Molly Adler (,) [James Roney]
Olympism and Ideology: An analysis of the conflict inherent in global sporting events
The purpose of this presentation is to contrast the 1980 Olympic games in Moscow and the 2014 Olympic games in Sochi and to explore the tensions present during both games. Despite the prominence of the Olympic games before the second world war, in the post-war era the olympic games came to stand for more than their original mission of bringing countries together. The Olympic games became a way for countries to prove their might without the inevitable body count of war and to promote unity between countries despite international tensions. While some contemporaries found this trade off appealing, analyzing the benefits of strengthening diplomatic ties with countries and using competition to lessen the bloodlust and some found the practice distasteful and harmful to national peace and understanding. Olympics are when a country puts its best foot forward, usually by sweeping less desirable traits under the rug. "In the post cold war world international sporting competition has, among certain circles, been accused of being a little vacuous and contrived". While the Olympic games aim for the formation of diplomatic ties, they end up causing international tension instead of releasing it due to the conflict between the Universalist goals of the events and the nationalistic identity brought forward by the games themselves.

Linden Allison (,) |Ye Lim Yi [Ursula Williams]
Synthesis and Purification of Tripodally Coordinated Iron Complexes
The purpose of this project is to synthesize iron complexes in tripodal ligand environments. Iron complexes of this type have been shown to catalyze the reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia, which is a demanding redox process. Two compounds have been synthesized: (Et4N)3[Fe(nta)2] and (Et4N)2[Fe(nta)Cl2]. We will report our progress towards the synthesis of (Et4N)3[Fe(nta)2] by various routes. We will also describe the synthesis and purification of (Et4N)2[Fe(nta)Cl2]. The characterization of these complexes was performed using IR, NMR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

Deonte Alston (,) |Rachel Cline-undefined, undefined|Brittany Mlynek-undefined, undefined|Kyle Moody-undefined, undefined|Joshua Gongloff-undefined, undefined [William Thomas]
Bandtasy's I.C.E. (Interactive Concert Experience)
This project researches technology-driven opportunities to connect musicians with their fans. Possibilities for fan communication include web and mobile applications for in-concert interactions, live streaming of performances, and opportunities to purchase concert videos and fan merchandise.

Nathan Anderson-Stahl (,) [Henry Escuadro]
Turning the Lights Out on Lobsters
The game "Lights Out", originally released by Tiger Electronics in 1995, is played on a five by five grid consisting of some lit buttons whereby pressing one button toggles its state and the state of those buttons adjacent to it. Starting with some collection of these buttons that are turned on, the objective of the game is to turn all the lights off by pressing buttons in sequence. The game can be played on any graph, which is simply a set of points joined by line segment ?" the points represent the buttons while a segment signifies that two buttons are adjacent. This research focused on playing " Light Out" on a family of graphs known as lobsters. In particular, we construct a family of lobsters for which the game is not winnable for at least one possible starting configuration.

Amy Ankney (,) [Kimberly Roth]
Social Network Analysis of First Year Students
How much does one's choice of friends impact a first year student's experience and performance in college? I surveyed the freshman class at Juniata during their first year at college to see how their list of friends change over time. In order to connect their friendships to their experience at Juniata I collected POE, gender, dorm, enjoyment of POE, enjoyment of classes, and GPA.
The study focused on statistically analyzing larger factors across the freshman class, such as if friend groups grow or shrink over their first year and when the most changes happen. Also, the variables of "enjoyment of POE" and "enjoyment of classes" within different groups was compared.

Sara Arnold (,) [Karen Rosell]
Dada Art: Pivotal Techniques of an Abiding Legacy
World War I was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, resulting in an upheaval in politics, morals, and societal norms. While the war impacted people of all professions, artists in particular began to question the traditional aesthetics to which they had previously adhered. Out of their increasing skepticism grew an art movement that was a reaction against accepted values and a protest of bourgeois society. The Dada movement, albeit brief, is seen as one of the most revolutionary and influential styles of the twentieth century. One of its greatest achievements lies in its establishment on an international scale. Until this point in art history, no movement had attained a following quite to this extent. Artists in Zurich, Berlin, Hannover, Cologne, Paris, and New York contributed to this movement that was born out of the shock of war.

Dada artists created their pieces in a way that made them accessible to audiences, often involving the use of non-traditional mediums. They rejected customary modes of representation and experimented freely, creating their art from objects of modern life. Four new artistic techniques grew out of the Dada period, including: collage, photomontage, assemblage, and readymade objects. In this thesis, I will explore these new modes while suggesting that each is a pivotal influence on art of subsequent decades.

Laura Berman (,) [Roy Nagle]
Carapace abnormalities in Juniata River Map Turtles (Graptemys geographica)
During a study of the reproductive ecology of map turtles (Graptemys geographica) of the Juniata River in Mount Union, PA, conducted from 2000-2010, various types of carapace abnormalities were observed. In this study, we categorized abnormalities by type and frequency, and examined photographic data from a subset of the population to evaluate severity. Of 535 adult female map turtles, 219 (40.9%) exhibited some type of carapace abnormality.The most common abnormality was anomalous carapace shape, found in 156 individuals (29.2%). Based on photographic data, anomalies to the left side of the carapace (41.3%) or both sides of the carapace (32.6%) occurred at the highest frequencies. Abnormalities ranged from minor indentations to severe contortions. We discuss possible causative factors of the abnormalities, our current research analyses, and areas meriting further investigation.

Ryan Bogdan (,) [William Ames]
Analysis of porphyrin doped thiophene nanoparticles as potential water oxidizing catalysts
A water soluble porphyrin (M-TPPS4) was doped into conductive polythiophene nanoparticles (M = MnIII, CoII, or CuII). SEM images and EDS spectroscopy were used to characterize the morphology and success of doping. CuII-TPPS4 doped polymers allow for metal to metal distances to be experimentally determined via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The MnIII-TPPS4 and CoII-TPPS4 were studied electrochemically to determine the water oxidizing capability of these polythiophene doped nanoparticles vs the polythiophene doped thin films of Swiegers et al.1
Chen, J; Wagner, P; Tong, L; Wallace, GG; Officer, DL; Swiegers, GF Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 1907.

Steven Bonn (,) [Paul Schettler]
Molecular Modelling of C99 Mutants in a Lipid Bilayer
C99 is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the γ-secretase enzyme within the lipid bilayer of cells. Depending on many different factors, C99 is cleaved into Aβ40, a fairly benign metabolite, or Aβ42, which has been implicated in development of Alzheimer's Disease. In seeking to find an explanation for what causes this differential cleavage, we have set up a model of the C99 transmembrane domain (TMD) within a lipid bilayer. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to examine the interactions between the TMD and its environment. Amino acid mutations were made by inserting tryptophan at certain locations along the TMD in an attempt to fix the level of the entire protein within the bilayer. The results will help us understand how the bilayer affects C99's position when it interacts and is cleaved by γ-secretase, potentially shedding light on how different positions of C99 lead to the differential cleavage.

Danielle Boothe (,) |Danielle Boothe-undefined, undefined|Khine Sein-undefined, undefined|Colin Brislawn-undefined, undefined|Regina Lamendella -undefined, undefined|Jeffrey Demarest-undefined, undefined [Regina Lamendella]
Beeromics: Using genomics tools to evaluate beer quality
The brewing industry utilizes microorganisms that play a significant role in beer production. Microorganisms can aid in the quality and flavor of beers, but also can disrupt the means of production. Microorganisms are extremely diverse and are able to thrive throughout the beer production process. The purpose of this study is to identify microbial communities present within the brewing process as a way to optimize the quality controls within the brewing process.
Beer samples from the different stages of the brewing process were collected from microbreweries located in the state of Pennsylvania. Genomic DNA was extracted and the16S rRNA V4 hypervariable region was amplified along with Internal transcribed region (ITS), using PCR. Samples were sequenced using the Illumina Miseq platform and the data was analyzed using the QIIME bioinformatics pipeline. Multivariate statistics were performed on the sequence data. The results of this study indicated that both Bacteria and Archaea was present in the beer samples. The most abundant phylum was Bacteriodetes and Acidobacteria . At the genus level Acetobacter and an unknown Streptophyta were predominant in the brewery data. The future directions of this study are to develop a database of potential microbial populations relevant to flavor profiles and beer spoilage. This technology will be useful to breweries to help better inform quality controls in the brewing process.

Jeffrey Brabec (,) |Elijah Hall-undefined, undefined|Larissa Bubb-undefined, undefined|Brennen Novak-undefined, undefined [Trisha Staab]
Effects of bacterial diet on organismal life history traits, Data generated in First Year Biology Lab
In recent decades, human lifespan has dramatically increased, making it essential to understand the properties that improve the health and quality of life, or health-span, in the aging population. To this aim, here we examine the effects of diet and metabolism on life history traits in the model Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). C. elegans naturally feed on bacteria, and in our lab we are growing our worms on the control bacteria OP50, a strain of E. coli. We begin by comparing body size and reproductive capacity of animals fed different types of bacteria. Health-span may also be regulated by signaling pathways that regulate metabolism. To test genetic components of health-span, we next examined mutants lacking either sphingosine kinase (sphk-1) or a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the pharynx called eat-2. Mutations in sphingosine kinase cause organisms to inefficiently metabolize lipids, while mutants lacking eat-2 are a canonical model for dietary-restriction induced longevity. Analysis using two-way ANOVA indicates that diet and genotype influence fertility and developmental rate, and we detected a significant interaction between these variables. Of note, animals fed a carbohydrate-rich form of E. coli, strain HB101, had a much larger body length. Brood sizes varied greatly among the genotypes and bacteria, but we detected a noticeable increase in the brood size of animals fed Comomonas simplex. Together, our results suggest diet and metabolic capacity affect life-history traits and these findings can pave the way for further lifespan experimentation.

Wendy Briggs (,) [Hannah Bellwoar]
Perfectly Awful Regulatory Teaching

Frank Brumbaugh (,) [Ryan Mathur]
Who Shot That Bullet?
The bloodiest single day of fighting in American history came in 1862 during the Battle of Antietam. Both the Union and Confederate forces encountered heavy casualties during the conflict that took place in the area of Sharpsburg, Maryland. Over 150 years later, evidence of this grim battle can still be found on the preserved battlefield and the surrounding area in the form of lead bullets. With all these stray artifacts scattered over a large landscape, the question arises of "Who shot that bullet?" As visitors to the park, it is illegal to remove any artifacts without explicit permission, so Juniata students asked permission of a private landowner right next to the battlefield to take six bullet samples. Then after conducting a Pb isotope analysis on these bullets, we found that they fell into two distinct groups that coincided with the shape of the bullets. The tapered bullets belonging to the Union side had a distinguishably higher isotopic Pb ratio than the rounded ball bullets belonging to Confederate origin. We then were able to compare this data to isotopic data of lead mines in the area of Mississippi Valley Type galena deposits and find that the Union received their lead from a narrow region of ore spanning from Southwest Wisconsin into Northwest Illinois.

Rebecca Brumbaugh () [Richard Hark]
Synthesis of selectively deuterated tetra(benzyloxy)benzenes for mass spectrometry studies
With the aim of elucidating the mechanism of the electrospray ionization-collision induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-CID MS) fragmentation pathway, we have synthesized a series of selectively deuterated polybenzylated phenolic compounds, modeled the fragmentation pathway with DFT calculations, and observed the fragmentation patterns in ESI-CID. Here, we describe the synthetic route to 1,2,3,5-tetra(benzyloxy)benzene and its selectively deuterated isotopomer, along with the fragmentation observed in ESI-CID MS.

Richard Burgan (,) [Daniel Dries]
Identifying Transcriptional Changes in a Conditional Knockout Mouse
gamma-secretase is a multi-subunit, proteolytic complex that is directly involved in the pathogenicity of Alzheimer's disease. Recently, a mouse was developed in which gamma-secretase was conditionally knocked out of oligodendrocytes, or the myelinating cells of the brain. Knockout of gamma-secretase produced a striking non-cognitive neurological phenotype, reminiscent of schizophrenia. Here, we compare the transcriptomes of cKO mice and control mice by means of RNA-seq analysis to identify candidate genes that may explain the complex neurological phenotype exhibited by our conditional knockout mice.

