christian Eichenmuller]
Privacy and Surveillance in the Digital Age



Yuqing Wei (Shenzhen, Guangdong) [Neil Pelkey]
The potential risks of the Three Gorges Dam
As the Three Gorges Dam is one of the biggest hydrology project in China, the location is the mid-downstream of Yangtze River, it is associated with a series of risks. Based on the application of the software Arcgis, we can visualize in a macro perspective to see what and where are the potential risks and how its location is important and also might be problematic.


Silvia Weko (Rockville, Maryland) [James Roney]
Education and Equality in Germany
How do we measure a quality education, and what does that reflect about our values? The findings of recent international tests, in particular by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), reveal the need for a more humanist overall approach to education, instead of focusing a solely skills-based outcome.
I will outline the history of the German school system and ongoing international testing, and address the revelation of long-standing inequalities in what was perceived to be non-stratified society. The structure of German schools means that students have good basic skills and are well trained for their specific vocations, and that future locations in the adult labor force are extremely predictable. Unfortunately, the cost of this highly structured approach is that Germans are not permitted to change tracks and their future is determined in primary school. Students' capabilities are limited by a system that punishes a lack of parental help with a fast-track to graduation and lower-paying jobs after the 9th grade. Educational resources are reserved for "more ambitious" students who continue to the 13th grade and universities. In the case of disadvantaged Germans, who are disproportionately of migrant backgrounds, this amounts to a violation of their right to education. Although socialism is mainstream in German healthcare, German politics, and unemployment benefits, the German education system still perpetuates class structures that have existed since its conception.


Ryan Wickes (Oakdale, New York) |Josh Jessell-, |Lukas Baca-, | Hengying Wang-, [Brad Andrew]
Eagle Fund Update
The Eagle fund is a student managed portfolio valued at over $100,000. The Eagle fund is broken up by three strategies: Buy and Hold Value Equity 15%, Allocated buy and hold 55%, and a momentum based strategy employing relative strength and timing 30%. Portfolio managers will be discussing some of recent performance of the Eagle Fund including how the relative strength and timing strategy works, special situations and trading decisions that have contributed to the fund's performance over the academic year.


Erik Wijmans (Menlo Park, CA) [Mark Pearson]
Methods of Wireless Data Collection
Wireless data transmission is a useful tool to collect data in situations where wired data collection is either impractical or impossible. Many modern day single-board computers are capable of communicating wirelessly and sending data at very high speeds. This, coupled with the fact that they are small and portable, makes them perfect platforms for experimental data collection. In this project an IntelGalileo single-board computer, incorporating a laptop grade WiFi card, was utilized to create a wireless data transmission system. Data was uploaded directly to Plot.ly, a data hosting and analysis website, where analysis could be carried out. The latest working system will be presented.


Paige Williams (Dallas, Pennsylvania) [Dennis Plane]
The big problem of Big Oil
This presentation will focus on the ways Big Oil corporations have an effect on the energy policies of the United States through lobbying and monetary contributions.


Cassandra Wisyanski (Export, Pennsylvania) [Vince Buonaccorsi]
Rockfish ORA gene comparisons
One comparison of rockfish genomes hypothesized that the diverse speciation of rockfish was due in part to the way they recognize mates. It was hypothesized that this was done by a specific olfactory gene. No such gene was found, in fact the olfactory genes between the two species of rockfish (S. rubrivinctus and S. nigrocinctus) in the study were found to be quite similar with no significant differences (Epstein). By adding more species to this comparison, I hope to be able to extend this thesis by adding data from additional species of teleosts to the analysis. By doing so I hope to be able to show the high conservation that is hypothesized to be present among olfactory genes in teleosts and to fill in evolutionary gaps caused by our lack of characterization or identification of teleost olfactory genes by seeing how they compare throughout different species within teleosts and analyzing how they compare evolutionarily. To expand the current knowledge of the olfactory genes within teleosts, I will be comparing the Sebastes rubrivinctus genome constructed by other members of the lab to additional teleost genomes from the UCSC and possibly other sources. Overall I will be comparing nine species to our flag rockfish, these include the following: Atlantic cod, coelacanth, fugu, lamprey, zebra fish, tetraodon, stickleback, Nile tilapia and medaka. These ten total genomes will be compared using the relatively new online platform, CoGe (Comparative Genomics). CoGe, according to their CoGepedia page is, "a online system for making the retrieval and comparison of genomic information and sequence data quick and easy." CoGe is especially suited to our tasks because through two other tools (SynMap and GEvo) within the platform regions of synteny, which I am especially interested in, can be easily compared.