Victoria Buser (,) |Alexandra Eby-undefined, undefined|Kiera Foster-undefined, undefined|Sari Baba-undefined, undefined [Anne Gilman]
It's more than the reading level: Adapting survey questions for children's comprehension
An adult measure of musical expertise was adapted for children. Questions were modified to be shorter in length, use simpler vocabulary, and eliminate depersonalized language, negative phrasing, and double-barreled structures. To prepare for a study with children, we asked adults to complete our modified version of the Gold-MSI. Modified questions had a significantly lower reading level than original questions. Responses to revised questions correlated significantly with participant answers to all but one of the original questions. There was no significant difference in question comprehensibility between the original and revised surveys. Future research will involve giving the adapted survey to children and having them complete a beat-matching task to determine if musical expertise has an effect on beat-matching accuracy.

Joshua Bussard (,) [Matthew Beaky]
Automation Of Juniata College Observatory
The idea of this project is to automate Juniata College's observatory dome. At this point the dome is manually turned, and sometimes the telescope is blocked by the dome. My project will try to automate the dome so that the telescope will always be pointing through the dome opening. The project will focus on the programming of a controller and user interface to allow manual and automatic control.

Emma Campbell (,) [Jennifer Streb]
The Art of Portrait Miniatures
Prior to the invention of photography portrait miniatures were a way of keeping images of loved ones close. For centuries miniatures were used as tokens of affection for the living and mementos by which to remember the dead. At the Juniata College Museum of Art we are bringing these pieces out of the shadows by analyzing them from multiple disciplinary perspectives in the upcoming exhibit titled "The Art & Science of Portrait Miniatures". This paper will provide historical background on portrait miniatures and will closely investigate one of the European miniatures in the JCMA's collection.

Adam Caraballo (,) |Brittni Devlin-undefined, undefined [J. McKellop]
Female Gaze-Tracking of the Male
Our study investigated how perceived sexual orientation affected the implicit, evolutionary response to evaluate an individual in terms of reproductive potential. In our study, after female students from an Intro to Psychology course had been sexually primed with a video, they were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. In the two experimental conditions, participants read a mock biography of a male that explicitly stated his sexual orientation (either heterosexual or homosexual). In the control condition, participants read a mock biography that did not state a specific sexual orientation. Aside from the mention of sexual orientation, these biographies were identical. After reading the passage, all participants were shown a non-erotic nude image of a male for four seconds and their gaze patterns were recorded using an eye tracker. Every participant was then administered a short survey that asked for demographic information as well as how attractive they found the male in the picture. Our anticipated results are that because a homosexual male will not be a potential mate, participants would spend less time looking at zones associated with reproductive value (primarily areas that are indicative of testosterone such as the jawline or genitals) than the heterosexual or control group. We do not expect to see a difference between the heterosexual and control group because, when sexual orientation is not mentioned, individuals tend to assume they are heterosexual. Finally, we expect to see that participants in the homosexual condition will rate the attractiveness of the male higher than the control or heterosexual group because they will be less harsh when rating the attractiveness of a male that they see as a potential mate.

Key terms: Evolutionary Psychology, Reproductive, Sexual Orientation, Attraction

Karley Christian (,) |Valerie Hersh-undefined, undefined|Caitlin Emsilie-undefined, undefined|Sven Koetterjohann-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
Robotics: Who's in Control?
A look into robotics. Focuses on Artificial Intelligence, Brain Technologies, Robotics and Medicine, and Transhumanism.

Zane Clarke (,) [Peter Baran]
Oxovanadium Complexes with Pyrazoles
Vanadium complexes have been studied for their potential uses in medicine. The applications include insulin mimicking drugs as well as anticancer drugs. Our research focuses on vanadium complexes with pyrazole and 4- and 3- substituted pyrazole.

Zane Clarke (,) [Peter Baran]
Oxovanadium Complexes with Pyrazoles
Vanadium complexes have been studied for their potential uses in medicine. The applications include insulin mimicking drugs as well as anticancer drugs. Our research focuses on vanadium complexes with pyrazole and 4- and 3- substituted pyrazole.

Lucas Corbin (,) |Jonathan Ofiara-undefined, undefined|Caitlyn Pingatore-undefined, undefined|Courtney Sledzianowski-undefined, undefined [B Halloran]
Distribution of Rusty Crayfish in South Central Pennsylvania
Rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) are an invasive species that has spread from their native range in the Ohio River Basin to northeastern areas of the United States, including Pennsylvania. Rusty crayfish have been found to displace native crayfish species, alter macrophyte composition and diversity, and negatively impact native fishes by predating on their eggs. The goal of this study was to determine the distribution of rusty crayfish over a two-month period (Oct.-Nov. 2014) in the Juniata River (PA). The Juniata River, a seventh order stream, is one of the dominant fluvial systems in south-central Pennsylvania. The tributaries of the Juniata River system that were sampled for rusty crayfish included the Frankstown Branch of the Juniata River, Aughwick Creek (including Little Aughwick Creek), Little Juniata River, and Standing Stone Creek. To obtain crayfish density estimates, we used a 1-m² trap to sample multiple cross sections (range 12.1%-41.0% of total stream width) focusing on dissimilar microhabitats present in each stream. A total of 148 rusty crayfish were collected during this study which ranged from 0.2/m² - 3.5/m2. The carapace length of rusty crayfish collected averaged at 17.3mm (range: 49.8mm - 7.4mm). The gender distribution in this study documented males 33.7%, females 30.4%, and unknown 35.8%.

Ethan Cree (,) [Mark Pearson]
All Terrain Robotic Sphere
Ethan Cree
Liberal Art Symposium

"Four Wheels vs. One Wheel?"

This study involved developing an unusually shaped robot that is in the shape of a sphere. Unlike most remote controlled vehicles involving the use of multiple wheels, tracks, etc. the robotic vehicle in this study only incorporates the use of one wheel in the shape of a sphere. The theory behind the use of only one "wheel" is that it will be able to outperform other forms of movement and traction.
The challenges with creating this type of model involves engineering a design that will enable the robot to roll smoothly, have plenty of power to transverse difficult terrain, and have a mechanical design that allows it to be controlled and operated in every direction. Another exciting aspect of this study was the involvement of many areas of science including electronics, programming, engineering physics, and design.
The robot's design was based around a "hamster ball" with an adapted internal engine/motor & counterweight system with a receiver that was controlled remotely. This design enables the sphere to move forward and backwards by means of rotating the sphere in either direction. In order to make the sphere easier to control and to be moved in both left and right directions there is a counterweight arm controlled by a servo moto that shifts the center of gravity of the sphere itself by moving weights near the bottom close to the ground in either direction.
This particular design has many applications in various fields from a simple children's toy to a complex scientific instrument that can be used to gather remote data and information. By incorporating microcontrollers into the sphere it could be modified to gather data such as temperature, materials/ sub particles in the air, and multiple other forms of data.

Christopher Cueto (,) [Richard Hark]
A Novel Method for the Preparation of Esters Using Neat Borontrifluoride Etherates
Previously our group reported neat BF3??OEt2 as a fast and effective reagent for esterifying acids and acid derivatives. We have since refined this methodology and tested it on a wider and more diverse library of substrates. In order to fully explore the scope and utility of this unusual synthetic tool, we attempted to repeat our procedures using several commercially available etherates: BF3??OMe2, BF3??O(n-Bu)2, and BF3??(t-Bu)OMe. Neat BF3??OMe2 and BF3??(t-Bu)OMe both effect rapid transformation of acids to their corresponding methyl esters in high yield. BF3??O(n-Bu)2 is not consistent in its ability to produce esters and will assume a radically different course of reaction depending on the substrate. Details of the core and expanded methodology will be presented.

Alexander Dean (,) [J Barlow]
Police Misconduct, Use of Force, and Accountability in the United States
In recent years, several cases have become national movements demanding reformations in police conduct. The deaths of Mike Brown and Eric Garner dominated news coverage for months, and spurred protests all across the United States. This has led to many questioning current police regulations and asking for changes to be made. Unfortunately, the facts around excessive use of force and police misconduct are blurry. Without a nation wide database to record complaints, or communication between independent complaint branches, the figures regarding excessive use of force will not accurately represent the issue. The United States faces a serious issue with police accountability that needs to be addressed in order for our country to truly understand the issue of excessive use of force and police misconduct.

Alexander Debrecht (,) [Wade Roberts]
Factual Fluidity
The separation of science and values is often unquestioned. However, there are compelling reasons to believe that scientific statements and value judgments are intertwined in more ways than one. In this presentation, I critically examine arguments from A.J. Ayer's Language, Truth, and Logic to show that statements of fact and statements of value cannot necessarily be neatly divided.

Alexander Debrecht (,) [Matthew Beaky]
Comparison of Conducting Styles Using Accelerometer Data
From phones, to watches, to video game controllers, accelerometers and gyroscopes have become part of our daily lives. Using the Myo armband, a new device which incorporates nine axes of motion, including three of acceleration and three of angular velocity, we have recorded the motions of Juniata conductors' arms during a variety of styles and tempos of music. We will determine whether gyroscope or accelerometer data can serve as a fingerprint, either of an individual conductor or of styles of music, and will have a platform from which future users of the device for similar purposes can build upon.

Peter Defnet (,) [Ursula Williams]
Electrochemical analysis of iron nitrilotriacetate complexes
We are currently exploring the electrochemical behavior of first row transition metal centers in tripodal ligand environments in order to examine how the range of available oxidation states is influenced by the ligand structure. Mono- and bis- nitrilotriacetate (NTA3-) iron complexes were synthesized to examine the range of stable oxidation states available to each complex. Tris(acetylacetonato)iron (III) was also synthesized and used as a point of electrochemical reference due to its similar ligand structre. Cyclic voltammetry was used to measure the electrochemical activity of each complex.

Nathan Deitcher (,) [Xinli Wang]
Finding Meaning Both Indoors and Outdoors
In linguistic philosophy, there is a debate between two camps on where to locate meaning. The Realists anchors meaning of a proposition in the reference to external and mind independent objects.The Subjectivist wants to find the locus of meaning of language within the human subject centered world. The Meaning in our language is created with human minds and is unconcerned with correspondence. The realists ignore the nuances of the ideal while the subjectivists ignore the vastness of the real. This controversy betrays a fundamental gap between subject and object which repeats itself again and again in the history of philosophy. Instead ignoring the indoors of human subjectivity or the outdoors of a nonanthropocentric cosmos for the purpose of a narrow realism or subjectivist, we must think with Sense and Reference(as Frege calls them in his modified Reference theory) together as two sides of the same coin. We must acknowledge that this gap between consciousness and its objects exist and thus consider 'Meaning' within language and,arguably more generally, as having both a subjective and objective aspect to it.

Nicole Dengler (,) [Sharon Yohn]
Water Chemistry in Relation to Microorganism Distribution in Raystown Lake
There are complex interactions between water chemistry and microbial ecosystems in lacustrine systems. Microbes significantly influence water chemistry, and the type of microbial communities that are present is dependent on the chemical environment. The purpose of this study is to compare the water chemistry and microbial communities between two sites and among three sampling depths (epilimnion, metalimnion and hypolimnion). Samples were taken from Raystown Lake at two sites approximately 7 miles apart, were analyzed for dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total phosphorous, alkalinity, dissolved iron, hydrogen sulfide and sulfate, and the microbial community was determined using high throughput sequencing.

Dissolved oxygen concentrations declined rapidly with depth in the metalimnion to very low levels (<1 mg O2 L-1) at both sites, but the reduced species of redox sensitive molecules were not detected. This suggests that iron and sulfur reducers will either not be present or be present at low concentrations. pH values decreased significantly with depth at both sites, suggesting a shift in the ratio between photosynthesis and respiration. Significant differences between the two sites reflect the lakewide trend of decreasing alkalinity down reservoir, although total phosphorous concentrations do not follow the lakewide trend and show no significant difference.

Paige Dennison (,) [Cynthia deVries]
Public Safety
My poster will illustrate results and findings of the Juniata College Raystown Field Station of better safety and security habits. There will be bench markings from peer and aspirant schools to compare and contrast to our field station. The main objective of this project is to find out better ways to make the Juniata College Field Station a safer and more stable area for the students and staff. The Raystown Field Station is rather unique due to having a live-in dormitory for students and staff along with the land and water that is provided.

Catherine Douds (,) [Jill Keeney]
The Yeast Genome Project: Exploring APD1
Yeast is considered to be "man's oldest industrial microorganism" and has been used by humans for over 5,000 years. Today, its use has expanded and Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become an ideal eukaryotic model due to its quick growth and easily manipulated genome. After its genome was sequenced in 1996, thousands of scientists came together to create a full encyclopedia of systemized gene functions characterized according to the Gene Ontology Consortium (GO). However, nearly twenty years later, the functions of more than 10% of these genes still remain unknown. The ORFan gene project aims to aid the characterization of the S. cerevisiae genome by exploring the function of specific open reading frames (ORFs). In order to classify these unknown ORFs, a putative pipeline has been constructed beginning with the identification of an ORFan of interest through the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). This project focuses on YBR151W or APD1. The deletion strain for the selected ORF was reconstructed to verify SGD reported phenotypes. Next, a comparison between the wild type and target gene knockout strains will be analyzed through RNAseq. The selected ORF will then be fluorescently tagged at the C and N terminals and examined with fluorescent microscopy to verify cell localization. The combination of this information and that provided by the SGD will produce hypotheses for the putative physical and genetic interaction of the target ORF. These hypotheses will then be tested by specifically designed experiments to explore possible functions for the gene of interest. These hypotheses for APD1 have lead to the exploration of the knockout mutant's effect on actin localization under normal conditions and those of DNA stress by hydroxyurea.

Micah Dowdy (,) [Cynthia deVries]
Prison Problems of Today
Have you ever driven by a prison and wondered what went on inside the walls? Have you ever thought about how the prison affects your community? Prisons might be out of sight for the public, but they have a huge impact on every community in the United States of America. The United States contains the highest percentage of prisoners in the world. Socially and economically, the penal system negatively impacts the United States as a whole. When people think of prisons they typically look at it negatively and with a very black and white perspective. However, there are issues upon issues that are gray when analyzing the penal system. People are being taken from the families, prisoners are poorly re-integrated into the community, and the systems costs are sky high. These are just a small list of the many problems that affect everyone directly or indirectly. There are many people I have met through the Pennsylvania Prison society that are brilliant but stuck in a bad situation. We as citizens need to stick our noses in what's happening and why the prison system is a failure. The Pennsylvania Prison Society is an organization that strives to bring the failures to the table. They help prisoners as well as improve the system around them. Why do we ignore this huge industry that contributes to the economic and social inequalities that exist today? You can get involved in organizations like the Pennsylvania Prison Society and bring change to an individual and a community.

Lillian Dudek (,) [J Barlow]
Surveillance State: Privacy & the Private Home
The law enforcement agencies of the federal and local United States Government's have used many methods of surveillance on the citizens of their state. This research included in this paper was conducted to take steps towards answering the question that United States society has been asking, are the surveillance measures used by the United States Government constitutional and legal? In order to answer this question, this paper with analyze core constitutional clauses, case law, legislation and legal ideas that support or infringe on a United States' citizen the right to privacy in their homes and other protected areas. The findings of this research show that the United States Government has effectively ensured that they have many different styles of surveillance that they may use on the American people. Results also show that the Federal Bureau of Investigation and local level police departments have implemented measures of surveillance into their normative routines that cross the line from legal to unconstitutional. The intent of this research is to show the importance of the system of the checks and balance system in the United States and to reinforce that idea that discretion must be more incorporated into the United States Justice System in order to narrow the window of what surveillance measures and protect U.S. citizens. Without this discretion, the United States Government is effectively left to exercise more of its power and will over the American people.

Morgan Dux (,) [Dennis Plane]
Social Media Use by Members of and Candidates for the Pennsylvania House of Representatives
While the public is increasingly turning to social media as a main source of news and information, we do not know very much about how politicians are using social media to reach voters. My research attempts to bridge this gap by analyzing how candidates for and incumbents of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives use social media. I collect and analyze two sets of data: a campaign dataset and a member dataset. The campaign dataset captures the social media use of everyone running for the Pennsylvania House in a contested 2014 general election, including 137 websites and 330 social media pages for 189 candidates. Using this dataset, I determine the presence of social media accounts for each candidate and evaluate the way candidates advertise their social media on their websites. The member dataset is used to examine how current members of the Pennsylvania House use social media in their official capacity. The member dataset encompasses the social media use by all 203 members of the Pennsylvania House. I use this second dataset to understand the way House members use social media in their official capacity by analyzing the content of each representative's Facebook and Twitter pages over a two-week period. My analysis of the campaign data shows a discrepancy between the way incumbents and challengers advertise their social media on their websites. Many incumbents do not have campaign websites or social media accounts, while nearly all challengers do. I find that challengers are more likely to have social media accounts linked to their campaign websites than are incumbents. My analysis of the member data finds that most representatives have Facebook accounts while fewer have Twitter accounts. The incumbents have official, House-run social media accounts, but not campaign accounts. Overall, most posts by representatives are focused on state news and self promotion. There is very little discussion of policy on member's social media sites. In both datasets, I find a significant number of representatives and candidates who have social media accounts but do not advertise them on their websites, which is a seemingly illogical strategy. The collection and analysis of this data is a critical first step to understanding the way social media impacts the campaign cycle for offices with short terms. The Pennsylvania House of Representatives, with two-year terms, requires nearly constant campaigning in order to stay in office. Social media is a low-cost way to self-promote without the time and financial strain of traditional campaigning. Member's social media sites, disguised as resources for constituent outreach, may actually be state-run self-promotional tools.

Alexandra Eby (,) |Johnathan Abend-undefined, undefined|Sari Baba-undefined, undefined [Anne Gilman]
Can a Zombie fit in a Shoebox? Ancestral Priorities and Word Recall
Past research has suggested that priorities from our ancestral enviroments boost memory, while others attribute this advantage to more arousing scenarios. Our word recall study contrasted eight scenarios of varied survival status, including grasslands and zombie scenarios. Contrary to the ancestral priorities hypothesis, the shipwreck scenario had the highest recall, whereas zombie and grasslands scenarios had lower, yet similar, scores. This suggests that ancestral priorities do not fully explain memory today.

Caitlin Emslie (,) |Demetrius Floyd-undefined, undefined|Brooke Walls-undefined, undefined|Michael John-undefined, undefined|Nick Weit-undefined, undefined|Mark Feiler-undefined, undefined [Kathy Baughman]
JC Blair Reporting System
Our team worked with JC Blair to develop comprehensive reports of their doctors' productivity through in-depth analyses of financial data. Using Microsoft Excel, we were able to provide easy to read, educative representations of the doctors' performance throughout the different practices. We then worked with their IT department to develop a reporting program that can share those kinds of analyses with the doctors on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis for the edification and financial development of the doctors.

Airokhsh Faiz Qaisary (,) |Airokhsh Faiz Qaisary-undefined, undefined [J Barlow]
The impact of international intervention on women's rights in Afghanistan
This research looks at the pronounced improvements in Afghan women's lives since the international Intervention in Afghanistan in 2001. Women have faced many challenges throughout the transitional period, one of the biggest obstacles being the security in the country. However, with more than 100 NGOs for women's and children's rights actively lobbying in the country, increase of educational opportunities for girls and women, increase of law enforcement regarding the elimination of violence against women and most importantly creating employment opportunities has led to women's contribution both in economic, social, cultural, and political sphere.
As a result of the International Intervention, from zero girls attending schools in 2001, more than three million girls are now able to receive an education the country.
Afghan women have come a long way and have achieved tangible results in post conflict situations. Women in with the higher education degrees are entering professional job sectors such as medicine, law, teacher training, police forces, computer science, business and accounting, and science. The presentation will also include accomplishments of women in the political realm. The vast presence of women in the Parliament, Senate, Provincial Councils, as ministers, governors, mayors are very important and proves that Afghan women have come a long way and will continue to contribute in a better way.

Stephanie Farfan (,) Maria Nachbor-undefined, undefined|Hannah Hostak-undefined, undefined [Polly Walker]
Inclusivity as Intractable Conflict: Creating Nuanced Dialogue at Juniata
This presentation will explore the connection between Juniata's own conflicts and systems theory as used within the Peace Studies field. It will focus on Computer-Assisted Dialogue to promote structured dialogue and the understanding of the various nuances in issues of diversity and inclusion. This presentation is the culmination of a year's worth of research started in the Systems Theory course during the Fall 2014 semester, and finished as part of the PACS Capstone in Spring of 2015.

Ethan Farrell (,) [Loren Rhodes]
Can I Have Your Password?
If someone asked a person they didn't know for their password, would that person provide it? Would they report the incident to the authorities? This presentation reveals the results of a survey of Juniata Student's password use, and begins to explore the causes and consequences of the unsettling findings.

Elizabeth Faust (,) [Jennifer Streb]
The Stories of Women: How They Reflect Their Renaissance Counter-Parts
Art in the Renaissance was used not only as a display of power and wealth but also as teaching tool that illustrated one's place in society. This paper considers the way in which female subjects are rendered and the stories that Renaissance artists and their patrons choose to depict up until the 1500s when the ideas of women started to change. These stories are important in terms of understanding how people in the Renaissance saw women and the morals and teachings they were trying to impress upon them. Four of the most popular female stories that were depicted in art were Eve, the Virgin, Judith and Mary Magdalene. Focusing only on depictions of Eve and the Virgin Mary, and looking at the way they are rendered, this presentation will compare the two figures and demonstrate how women were viewed and expected to act during the Renaissance.

Elizabeth Faust (,) [James Tuten]
How Scream into a Quiet Night go Unheard
During World War II, the United States government created the Office of Censorship to censor information that might threaten the war effort. This thesis examines one subject of censorship that was censored not only by the United States government but also voluntarily by the biggest newspaper in America, the New York Times. This subject is the European concentration camps and the people inside of them. From the history of the Office of Censorship itself to the reasons of voluntary censorship, this thesis illuminates the key ingredients found in the formula for creating an unknowing and unbelieving public until 1944 and what changed the public's state of denial.

Elizabeth Faust (,) [Tamara Stuber]
The Smithsonian Experience
This presentastion covers my time spent at the Smithsonian National American History Museum for a month long intensive internship. I will explain my tasks and time spent there as well as the inner workings of a national museum.

Demetrius Floyd (,) [William Thomas]
The Hard Drive Disk
This project focuses on what a Hard Disk Drive is, how it works, and the different types of malicious viruses that can compromise the data that is stored on the Hard Disk Drives. In all, this project is to give insightful information on Hard Disk Drives.