Alexandra Witter (Short Hills, NJ) |Gabrielle Cannon-Hummelstown, PA [Roy Nagle]
Overwintering in the nest by hatchling box turtles (Terrapene carolina) at the Raystown Field Station
Hatchling turtles sometimes remain in natal nests throughout fall and winter, a phenomenon known as overwintering. We examined nest emergence of hatchling Terrapene carolina at the Raystown Field Station. Females nested during June 2013 and nests were fenced and monitored throughout fall and winter until the following spring. Temperature loggers were installed in December to determine thermal characteristics of nests during winter. Nests were excavated and examined in March and hatchling survival assessed. Live hatchlings were found in a nest that reached a temperature of -2 C and a dead hatchling was found in a nest that reached -4.3 C. Insulating snow cover was important to hatchling survival. Our study documents overwintering in the nest by hatchling T. carolina and confirms laboratory studies that describe freeze tolerance of box turtles to about -3 C.


Alexandra Witter (Short Hills, NJ) |Gabrielle Cannon-Hummelstown, PA [Roy Nagle]
Ecology of box turtles (Terrapene carolina) at the Raystown Field Station
The eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina) inhabits Pennsylvania's deciduous forests, fields and forest-field ecotones, and because of population declines, is listed as a species of special concern. Using mark-recapture and radio telemetry, box turtles have been studied at the Raystown Field Station since 1998. A total of 312 individual T. carolina have been captured and marked over 16 years, and we examined their population ecology and behavior. Using the Lincoln index, we estimated the population to be 403 individuals. The adult sex ratio was 1.2 females: 1 male, which was significantly different than a 1:1 ratio. Biomass was estimated to be 1.4 kg/ha. Males were larger than females, but females were on average slightly heavier than males. Juveniles represented less than five percent of the Raystown population. We suggest conservation measures that may help ensure continued population viability.


Aaron Womer (Shermans Dale, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Jill Keeney]
Identifying the RTT105 Active Site by Mutation of Highly Conserved Residues
Characterizing RTT105: Identifying Putative Active Domains in a Gene Product of Unknown Function. The subject of my research is Rtt105, a gene of unknown function in saccharomyces cerevisiae which has been shown to have a dual phenotype as a regulator of the Ty1 retrotransposable element, dependent on the expression under a galactose promoter. My research involves cloning orthologous genes which are present in 5 non-saccharomyces yeast species and expressing them in S. cerevisiae. A transposition assay is used to quantify the relative frequency of retrotransposition events under regulation of the various Rtt105 orthologs. The power of the ortholog protein's Ty1 regulation can be related to conserved regions in its sequence alignment with wild-type RTT105, thus identifying putative active domains of the orthologous proteins.


Katrina Woods (Shirleysburg , PA) |Emily Anne Moore -Winston-Salem, NC [Roy Nagle]
Nest Site Fidelity of Juniata River Map Turtles (Graptemys geographica) near Mount Union, PA.
Map turtles (Graptemys geographica) are riverine turtles noted for their female-biased sexual size dimorphism, and are a species of conservation concern in Pennsylvania. In this study we analyzed eight years of data collected at Mount Union from 2000-2008, a major nesting site in Pennsylvania near the Juniata River, to determine if map turtles exhibit nest-site fidelity. Nest-site fidelity is the tendency for individual females to return to the same location to lay eggs and may have important consequences for this long-lived species. We calculated distances between nests for individual females both among-years and within-season (first and second clutches) and compared them to distances between randomly selected pairs of G. geographica nests. Three lines of evidence suggest that female map turtles exhibit nest-site fidelity. First, the frequency distribution of nest distances among-years for individual females was positively skewed, with the greatest number of distances < 100m. Second, distances between among-year nests were significantly smaller than those between randomly paired nests. Third, we found a significant positive correlation between number of years between nests and nest distances. Finding that female map turtles display nest-site fidelity at Mount Union indicates that maintaining the integrity of this valuable nesting site may be essential for protecting this species.