Luke Gangi-Wellman (,) |Lexi Schmidt-undefined, undefined|Dustin Servello-undefined, undefined [Jason Chan]
Effect of Intestinal Lipids on Gut Bacterial Composition and Host Stress Response using C. elegans
Diet management is key to living a healthy life. Our gut must be able to absorb nutrients from our diet and protect us from toxins. Poor diet and toxins can increase risk for obesity, heart disease, cancer, and infection. Beside for the food we eat, our gut naturally contains bacteria and other microorganisms. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that gut bacteria influences immune response, body weight and neuronal function. However, the precise interactions between the bacteria in the gut contents and the gut cells themselves are unclear. In particular, host physiology impacts may include the break down and absorption of nutrients, protection from disease, regulation of glucose levels, and signaling in the nervous system. To study gut-host interactions, we use the model organism C. elegans, a roundworm which lives in soil and survives on soil bacteria. Bacteria in the soil will have a variety nutrients, which may effect the general health and lifespan of the organism. Bacteria which are known to have positive effects should be preferred and will extend lifespan, whereas bacteria which are known to be pathogenic are expected to be avoided. Our experiments focus on how changes in the sphingolipid signaling pathway, which changes lipid composition of the host intestine, will alter the bacterial species richness and diversity present in an organism. First, we look at the bacterial selection process through both physiological (gut selection) and behavioral (organism selection) means. From this, we want to understand how different types of bacteria will affect stress response, lifespan, and neuron density. We have evidence that C. elegans show an aversion to pathogenic bacteria and suspect worms have active preferences to healthy strains. Results of this study could be applied to produce dietary treatments that could aid in stress management, immunity, and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Luke Gangi-Wellman (,) [Jason Chan]
Role of Cadherins on Synaptic Specificity in the Hippocampus
The brain is a complex network made of millions of cells and trillions of connections. These connections, called synapses, are where electrical stimuli are turned to chemical signals to trigger electrical responses in the post-synaptic cell. Synapse formation is mediated by cell adhesion molecules which hold the connection together. Many of these cell adhesion molecules are known, such as Neuroligin, but many are still left undetermined. The Cadherin family of proteins are known to be involved in synapse formation and may play a role in synapse specification. We hypothesize that different types of Cadherins regulate formation of different types of synapses. Synaptic coculture assays show the direct effect of Cadherin presence on synapse formation and development through confocal microscopy analysis. We find that presence of both N-Cadherin and Cadherin-9 drives up the number of synapses and specifies to precise regions of the hippocampus. Protein recruitment screening shows the effect of Cadherin-9 on synaptic protein recruitment and activity. We find a highly variable data set of proteins which Cadherin-9 may be responsible for. These experiments provide a basis to further understand synapse formation and development in the hippocampus and will lead to further insight into developmental disorders and diseases.

Christian Gehman (,) [William Ames]
Exploration of Long Chain Dialdehydes for use as Metallodiporphyrin Linkers
Metallodiporphyrin research has become increasingly popular due to their capabilities in separating water into its elemental components. If metallodiporphyrins prove to be effective catalysts in water oxidation, then a new clean and environmentally friendly method for hydrogen production would be developed. However, to successfully perform water oxidation the metallodiporphyrins require a specific spacing between the molecules and a cofacial orientation. To achieve these spacing and orientation requirements, a linker is employed.
In this study, the effects of having a long carbon chain as a linker are being explored. The selected molecules for synthesis are 1,6 hexanedial and 1,5 pentanedial.

Brian Gilbert (,) [Matthew Beaky]
Physics Concept Demonstration Aid Development
In the realm of physics education, few things can be as polarizing in a classroom as the understanding of fundamental physics concepts towards the success of students in the class. Through the use of demonstrations, the classroom is diversified from a purely theoretical style to that of a physical learning. By using demonstrations kinesthetic learners get the chance to see the concepts in action, and interact with the physics that they are learning. This is a concept we call authentic learning, or learning by experience. The goal of this project is to develop these authentic learning tools in order to help facilitate student learning through different styles of learning, and ongoing demonstrations will be presented.

Alexandria Groves (,) |Wendy Briggs-undefined, undefined|Lauren Liacouras-undefined, undefined|Erika Young-undefined, undefined [Hannah Bellwoar]
Lover of Love
Panel Title: "Essayists Exposed: A Refreshingly Honest Non-Fiction Reading"

It takes true courage to write, but it takes even more courage to read your writing aloud. These four young women have reached into their personal archives to produce original non-fiction works. As they read their essays, you may laugh, cry, or get a slight wave of indigestion, but you'll enjoy every minute.

Wendy Briggs "Perfectly Awful Regulatory Teaching"
A humorous look at one high school's (poor) attempt at character education

Alexandria Groves "Lover of Love"
This essay is about how being exposed to love the writer's whole life shaped everything about her.

Lauren Liacouras "This is Awkward"
A painful, yet reflective examination of love in a time of ill-fitting pants and acute social anxiety.

Erika Young "Changes"
This essay explores the relationship between Erika and her father throughout her life.

James Guanciale (,) [J Barlow]
Approaches to Helping the Mentally Ill Homeless
The American system of dealing with mentally ill, chronically homeless individuals is deeply flawed, in no small measure because it is partly based on widely held misconceptions and false common wisdom. Many of the consequences of this lie in the often gross mischaracterizations of the client populations and, therefore, what practices will be successful. Thankfully, recent years have seen an increase in academic interest in combating homelessness, shining new light on America's ineffective practices. By demonstrating just how false these misconceptions are such research suggests that programs ought to turn to practices like Housing First. They should also feature greater coordination and comprehensiveness of care, working to ensure that case workers have more reasonable staff-to-client ratios, among other measures. Expanded Medicaid and food assistance would also go a long way in better care for the mentally ill, chronically homeless. Furthermore, current approaches demonstrate a worrisome lack of focus on actively working toward the successful social integration of their clients.

Matthias Guenzel () [Donna Weimer]
Keeping a Cool Head: Using Bitzer?s Rhetorical Situation to analyze the ?Ice Bucket Challenge? as an effective viral phenomenon
In July and August of 2014 the Ice Bucket Challenge became a worldwide viral phenomenon on social media and revolutionized the way non-governmental organizations market themselves. It was created to spread awareness and raise money for the research of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease. Literally millions of videos were uploaded and shared within the online community of people dumping buckets full of ice-water on their heads. This challenge led to an instant visibility for ALS and extraordinary number of donations in a short amount of time to support their research. I analyze why this particular internet meme went viral, what factors influenced and drove its success; and what caused its resolution eventually. Using a rhetorical approach, I situate the Ice Bucket Challenge in the context of Bitzer?s rhetorical situation and argue that as an internet meme it has its own life cycle of persuasion. I examine the exigence leading to the creation of this exact challenge and analyze the changing persuasive capacity in its evolving life cycle. I further investigate how and if people understood the reasons for the ICE Bucket Challenge and what constraints occurred. Moreover I explore how internet cultures work and the possible audiences to whom this challenged is addressed; why people decide to partake or opt out; if their response is fitting; and what it tells us about being a participatory online culture. I also draw from other research concerned with the question why certain memes catch on and other don?t, to try explain why this challenge was chosen over other ones. Applying Bitzer?s rhetorical situation to ALS reveals the effective persuasive strategies available and also the usefulness of rhetorical analysis for understanding online viral memes in advertising. It also showcases that the Ice Bucket Challenge most effectively meets the constraints of audience and purpose through its life cycle in social media at the maturity stage.

Jada Hackman (,) [Regina Lamendella]
Analysis on the Gut Microbial Communities of Clostridium difficile Infected Subjects vs. Noninfected Subjects
The interaction amongst the gut microbial community plays a vital role in food digestion, the provision of necessary nutrients, assisting in metabolic processes, neural and immune system development, and halting the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms. The microbiota is complex and therefore it is a delicately balanced ecosystem. A disturbance to the normal microbiota can cause a substantial impact to human physiology. This imbalance can be detrimental because it causes the gut to become vulnerable to harmful bacteria colonization and proliferation. An example of this is Clostridium difficile, which is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus, Gram-positive toxin-producing bacterium that causes irritation, inflammation, and bleeding in the colon. Various analyses were performed to identify the impacts of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) by comparing the fecal microbial community structure of CDI positive (CDI +) vs. CDI negative
(CDI -) human subjects. The 16S rRNA gene was targeted and sequenced from 26 samples. Bioinformatics and biostatistics were performed using QIIME, Phyloseq, and Cytoscape. Across the samples of CDI positive subjects, there was generally a decrease in diversity. There was also a divergence in the bacterial family of CDI + compared to CDI ?" subjects. The most prevalent bacterial family in the highest abundance ordered from the highest to the least in CDI + are Eneterococcaeceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Methylophilaceae. While the most prevalent and most abundance bacterial families in CDI ?" subjects are Bacteroidaceae, Verrucomicrobiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Eneterococcaeceae. Parallel to other research that has been conducted on Clostridium difficile, there is a trend of decreased richness and diversity in the microbial community and difference in the overrepresentation of specific bacterial taxa among CDI infected patients and noninfected patients suggesting that the pathogenic bacteria, Clostridium difficile does effect the equilibrium of the microbial community.

Alexis Hadden (,) [Donna Weimer]
Can You Be Fat and Feminine? A Content Analysis of the Language Used in Continuing the Stigmatization of Fat in our Culture
Facing only negative representations and unfavorable stereotypes about being overweight or obese in the media, American women are constantly pressured to slim down or remain thin. In turn, the diet industry in the United States has grown exponentially, peaking at an annual revenue of 61 billion dollars in 2013 (LaRosa 2013). Since our society has placed an enormous emphasis on becoming thin, overweight and obese individuals, particularly women, have become a target group for discrimination. However, the exact reason for the cultural fixation surrounding "fat" remains unclear. Based on Burke's rhetoric of motives and Goffman's definition of stigma, this study aims to determine what it means for an individual to be labeled "fat" and in what ways, physically and emotionally, weight-related stigma is communicated to young men and women. Based on the idea that rhetoric creates meanings, I hypothesize that responses on the questionnaire reveal motives that affirm that "fat" is not just a physical state, but it continues to be a moral failure of character. Even in 2014, the stigmatization of "fat" remains negative. Approximately 100 college-aged women and men from central Pennsylvania are given an anonymous questionnaire that explores the perception of women's self-concept, one's perception of overweight women, and the messages that the media send to consumers about femininity, size, and health. For example, the survey asks questions such as, "What adjectives comes to mind when you hear the word fat?" and "Are there certain foods that you would consider masculine? Feminine?" Through a content analysis, this study affirms that the label "fat" is undesirable due to not only health-related concerns, but also remain a strong negative stigma, affecting a woman's self-concept or self-esteem.

Christian Hague (,) |Melissa Topping, Junior, Biochemistry-undefined, undefined [Daniel Dries]
Functions of γ-secretase in Arabidopsis thaliana
γ(gamma)-secretase, a multisubunit proteolytic complex, is constructed of four separate protein subunits ?" presenilin (PS), Nicastrin (Nct), APH-1, and PEN-2 ?" all of which must be present to allow for the its proteolytic activity. A notable product of this proteolytic complex are neurotoxic β-amyloid peptides, which, when in excess, constitute the amyloid plaque build-up found in Alzheimer's patients. Despite the activity of γ-secretase in the brain and nervous system, all four protein subunits have been found in plants, suggesting a conserved function. However, its function in plants is unknown due to plants lacking nervous systems and, therefore, the inability to develop Alzheimer's disease. In this study, OEPCR is used to subclone each of the individual protein subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana γ-secretase into a single plasmid to allow simultaneous recombinant co-expression in Sf9 host cells, which ensures 100% co-infection.

Jeannine Haizlip (,) [Donna Weimer]
Narrowing the Divide: Power of Politics or Power to the People?
The aim of this research is to explore global initiatives that are narrowing the digital divide between the "haves" and the "have not's" i.e., those with access to technology and those without. The digital divide is a key area of study in communication and media studies, which continues to analyze and debate policy responses to the inequality, amplified as a result of technological advances. Both public and private sectors develop and implement their own strategies in the hopes to eradicate the technology inequality that permeates our communities. Regardless of their origin, the hope is to narrow this divide at both the macro and micro levels of peoples' lives in order to prevent an hegemonic monopoly of knowledge that is hardly conducive to equality. Once equal access to knowledge, tools and opportunities are available, the possibility for greater freedom and global communication can be achieved.

In order to gain this understanding, I present a critical analysis of several countries from two different continents: North America and Africa. These will include the United States,Tunisia and Uganda. I have chosen representative countries, which advocate for technological change and development. First, I reveal the attitudes towards technology of each country providing a basis for understanding. Secondly, I examine the state of technology in each area and their position as it relates to the digital divide. Finally, I relate all of these findings to the implications these initiatives have on the future state of the digital divide in each of these countries.

I argue through global initiatives the bridge between the digital divide is narrowing rather than expanding. Through the use of data visualization and critical analysis I clarify the importance of implementing global initiatives in the face of technological advances to narrow the divide between those with access and those without.

Ezra Halstead (,) [Polly Walker]
The Art of Trans*lation: Discourse Analysis in the Trans* Community
This presentation representing my thesis shall begin to delve into the origins of key words within the trans* discipline, beginning with the distinction between sex and gender, which is the root of the developing terminology today. This will explore well-known philosophers and scholars as far back as Ancient Greece to observe how language morphed with human's increased understanding and awareness of the subject. These critical evaluations will allow individuals to have an all-encompassing, comprehensive analysis on what exactly is contributing to the ambiguity of the trans* community and from where it stems. After this has been done, the rest of the sections will be devoted to assessing the current discourse and finding explanations for its ambiguity through its linguistic evolution. This might also include envisioning a future for the discourse as well, based on past and current uses. In summation, this presentation aims not only to try to find the reasons to the discourses' ambiguity but also how trans* language adapted with awareness and knowledge of the subject and correlated with the expansion of other categories for gender and sexual minorities.

Alexander Hansen (,) |Alexander Hansen-undefined, undefined [William Thomas]
Cross Site Request Forgery (XSRF): The Silent Web Attack
In this presentation, one of the top ten most common web vulnerabilities, the Cross Site Request Forgery (XSRF/CSRF) is displayed in mock format and explained. The attack undermines the 'trust' that a server establishes with a client's web browser, allowing the user to be impersonated and the attacker to be indistinguishable from the client. The attack often goes through without indication and can have humiliating results.

Alexander Hansen (,) |Alexander Hansen-undefined, undefined|Yasmine Naama-undefined, undefined|Maximilian Wehmeier-undefined, undefined|Tristan Avelis-undefined, undefined [William Thomas]
I4I - Megaman Voice Controlled Media Player for Videon, Inc.
In collaboration with State College-based streaming media technology company Videon Inc., our group has developed a voice controlled media player application prototype for the Android mobile platform. Our app discovers and plays music stored on the device, and includes common media player abilities like playing songs, browsing artists and albums, and managing playlists both graphically and by voice input.

Brandon Hark (,) |Colin Laubauch-undefined, undefined|Dustin Servello-undefined, undefined|Jaylene Brown-undefined, undefined [Jason Chan]
Effects of Sphingolipids on Life History Traits in C. elegans
Advancements in modern medicine in the past century have caused the average human lifespan to increase dramatically. While lifespan has been increasing, the health span, or the ability of an organism to maintain their functional abilities, has not increased in parallel with lifespan. This is why cardiac disorders and Alzheimer's disease, are all extremely prevalent in today's elderly population. Past research has shown that sphingolipids as well as insulin signaling have an impact on lifespan and health span characteristics. In particular, ceramide, which is made from sphingosine by the enzyme ceramide synthase, has been shown to promote apoptosis whereas sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is made from sphingosine by the enzyme sphingosine kinase, has been shown to promote cell survival and proliferation. However, it is unknown how sphingolipids might regulate lifespan and health span. To explore this, we examined life history traits and locomotor abilities of young and old animals using the model organism C. elegans. Life history traits assays include lifespan, reproduction, and growth. We utilized mutant models with alterations in sphingolipid signaling to test the hypothesis that increased ceramide in animals have reduced lifespan, reproduction, growth, and neuronal function. Preliminary results suggest that increasing the amount of ceramide and sphingosine reduced the lifespan, progeny size and the development rate of the organisms. Examining these mutants for changes in locomotion at different ages also showed that sphingolipids may mediate maintenance of neuronal signaling at the neuromuscular junction. With this new data, pharmaceutical research on aging reduction could focus on sphingolipid regulation in order to further increase lifespan and healthspan of an organism.

Nokota Harpster () [eil Pelkey]
Reported Deer Harvests per County
Determining the Average Reported and Calculated Deer Harvest per County per Decade. Also, comparing that average on private ground versus state game lands, using GIS.

Nokota Harpster (,) [Neil Pelkey]
How to Communicate Wildness
Have you ever found yourself reading something and felt completely lost on what was going on? Scientists spend a lot of time and money on research. But what good is all that hard work, if they can't relay their message effectively to educate an audience? A lot of times people will get lost in the data and miss the key important facts that they can take away. If you were to ask someone what they notice first from an article in a magazine, the average person would say the pictures and bold titles. These are great ways to draw in your viewers however many stop there, feeling that they have acquired all the knowledge they need or they get lost in the big words that follow. As a scientist, education of the public is incredibly important, but if we speak over their heads then they will simply be lost in translation.

Trevor Havemann (,) [J Barlow]
Politics and Space Exploration

Olivia Hockenbroch (,) [Donna Weimer]
All Ways of Loving (AWOL) shaping a student's college experience: The impact of an LGBT advocacy group's influence on identity
Drawing from Sartre's and Goffman's theories regarding identity construction, the purpose of this study is to examine how affirmation assists the identity development of sexual minorities. The identity is a more fluid aspect of a person, which is increasingly true for those who are considered to live outside of the societal norm, because they struggle to negotiate self-presentation with societal expectations. For the sexual minority youth, this is especially true; and existing research suggests that many educational institutions have limitations in regards to general informational and emotional support. For this reason, affirmation groups for sexual minority youth are found to assist self-acceptance, identity assumption, and identity commitment. Past research has explored the impact of social support from high school institutions, though little research has been done to show how a group of like-minded college students can act as a social support system. Research suggests that to identify with a group is beneficial to anyone of minority status, since it gives members a sense of validation; increased access to information; generally aids self-acceptance; and eventual individual identity development. This study argues that participating in AWOL is helpful to sexual minority students in developing their personal identity and feelings of safety.

Using the data from three focus groups to explore the effect that affirmation groups in colleges can have on their sexual minority population. This study specifically targets students that participate in AWOL and self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, intersex, asexual, pansexual, or polyamorous. It was found that while AWOL does not solve all the problems that sexual minorities experience at college, students who participated found themselves to be more secure throughout their college experience and felt empowered to influence change.

Michelle Hoover (,) |Garret Kratina-undefined, undefined|Nathaniel Selleck-undefined, undefined|Jessica Rolland-undefined, undefined [Uma Ramakrishnan]
Training and field protocols for surgical implantation of radio telemetry tags into adult brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Little Juniata River.
The purpose of this research is to design a long-term study to monitor movement of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Little Juniata River during fluctuating water temperatures. Brown trout are a popular cold-water recreational sport fish in Pennsylvania, with a preferred water temperature range of 12-19°C. However, over the last two years the temperature has consistently reached 20°C in the Little Juniata River, occasionally exceeding temperatures of 23+ ° C. First, as part of our study, we researched several techniques available to monitor fish movement including mark-and-recapture, passive integrated transponder tags, thermal tags, radio tags and sonar tags. We found that surgically implanted radio transmitters are the best option for this study because we needed year-long locational data. These transmitters allow collection of GPS coordinates and water temperature of each tagged fish. Next, we determined the number, size and sex of fish to track, and the capture location. To successfully implant the transmitters in wild fish, we practiced on dead trout and then on live hatchery trout. We recorded the time taken for the anesthetic to take effect, the time taken for us to perform the surgery, and the time taken for the fish to recover from the anesthetic. We captured 24 fish greater than 13" in length in 3 separate reaches within the river using rod and reel with barbless hooks. Finally, we verified and amended our data collection protocol by testing our procedure in the field.

Connor Hunter-Kysor (,) [Kimberly Roth]
Applying Time Series Data Analysis to Biological Data
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is speculated to be related to one's gut microbiome. We are analyzing data from Dr. Regina Lamendella's lab for specific IBD patients. We are modeling bacterial strains over time using time series methods. By investigating how these models can be applied, this assisted us in discovering biological trends. This is to attempt to find a bacterial strain which has a correlation between the flare status of the patient and the level of the respective sequences being measured. We will also be comparing concentrations of calprotectin to whether a patient is in a flare-up.

Jera'lyne Hyland (,) [Christopher Grant]
Chemical contamination and land use patterns influencing Chesapeake Bay macroinvertebrate diversification
A Chesapeake Bay Program water quality analysis (2012) indicated that 73.9% of the water contained agro-chemicals (herbicides/pesticides), industrial pollutants (PCBs), various unknown toxics, and heavy metals (mercury/iron) [Weinberg, 2013]. Toxins within the Bay have caused hypoxic aquatic environments and high frequency of low dissolved oxygen events. Extent of each impairment can be categorized according to watershed land use. The objective of this study is to characterize macrobenthic community properties relative to forested, agricultural, and urbanized land use through assessing water quality of five impaired regions of the Chesapeake Bay. Individual sites provide contamination source, exposure, as well as macrobenthic condition. This study presents preliminary Chesapeake Bay physicochemical data from March 2015 that was used to (1) identify oxygen depleted sites and (2) represent how varying contaminants influence and regulate macroinvertebrate integrity. Forested regions of PCB and metal contamination presented DO levels of 15.3 and 14.0 mg/L, while agricultural sites of PCB contamination presented DO levels between 11.5 mg/L and 12.4 mg/L. Dissolved oxygen levels were the lowest in highly urbanized areas contaminated with PCBs, Priority Organics, and/or metals (11.0-11.2 mg/L). Forested and urbanized DO levels were determined to be statistically different (P value = 0.0326), however agricultural and urbanized DO levels displayed no statistical difference (P value = 0.2065). Ongoing work includes collection of benthic macroinvertebrates and determination of Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-IBI) to identify how diversification indicates specific impairments within an estuarine environment.

Weinberg, Howard. Chemical Contaminants (2012). Digital image. Chesapeake Bay Program. 17 Oct. 2013. Web.

Oceane Imber (,) [James Roney]
Americanization of the world: truth or myth?
Travel has always been an important part of humanity. Human beings have always been curious to discover new places, as Christopher Columbus' travels emphasized. Our quest for knowledge is constant and has been highlighted through travel.The evolution of the meaning of the concept "travelling" can be linked with the evolution of our own societies. Indeed, with the development of technology, travelling has been opened, democratized and encouraged so that more people can afford the luxury of discovering the world which led to an intensive cultural interaction.
This presentation aims to show that the principle of globalization is much more complicated than one might think, particularly with regards to the United States. Indeed, the thesis of this project is that globalization is not a simple Americanization of the world.

Leah Jans (,) [Valerie Park]
Literacy Acquisition in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Research supports using phonics as a method for teaching literacy skills, however, it is not an effective method when teaching students who are deaf and hard of hearing. Phonics specifically relates to the relationship of letters and their sounds which deaf and hard of hearing students do not have access to due to their hearing loss. Therefore, these students are unable to adequately learn solely from phonics based teaching styles. This presentation will address effective methods that have been developed to effectively teach these students to read and write.

Cody Johnson (,) [Mark Pearson]
Automation of the Michelson Interferometer
The Michelson Interferometer is an experimental instrument commonly utilized in undergraduate laboratories to measure the wavelength of light. Laser light is split by a beamsplitter into perpendicular directions onto two mirrors (one fixed and one moveable), which reflects the beam back through the beamsplitter, after which, they combine to form and interference pattern. The experiment tends to be tedious as a student must slowly and precisely move the one mirror away from (or towards) the beamsplitter to sweep part of the interference pattern across a photodetector. The number of fringes detected as the mirror is moved a distance is used to find the wavelength of the laser. The purpose of this project is to automate the mirror movement process so that a student can set the distance to move the mirror and the number of trials to run, allowing for a larger, more precise data set to be collected. The automated instrument will be used to find the wavelength of a Helium Neon laser and the results will be compared to those gathered using the non-automated instrument.

Marshall Johnston (,) [J Barlow]
The Cycle of Homelessness
This paper begins with a discussion of institutional oppression. Using the crack epidemic as a historical example, I begin laying the foundation to help readers improve upon their understanding of how U.S. legal policy can contribute to the prevalence of structural oppression within our society. From there I transition into the theme of the paper by providing some background on the topics of homelessness and the prison boom. I proceed with an analysis of the cyclical nature of homelessness and its relationship to prisoner recidivism, the prison boom, and institutional oppression. The paper then comes to a close with an exploration of policy implications for the discussed issues.