Justin Wright (Montclair, New Jersey) [Dr. Lamendella]
Investigation of microbial community structure within the Huntingdon County Wasterwater Treatent Plant to identify potential unwanted biofilm formers.
Methanol addition is a critical step in the wastewater treatment process to help remove nitrogen from effluent water. However, at a treatment facility in Huntingdon, PA, an unwanted biofilm appears to be forming after the addition of methanol and, as a result, it is slowing the treatment process. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the microbial communities and their relationship with chemical metadata within biofilm and water samples after the addition of methanol, to see if any trends in community structure may point to potential biofilm formers. After DNA was extracted from both biofilm and water samples collected from multiple sites within the treatment facility (both before and after the addition of methanol), the hypervariable V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The QIIME bioinformatics pipeline was used to quality filter and annotate the sequence data. Interestingly, a steep increase in the abundance of the order Methyophiales was observed in biofilm samples after the addition of methanol. Additionally, alpha diversity metrics showed that species richness was much greater in water samples in comparison to their biofilm counter part. The significant increase in the order Methylophiales potentially implicates the reason for the biofilm formation, as a genus within that order has been connected to the formation of a particular biofilm matrix known as extracellular polymetric substance (EPS). Additionally, the significant difference in species richness between biofilm and water samples in conjunction with a high number of shared OTUs conserved across 100% of both samples may imply that the biofilm community composition is a subset of its respective water sample collected from the same location. Additional samples are currently being collected from the treatment facility to further assess the impact of methanol addition on microbial community structure and function.


Shayna Yeates (Alburtis, Pennsylvania) |Tristan Avelis-Hebron, Connecticut|Abigail Rosenberger-Duncannon, Pennsylvania [Xinli Wang]
An Open Discussion on the Philosophies of Love: An Interdisciplinary and Modern Interpretation
What is Love? Love is a dynamic and highly influential force experienced by humanity. Countless individuals have attempted to understand its nature in order to gain clarity over this force's vague definition. This panel will attempt to further the understanding of Love through three unique and different interpretations. First is a more formal description of Love based on the three types: Philia, Agape, and Eros. Philia is the name given to "Brotherly" Love, Agape is that of "Godly" Love, and Eros is that of "Erotic" Love. There are a few combinations to be discussed: Agape-Eros, Philia-Agape, and Eros-Philia-Agape. Each of these combinations, in a sense, prioritizes each type and can be used to further expand the understanding of Love in its different forms. The second concerns whether Love can truly and equally be reciprocated when the definition of mutuality depends on sameness. Under this assumption of sameness, only partners who are equal with nothing to gain over the other can attain this state. This implies that mutuality cannot exist in the presence of difference. However, a fuller sense of self can be attained by accepting differences rather than striving to change and neutralize the differences found in others as required by sameness; these differences should be embraced and used as the framework for mutuality. Finally, based on the traditions of Philia and Eros, it is argued that romantic Love is an expression of Philia fueled by an intense desire to be near to another and the security that comes from intimacy with that person. Together, these factors intensify feelings of Love to the point of making one feel like they are "in love." Although a single, concrete definition of Love may not be entirely possible, this panel will attempt to further clarify this universal, powerful force.


Mara Zimmerman (Los Angeles, CA) [Dr. Matthew Beaky]
Determining Physical Parameters of Eclipsing Binary Systems Containing Delta Scuti Pulsating Stars: A Photometric Analysis of TU Her and V469 Cyg
Eclipsing binary star systems contain two stars which orbit a common center of mass. As they orbit, the light from each star is blocked as the other passes in front of it, allowing us to observe a primary and secondary eclipse. Approximately 70 eclipsing binary star systems are known to contain a pulsating delta Scuti star. The oscillations of the delta Scuti star, which can be observed in the light curve, provide additional information about the internal structure of the star. Two star systems, TU Her and V469 Cyg, were observed at both Juniata College and Lowell Observatory. The data were collected and analyzed over ten weeks during June and July of 2013. Nearly complete light curves in blue, visual, red and infrared filters were obtained and analyzed for both targets. Data for the targets were collected using Juniata College's sixteen inch Meade LX200 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and Lowell Observatory's thirty one inch NURO telescope. Data were analyzed using MaxIm DL photometry to obtain the photometric light curves. The resulting light curves were analyzed in Peranso to verify the previously reported orbital period and to determine the pulsation frequency of the delta Scuti star. The photometric data were further analyzed using Binary Maker 3 and PHOEBE eclipsing binary modeling software to determine fundamental physical parameters of both stars in the eclipsing binary systems.