Taylor Johnston (,) [Sharon Yohn]
Evaluation of Drawdown as a Management Tool for Controlling Invasive Exotic Plants
This study investigated the effectiveness of drawdown as a means of controlling invasive exotic macrophytes, specifically Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian water-milfoil) and Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrilla) in Raystown Lake, a 28 mile long reservoir in central Pennsylvania. The abundance of native and non-native macrophytes was measured at three separate regions of the reservoir each fall over the span of two years (2013 & 2014), before and after an overwinter drawdown.

Eurasian water-milfoil was present at all three sites in the reservoir, and decreased in abundance after drawdown at each site. Hydrilla was not present at one site, decreased in abundance after drawdown at one site, and increase in abundance at the remaining site. This suggests that an overwinter drawdown could be an effective management tool for controlling Eurasian water-milfoil, but not for Hydrilla.

Fatema Juma (,) [James Roney]
The Arab Spring & Identity
US news media devoted less coverage to The Bahraini Arab Spring than to the other 'Arab Spring' movements. Some speculate this is because Bahrain is "home to the US Fifth Fleet" (Mullin). My study investigates the development of the Bahraini Arab Spring movement and the role of social media. Leaders of Middle Eastern countries in 2011 were faced with the challenge of controlling people who no longer accepted oppressive regimes as governments. Bahrain's case study is important because it harbors a view of the Arab Spring that exposes the dichotomies that exist in the Arabian Peninsula between the values of universal standards of development (mainly economic development and democracy) and the security concerns of a local regime and a major global power confronting social and political unrest. The Arabian Peninsula is a place of strategic interest for global powers like the United States and the stability of a small country like Bahrain benefits the geopolitical interest of such countries in light of Iranian international relations. Moreover, the internal security concerns stem from the internal conflict between a Sunni ruling family and a Shiite-majority population that is rising to resist the Bahraini government powerful grip.

Chinami Katahara (,) [Paula Beckenbaugh]
Special Olympics Changed My Perspective
Fall semester, I did an internship at Special Olympics Japan Summer National Game Head office from June to end of December. As an intern, I was in charge of the Young Athlete Program, which was the first time attempted in Japan as a National Game event. The Young athlete program focuses on 2 to 7 year-old children who have an intellectual disability. The purpose of this program is children will promote their motor skills through exercises with their parents. I collaborated with Special Education teachers from Japanese public schools. We had several meetings to develop a program and it was a great opportunity to apply what I have learned through my college courses and practicum. In addition, I learned current Japanese special education system. The internship gave me a clearer image of my future and broadened my perspectives.

Amelia Kepler (,) [Peter Baran]
Synthesis of Purine N-Oxide Complexes
Purines as a biological molecule have been found to be useful as commercial drugs. The most common use for these compounds is to target and inhibit cancer cells from growing. As the purines incorporate themselves with nucleic acid strand, they cause a kink which prevents the DNA from replicating itself. It has also been determined that these purine derivatives have more biological activity when coordinated with a metallic center. Metals including Pt, Pd, Fe, Co, Sn, and Cu have shown promise as metal centers to the purine ligands. Purine N-oxide complexes therefore also show promise with a similar structure, but only adenine 1-oxide has been complexed with a metal ion.
The focus on the continuation of studying guanine 3-N oxide has been important. Although there are four derivatives of guanine oxide, the synthesis of guanine 3-N oxide can be done through a direct oxidation of guanine using triflouroacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Once this is isolated, a synthesis is done with the addition of CuCl2·2H2O in methanol to form a complex. Different ratios of the ligand to metal will yield either water or methanol bridging complex with the guanine 3-N oxide and CuCl2·2H2O. This presentation will focus on the synthesis of these complexes and the determination of a definitive structure of the complexes.

Collin Kessler (,) [Regina Lamendella]
CRISPRs: A Bacterial Response to Viral Elements
Certain prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria contain anti-viral defense systems known as CRISPR arrays. CRISPRs, or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats are genetically coded protein systems that utilize guide DNA to identify and cleave invading viral elements. In a CRISPR interaction, the host cell utilizes viral DNA that is integrated into the host's genome to cleave a specific virus or DNA segment. In this presentation we will discuss CRISPR expression, methods of CRISPR identification, and the potential use of CRISPR systems with respect to bioremediation and genetic engineering.

Andrew Kilpatrick (,) [Karen Rosell]
Surrealism and the Graphic Novel: Where Dreams Meet Reality
According to the first Surrealist Manifesto, published by André Breton on October 15, 1924, the intent of Surrealism was to reevaluate the realist tradition which pervaded the art world at the time, from the visual spectrum to the written word. In criticizing the novel in particular, Breton stated that it was "guilty of preventing the reader's imagination from taking flight because of its descriptive nature," and "stifling emotions by the use of psychological analysis, perforce simplistic and sterile." Surrealist art is made of the stuff of dreams, ideas of the fantastic and the power of what the human mind can produce. In essence, Surrealism represents a world that is within each of us, one which we might touch and desire in moments of the subconscious, but one which cannot be easily grasped. It is fantasy, the idea of beauty found in the marvelous, that truly composes Surrealist art. Yet while Breton was critical of the novel as an art form, one wonders what he might have thought of another literary form that has arisen in fits and spurts in the last century, often right alongside the Surrealist movement itself: the graphic novel. Graphic novels, just like Surrealist art, draw much of their inspiration from dreams and fantasies, and are one of the most prolific art forms to do so. This thesis examines the connection between Surrealist art and comic books, by using the works of Surrealist artists Rene Magritte, Salvador Dalí, and Max Ernst, and comic book creators Jim Steranko, Neil Gaiman, and Alan Moore, showing a connective relationship beginning in the 1960s and continuing to this day.

Heidi Kleber (,) [Donna Weimer]
Call me Ganymede: A Feminist Critique Using Bormann's Fantasy Theme Analysis of Shakespeare's As You Like It
Elizabethan England's theater differs from contemporary theater. In the Elizabethan Era, it was conventional to witness young boys in female clothing and roles as females did not appear on the stage at all. This gender-switching from the male actor to the female character was even further challenged in some of Shakespeare's later comedies. The female characters often took on a masculine disguise. This meant that young male actors played a female character that then cross-dressed as a man in order to move the plot forward or achieve an objective. In As You Like It, this gender switching is iconic in Rosalind's character. There is a young boy actor playing Rosalind, who then gender-switches to a boy, Ganymede. Ganymede represents a second imaginary "Rosalind" in order to get closer to Orlando and then switches back to his role as the male Ganymede and the female Rosalind.

Bormann's work with fantasy-theme analysis argues that an audience shares a rhetorical vision: a shared belief among a community of people triggered by a word or phrase from the rhetor (Foss 123). For an Elizabethan audience, I argue that Shakespeare's choice of language creates a shared rhetorical vision about the complexity of gender switching. Through a feminist lens, I apply a fantasy-theme analysis to understand the shared rhetorical vision on gender and gender switching in As You Like It. Patriarchal themes helped the young boy actors in playing feminine roles that involved gender switching. With the elimination of some patriarchal conventions, contemporary women have a harder time playing some of the roles that these young boys mastered. Additionally, contemporary females playing these roles do not suggest the homoerotic feelings to the audience and other actors. Further research is focused on contemporary renditions of As You Like It to examine the modern complexity of gender-switching characters.

Heather Kleber (,) [James Tuten]
"Horseshoe Curve Marked": How Operation Pastorius Brought World War II to the Juniata Valley
This presentation focuses on one aspect of my senior thesis, the German targeting of Horseshoe Curve in Altoona, PA in Operation Pastorius during World War II. Operation Pastorius was a German sabotage mission aimed at destroying or damaging three aluminum companies, the Philadelphia Salt Company's cryolite factory, and vital choke points of the US railroad infrastructure including the Ohio River, Hell Gate Bridge, the Pennsylvania Railroad Station, and the Horseshoe Curve. In 1942, Horseshoe Curve was a four track railway system carved into the Allegheny Mountains. The design of the 1,800 foot Curve proved to be an ingenious engineering solution for moving men and material over the Alleghenies. It connected major port cities along the East coast, such as Philadelphia to industrial Pittsburgh and cities such as Cleveland and even Chicago. After the federal government announced the capture of the saboteurs, local newspapers carried the story of Operation Pastorius nationwide. Local columnists and newspaper editors of Huntingdon's Daily News and Altoona's Altoona Mirror published their own articles, editorial cartoons, and photographs about the saboteurs. Newspaper publishers also printed syndicated stories from Washington D.C. sources such as Washington News Correspondents, the United Press, and NEA Phonephotos. Syndicated newspaper articles reinforced the saboteur story as an FBI victory, while, local newspapers columnists focused on the importance of Horseshoe Curve in Operation Pastorius. Taken together, these stories made coverage from late June until the saboteurs' death by presidential order of electrocution in early August of 1942.

David Knecht (,) [Larry Mutti]
SEM CL map and Fluid Inclusion map comparison of growth in Quartz from Fairgrounds Road, Huntingdon, PA
A faceted quartz crystal collected from a vein cross-cutting rocks in the Hamilton Group, Fairgrounds Road in Huntingdon, PA was the basis for this project. SEM Cathodoluminescence (CL) mapping and also light microscopy were used to compare growth bands and fluid inclusions within the quartz. The CL map shows growth bands in an asymmetric pattern growing outward similar to an onion in some places. Towards the center, the growth bands are irregular and truncated, which shows irregular growth over time. The fluid inclusions within the sample are small (2-10 μm) two-phase fluid inclusions. By doing homogenization and freezing studies, the salinity of the solution can be determined using the light microscope. There are areas found on both the CL map and the light scope which can be matched up and related to one another which would signify primary entrapment, but other parts don't match up which would imply secondary entrapment of fluid inclusions. These results tell a story of growth and fluid entrapment within the quartz. The different growth bands show how the quartz grew over time, and the inclusions show what liquid was entrapped. There are also gaseous inclusions trapped within the quartz as well.

Vincent Knecht (,) [Jill Keeney]
Finding ORFans a Place to GO: Characterization of S. cerevisiae ORF YLR042C
The yeast genome was the first eukaryotic organism to have its whole genome sequenced in 1996. Since then most of the S. cerevisiae genome has been characterized, but 10% of 6604 open reading frames, or ORFs, in the yeast genome are nonessential and remain uncharacterized. These ORFs, named ORFans, are genes with conserved homology in similar species but no homology in other organisms and have little to no past study. One of these ORFans of particular interest is YLR042C. This ORF is interesting because it is a Glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-cell wall protein and has only been found to increase xylose fermentation in industrial yeast strains. YLR042C has also been found to be upregulated during cell wall stress, indicating the protein may potentially play a role in cell wall stress and biosynthesis. This study looks to characterize YLR042C by using RNAseq analysis and several biological assays to understand the function of this protein.

Mitsuki Koh (,) [James Roney]
The relationship between conventional and traditional medicine in the Gambia
The presentation is based on the research that I conducted during the summer of 2014 with Center of Innovation against Malaria, a public health organization in the Gambia. The study is focused on peoples' attitudes towards conventional medicine and traditional medicine in the Gambia. The perspectives of three groups were evaluated in this research: conventional practitioners, traditional practitioners, and the patients. The West tends to generalize traditional medicine as spiritual beliefs that are against more secular Western medical practices. My study revealed that people in the Gambia have different views towards different kinds of traditional medicine understanding them as healing source for either psychological trauma or physical problems. It is concluded that people int he Gambia rely on both conventional medicine and traditional medicine sometimes interchangeably and distinctively.

Erik Krueger (,) [Alison Fletcher]
Pride and Prejudice: An Examination of the Nazi's anti-Semitic Propaganda Campaign
This presentation analyzes the methods used by Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich in their anti-Semitic propaganda movement. It will condense key aspects before the 1933 election and their continuation up to and including the year 1941. I will discuss how film and print media were very influential in persuading many stoic Germans into becoming Anti-Semitic believers, helping Hitler accomplish the Final Solution from 1942-1945.

Erik Krueger (,) [Judith Benz]
Wolfram and the East - An Examination of how German Medieval Poet Wolfram von Eschenbach understood the East in
This presentation discusses the two major works of the medieval German poet, Wolfram von Eschenbach. Wolfram lived in the early 13th century and has been enjoyed by audiences ever since. Parzival and Willehalm are known for their highly-inventive plots, but this presentation will focus on the conversion of one character from each story from Islam to Christianity and what effects that has on the story. It will also briefly explore his thoughts on Islamic culture and beliefs and will illustrate his lack of knowledge in the Middle East.

Paul Kuhn (,) [Loren Rhodes]
Telemedicine: Analysis of Benefits and Framework for Implementation
Telemedicine is a healthcare enhancing technology that has the potential to increase efficiency and effectiveness of individual patient care and healthcare as a whole. I am seeking to identify and analyze the main benefits of telemedicine to the healthcare field, and to develop a framework that outlines the most important requirements for successful telemedicine implementation. It is my hope that through this research, healthcare professionals will be informed about telemedicine and its ability to impact healthcare organizations in a positive way.

Aaron Kulig (,) [Christopher Grant]
Temperature Dependent Estrogenic Response in Salvelinus Fontinalis (Brook Trout)
Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a highly temperature sensitive fish, were acclimated to two temperature regimes (8° and 16°C) and exposed to a nominal concentration of 125 ng/L 17-beta-estradiol for 27 days. Several physiological parameters including sex, SSI, and HSI, as well as blood plasma levels of vitellogenin (protein egg precursor) in each fish were analyzed. Rigorous development of rapid isolation and quantification of vitellogenin will be achieved by taking advantage of a universal assay utilizing a phosphoprotein binding fluorescent dye in SDS-PAGE. Physiological parameters suggest Brook Trout acclimated to higher temperature regimes are more responsive to estrogen exposure (HSI p-value<0.001). Vitellogenin analysis is pending.

Emily Kutz (,) [Sarah Clarkson]
Bilingual Education in the United States: The Demand, the Need, the Responsibility, the Numbers
According to figures from the United States Department of Education in 2011, there are 5 million English-language learners enrolled in American public schools, and the number continues to grow. For educational, economic, social, and moral reasons, we have a responsibility to accommodate these students in our schools by providing a bilingual education program that serves to help them assimilate, and which ensures their successful academic transition. Bilingual education programs are necessary in the public education system of the United States to accommodate the influx of English-language learners, maintain their bilingualism, and allow them to find success in school and their communities.

Marshall Leland (,) [Jill Keeney]
Functional Characterization of ORFan YCL-042W and YIL-169C
Functional Characterization of ORFans YCL-042W and YIL-169C

Marshall Leland, Dr. Jill Keeney. Department of Biology, Juniata College

Brewers yeast, otherwise known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was one of the first eukaryotes to have its entire genome sequenced and is considered to be an excellent model-organism due to its short growth cycle and easily manipulated DNA. Though completely sequenced by the end of 1997, 712 of the 6,607 open reading frames (ORFs) are still categorized as unknown. YCL-042W and YIL-169C, two of these uncharacterized ORFs, were identified by collaborators in genome wide functional screens. This project aims for functional characterization of these two ORFs. Via deletion strain construction, RNA purification, and cDNA synthesis using reverse transcriptase, a library was constructed and sequenced using Illumina technology. Currently, we are in the process of analyzing the results from the Illumina sequencing and determining the protein location using fluorescent microscopy that detects the RedStar C-terminal tagging. The analysis of the genetic sequence and location of the protein, along with the information on the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) will allow us to develop functional hypotheses and ultimately design specific experiments to determine the function of the gene of interest.

Adam Lescallette (,) [Daniel Dries]
In vivo γ-Secretase-Mediated Cleavage of Slitrk5
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of cognitive function. It is caused by the accumulation of an insoluble protein fragment known as Aβ, which is produced by γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). γ-secretase is an enzyme complex that, in addition to Alzheimer's pathology, has been implicated to be involved in other neurological diseases. Knockout of the nicastrin gene of γ-secretase in the oligodendrocytes of mice results in a schizophrenic-like phenotype, with large skin lesions forming around the neck and back due to excessive grooming, as well as hyperactivity and exploratory tendencies. The Slitrk proteins are a family of six brain-specific proteins. Knockout of Slitrk5 from germline cells in mice causes an obsessive-compulsive-like phenotype. Like the nicastrin knockout mice, they too groom excessively, but centered around the eyes and mouth. Because of the phenocopying and the structure of Slitrk5, we hypothesize that Slitrk5 is a γ-secretase substrate.

Adam Lescallette (,) |Vincent Knecht-undefined, undefined [Daniel Dries]
Student Reflections from an Upper Level Problem-Based Learning Biochemistry Course
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical method structured around the idea of a student recognizing his/her own barriers in learning a particular topic. Here, we as students reflect upon our experiences in an upper level PBL course in biochemistry that uses the primary literature as the framework for the class. The theme of our class was the native South American poison known as curare. Students were given articles to read outside of class and were asked to come to the next class with specific "learning issues" identified. (A learning issue is any question that impedes the student from fully understanding the information given in the article.) In class, these learning issues were addressed in small groups. This method is particularly appealing to some students, as it is logical and systematic - as a student is forced to question his/her understanding, the student more naturally probes deeper into the problem being experimentally addressed. After a few weeks, we students saw that there was one major problem: students were not able to focus on the most important aspects of each article without a little direction from the professor. When direction was given, it was much easier to work through each article from the general to the specific. Moreover, retention of information became easier as the method relied less on memorization and more on deeper understanding. PBL allows for the systematic solving of learning issues in a way that is easiest for the student, allowing learning to happen organically rather than rigidly. An inherent criterion for the success of PBL, however, is the students' willingness to recognize his/her own ignorance, which may be the biggest struggle for some.

Elana Levine (,) [J. McKellop]
The Buffer of a Screen: The effects on levels of anonymity on judgment
The brutality of cyber-bullying has been traditionally attributed to the anonymity that the internet allows us. My study looks to see if varying levels of anonymity will affect levels of aggression in judgments of female "selfies" by males. Anonymity will vary on two levels; the presence or absence of a researcher and whether the responses will be spoken or typed. I predict the most aggression will be found in the group that type their responses without the researcher present and the least aggression will be found in the group that spoke their responses in the presence of a researcher. If both groups that speak their responses have lower levels of aggression then this could indicate that the use of voice-to-text- software could alleviate the instances of cyber-bullying.

Elana Levine (,) |Shayna Yeates-undefined, undefined|Kathryn McElwee-undefined, undefined|Alexis Albright-undefined, undefined|Jacqueline Bryers-undefined, undefined|Claire Moulder-undefined, undefined|Sophie Chambers-undefined, undefined|Jecenia Duran-undefined, undefined|Chau Tran-undefined, undefined [Philip Dunwoody]
What Would Authoritarians Do? Social Norms versus Submission to Authority
Authoritarianism research has traditionally measured submission to authority and conventionalism using the Right Wing Authoritarianism scale (Altemeyer, 1981). Feldman argues that those high in authoritarianism hold attitudes that value social conformity over autonomy and are motivated to maintain social order and his (2003) Social-Conformity Autonomy (SCA) scale measures authoritarianism in terms of conventionalism. Since previous research has either confounded submission to authority with conventionalism or failed to include submission to authority at all, it is unclear which construct is more relevant for authoritarians. Our previous study showed a clear preference by authoritarians to support the leader when the leader contradicts a non-traditional social norm. Our current study aimed to replicate our previous finding and determine if the results could be generalized to traditional social norms; we hypothesized that it would not. The current research presents scenarios where leader preference and traditional social norms conflict as a means to determine if authoritarians have a consistent bias for leader preference or traditional social norms. We tested for a relationship between a measure of Leader Bias, the SCA and Dunwoody and Funke's Aggression, Submission, and Conventionalism (ASC) subscales measuring conventionalism and submission to authority. Leader Bias was significantly correlated with not only with the ASC subscale measuring submission to authority, but also in the ASC subscale measuring conventionalism and in Feldman's (2003) SCA scale. Our study replicates our previous findings and in addition shows that when presented with traditional social norms authoritarians show a consistent bias for the social norm over the leader. The results of these studies combined show that when a leader is in conflict with a traditional social norm people high in authoritarianism are more likely to support social norm maintenance; however, if the leader is in conflict with a non-traditional social norm leader support is more likely.

Lauren Liacouras (,) [Hannah Bellwoar]
This is Awkward
A painful, yet reflective examination of love in a time of ill-fitting pants and acute social anxiety.

Kelsey Livoti (,) [Donna Weimer]
Social Media and Rural Healthcare: A Data Analysis of its Relevancy and Role in a Small Community
Social media has become an increasingly powerful tool utilized by today's business world. Its exponential growth and popularity is becoming of greater interest to healthcare systems. It is slowly changing how healthcare systems communicate within their organization and with their consumers. Acknowledging social media's expanding acceleration, hospitals in rural communities are starting to pay attention. Recognizing that rural communities are unique in their technological use, exploring how they use it and what they use it for requires further study. My research explores a rural community's use of social media in the particular area of healthcare. Using social capital theory to guide my discussion, I investigate a small hospital in a rural community's place in the social media world, and explore how their healthcare system can benefit from its use.
To address this issue, I administered a twelve question survey distributed to individuals in the rural community of Huntingdon, Pennsylvania with a response rate of 337 people. I analyze this survey and conduct a data analysis that interprets the responses of the survey in a meaningful way. This exploratory survey aims to gain a better understanding of how a small community utilizes social media in regard to healthcare, and tackles the issue of its relevancy. I argue that social media has a beneficial place in rural healthcare and can be utilized by healthcare systems to increase social capital. I suggest ways in which healthcare systems can engage their rural communities through social media networks.

Kate Lorenzen (,) [Henry Escuadro]
Counting Cayley-Sudoku Tables
A Cayley table is a generalized multiplication table for a collection of objects or a group. It naturally follows that every element of the group appears exactly once in every column and every row. This requirement is one of the rules of placing numbers in the popular game Sudoku. In addition, a Sudoku table requires each element to appear exactly once in every inner box. A Cayley-Sudoku table is a Cayley table that follows the rules of a Sudoku table. Carmichael, Schlowman, and Ward in Cosets and Cayley-Sudoku Tables examined ways to construct a Cayley-Sudoku table and we use one of these methods. In particular, we count the number of Cayley-Sudoku tables can be constructed. Some of these tables have the special property that one can be obtained from another by interchanging rows and columns. We determine what conditions are necessary for this to occur in order to accurately count how many such tables there are.

Allison Lutz (,) [Christopher Grant]
Net-spinning Caddisfly (Hydropsychidae Diplectrona) Gill Morphology and Stream Characteristics in the Marcellus Shale Basin of Northwestern Pennsylvania
Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a relatively new process introduced in Pennsylvania to extract the natural gas deposits located in the Marcellus Shale basin. This process has been known to cause fish kills, contamination of aquifers that provide drinking water, and increase salinity in streams and nearby fields if spills occur. This study aimed to determine if fracking has any impacts on gill morphology of aquatic macroinvertebrates (presumably as the result of decreased DO levels).Gills of individuals of the genus Diplectrona (n=10 individuals per stream; n=6 streams) were mounted on slides using CMPC-9 Macroinvertebrate mounting medium and gill width measurements were made using dark field microscopy. It was found that stream was a significant predictor of gill width, but that status (Fracked or Not Fracked) was not significant (Stream: F4,59= 8.868, P<0.001 Status: F1,59=1.316, P=0.315). Stream pH was positively correlated with IBI scores (R=0.9958, P<0.001) and pH was significantly lower at the fracked sites compared to the not fracked sites (P=0.0495). Total number of tracheal gill breathers was found to be higher at not fracked sites compared to fracked sites; although there was no correlation found between percent of tracheal gill breathers and dissolved oxygen levels. This study found that the greatest variation in gill width occurred within Stone Run (60.82 ± 10.16 µm) and Iron Run (66.54 ± 9.29 µm), both of which are fracked sites, compared to the other four sites (standard deviations were 6.3 µm and below; one site was fracked: Alex Branch). This study is one of the first to look at macroinvertebrate gill width in relation to fracking, but was limited by the small sample size.

Arielle Maines (,) |Robert Baronner-undefined, undefined [Ryan Mathur]
Chloride and Nitrate Concentrations in Huntingdon County Waterways
Road salt application can have a significant effect on the amount of chloride ions in natural waterways. Additionally, agricultural practices such as the application of synthetic fertilizers and the production of animal waste also have the potential to contribute significant amounts of nitrate to natural waterways. Water samples were taken from various rivers and streams in Huntingdon County in order to map the changing concentrations of these ions from September 2014 through March 2015. Samples were taken from five testing sites located at points on the Shaver's Creek, Juniata River, and Standing Stone Creek waterways. The testing sites were chosen based on their proximity to roads and agricultural institutions. The samples were analyzed for ion concentrations using a Dionex Chromatograph. The Shaver's Creek waterway displayed a chloride increase from 20.11 ppm in autumn to 25.64 ppm in winter and a nitrate increase from 14.57 ppm in autumn to 25.12 ppm in winter. The Juniata River showed a chloride increase from 25.12 ppm in autumn to 30.23 ppm in winter and a nitrate increase from 6.94 ppm in autumn to 10.55 ppm in winter. The Standing Stone Creek waterway displayed a chloride increase from 6.91 ppm in autumn to 21.60 ppm in winter with a nitrate increase from 2.58 ppm in autumn to 5.81 ppm in winter. The chloride concentrations from all sites indicate an increased application of road salt and the nitrate concentrations indicate increased drainage from agricultural properties into local waterways.

Tyler Mandley (,) [Mark Pearson]
Improving Quality in 3D Prints by Using an Arduino Controlled Heated Print Bed
In recent years, 3D printing has been a rapidly moving field with numerous applications. 3D printing involves creating models from successive layers of material being laid down on top of each other. One relatively early 3D printer Juniata College has is a CubeX, which has had a number of problems with consistently working. One of these problems is the choice of printing material [filament used] is cooling too quickly, causing the edges to peel up as the print progresses. The solution to this problem that new 3D printers incorporate is the usage of a heated print bed that allows each layer of printing material to cool at a slower rate so that it can bond to other layers. Many new printers have this feature as a standard and gives exponentially improved prints. The aim of this project was to create an Arduino controlled print bed to prevent objects from peeling during printing. The heated print bed will make the prints more consistent, reliable, and improved once it has been put into play.

Shannon Manley (,) [Mark McKellop]
Basic Mental Health Education Effects on Public Attitudes of Mental Illness
Interventions used to decrease negative public attitudes toward mental illness tend to focus on education and personal contact. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of an introductory psychology section on mental illness and treatments to affect the knowledge and attitudes students have. Students who were enrolled in the course completed a self- report survey both before and after the lesson which measured their general knowledge of, attitudes toward, and personal familiarity with mental illness. It was predicted that those with intimate familiarity would have the highest knowledge and most positive attitude scores at baseline; knowledge scores and attitude positivity were expected to increase for everyone between the pre- and post-tests. Suggestions for further research include the examination of interventions that incorporate both education and personal contact.

Benjamin Martin (,) [Christopher Grant]
Mercury Accumulation in Stocked Trout
Mercury (Hg) accumulation in aquatic ecosystems, specifically within fish, is often monitored to protect human's health. Mercury has the potential to build up in the tissue of organisms, especially at higher trophic levels, like fish, and therefore can be a danger for humans who consume fish. Pennsylvania contains 107 different bodies of water that have special consumption advisories due to either high levels of Mercury or PCBs. However, stocked trout are regulated by a blanket one-meal-per-week consumption advisory. In 2015, an estimated 3 million stocked trout will be harvested in Pennsylvania, of which the current blanket consumption advisory could be over or under estimating the stocked trout's typical Hg concentration. To quantify the Hg concentration in a typical stocked trout, samples will be collected from the Raystown Branch of the Juniata River, Shavers Creek, and Standing Stone Creek in Huntingdon County on the opening weekend of trout season from the three most common species of stocked trout in Pennsylvania: brown, brook, and rainbow (7-10 samples of each).

Kymberly Mattern (McCoy) (,) [Alison Fletcher]
Nazi Ideology of Women
In 1933, when the National Socialist Party came to power in Germany, the party had specific gendered expectations for women. These expectations include providing Germany with many children and running a 'German' household. When the war started, women were still expected to run a 'German' household and to provide Germany with many children, but they also had to balance these tasks with work outside the home. Women were needed in the workforce, especially in agriculture and in factories, to help with the war effort. This presentation will explore National Socialist propaganda to reveal what was expected from German women from 1933 until 1945, and will reflect on the changes in gendered expectations during the Third Reich.

Christopher McLimans (,) [Regina Lamendella]
Comparative Genomics of Hydrocarbon Degrading Microbes
A major concern with the Deepwater Horizon well blow-out that spilled more than 4.1 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico in spring/summer 2010 was the fate of the oil following the leak. From the blow out site, a large underwater plume of oil and natural gasses leaked into the gulf. While it is known that certain bacteria have the ability to degrade hydrocarbons, the contribution by specific members of the microbial community towards degradation is largely unknown. In this study biotraps were place at different depth in the gulf near the location of the blowout to enrich for hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from these biotraps and their genomes were sequenced using a combination of Illumia and PacBio sequencing platforms at the Joint Genome Institute. High quality draft genomes were retrieved for eight isolates. The sequenced genomes were assembled and annotated using Integrated Microbial Genomes and functional genomic analysis was completed with the KEGG database to examine the functional genes that provide the capability for hydrocarbon degradation. The data gained from the Ahrensia, Alcanivorax, Colwellia, Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, and Tenacibaculum analysis were evaluated for common pathways and genes for that relate to hydrocarbon degradation ability.

Forest Miller (,) [J. McKellop]
Social Modeling to Reduce Disgust Toward Eating Insects
Entomophagy, the practice of consuming insects, is a common feature in a large portion of the world. However, it is not socially accepted within most of Europe and North America where it is considered disgusting to even consider insects as edible. The present study was performed to assess the perception of entomophagy and to increase our knowledge of the factors that contribute to acceptance of this novel food. Furthermore, the study assessed the potential occurrence of social modeling and its effect on the likelihood of trying a roasted cricket. It was hypothesized that factors contributing to entomophagy related disgust would be similar to those factors previously found to contribute toward other novel, consumable animal products. Additionally, it was predicted that the confederate model would affect these factors contributing to disgust. The implications of understanding entomophagy related disgust are discussed with the opportunity to integrate edible insects into the Western culture's palate.

Shelby Miller (,) [Karen Rosell]
Confronting Fear: Modern Interpretations of the Holocaust Inferno
The Holocaust was a horrific period in history where the Nazi regime nearly decimated six million Jews, among others. Many artists lived through this genocide and their personal experiences have compelled them to dissect the evil in this period through their art. Often, conventional Holocaust artwork renders its victims in an empathetic manner. The Swastika is also important to analyze in accordance with this era as it, too, is associated with suffering and death. In contrast to the Nazi party's belief that this symbol stood for affecting and creating life, it is believed by many more contemporary viewers to be synonymous with torture weapons and pain. Modern artists also grapple with themes that require the viewer to gain the perpetrators' perspective, to view pornography, death, and the effects of consumer culture and technology on genocide. This harsh subject matter forces a personal confrontation that generates strong emotions towards these difficult themes. Generally, viewers not only feel sorrow for those that were tortured but confusion and disorientation as well. Confronting these fearful images highlights global events that have impacted society in a major way, raising awareness for genocide.

Kyle Moody (,) |Kyle Moody-undefined, undefined [William Thomas]
Firewall Configuration
Firewalls have been around since security for computers was invented. In recent months however, the government has begun planning to get rid of nearly all firewalls in use by the government agencies. Their reasoning is that it is too difficult to access Top Secret information between agencies when their are multiple firewalls to go through. But I believe having multiple firewalls are crucial to security and that Top Secret information should remain guarded intensely.

Kyle Moody (,) |Lucas Navin-undefined, undefined|John Tomchick-undefined, undefined|Brittany Mlynek-undefined, undefined|Doug Smith-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
Nanotechnology and the Military
Nanotechnology and the future of the military go hand in hand. Future applications of this technology will transform the military by revolutionizing medicine, equipment and soldier identity. These technologies will focus on healing soldiers both on and off the battlefield and other technologies will look to make them more effective war machines. No matter what they are used for though, they will be developed using nanotechnology.

Marjorie Moreno (,) [J Barlow]
Vargas Llosa: Literature and Politics
Vargas Llosa, in his ardent desire to change injustices which, at the time, makes him turn to revolutionary socialist politics, is still the same that, thirty-six years later, argues him to enter the presidential race with a programme of economic liberalization and democratic consolidation. In reality, Vargas' ideas about literature and the writer in society have changed little (if anything) over the course of the years. His call for freedom-specially freedom of speech, which he has always regarded as the basis of a free society- and his denunciation of the lack of freedom in countries or organizations, is as vigorous as it was when he began his career. The objective of this presentation is to bring awareness to Vargas' theory of the humanizing effect of literature, inciting the desire to change and improve reality corresponds to the role of fiction as a motor of progress.

Ariel Mouallem (,) [Peter Baran]
Synthesis and Characterization of Pyridine N-oxide Complexes
The development of catalysts that facilitate enantioselective epoxidation of asymmetric olefins would be extremely useful in chemistry. Previous to the discovery of Jacobsen's catalyst, catalysts for directed epoxidations had been discovered, but they required specific functional groups on the reactants to achieve the desired high enantiomeric excess. In order to facilitate an unlimited number of reactants you need to change the scheme to not depend on the bonded interactions. This is essentially what Jacobsen's group did using a manganese coordinated Schiff base complex as the catalyst for an epoxidation of asymmetric alkenes.
Stemming from the unsuccessful synthesis of an analog to Jacobsen's catalyst, three new ligands were desired: poxbta, H2poxbta, and 2,2'-(2,2'-disulfidodiphenylbis(imminomethyl))bis(pyridine N-oxide). Copper (II) and Zinc complexes have been synthesized with these ligands and full characterization through means of infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and x-ray crystallography have been completed. The idea is that these complexes can be used as a catalyst in the enantioselective epoxidation of asymmetric alkenes, just as Jacobsen's catalyst. However these complexes are not exactly the same as Jacobsen's catalyst and may affect the active site differently during catalysis.

Colton Myers (,) [William Ames]
Electrocatalytic Activity of Metal Centered Porphyrin Thin Films
Nature's water oxidation catalyst's (WOC) play a very important role in the conversion of solar energy into usable chemical energy for higher plants and photosynthetic bacteria. Here we present artificial WOCs consisting of water insoluble porphyrins that are drop-cast onto ITO coated PET electrodes, similar to previous research, which showed Co(II) porphyrin films on ITO coated glass slides had the capability of electrocatalytic water oxidation.1 Further investigation proceeded to test Mn(III) centered porphyrins for WOC capabilities. The synthesized metal centered porphyrins were characterized via UV-Vis while the catalytic activity of the drop cast thin films was determined by electrochemical techniques.

Han, A; Jia, H.; Ma, H.; Ye, S.; Wu, H; Lei, H; Han, Y; Cao, R; Du, P PCCP, 2014, 16, 11209.

Brea Neri (,) |Brea M. Neri-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
The "I" of Malala: A Cluster-Agon Analysis of her Advocacy for the Education of Young Girls Worldwide
Malala Yousafzai, just 17 years old in July of 2014 has been named one of "The Most Influential People in the World in 2014" by Time Magazine, projected her message to thousands in the United Nations, and earned the title of the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. She has quickly become an international symbol for human rights, specifically the education of young girls and women.

Using Cluster-Agon Analysis, I investigate two speech artifacts for the purpose of understanding Malala's attitude and motive. As Kenneth Burke states, "Language reflects, selects, and deflects meaning as a way of shaping the symbol systems that allow us to cope with the world." Malala utilizes language in a compelling way that comes across as humble and sincere, while using her own hardships as an empathetic and symbolic construction to unite people globally towards a common goal. I conduct a sensitive textual analysis of Malala's language in her speech to the United Nations Youth Assembly on July 12, 2013, as well as her more recent Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech on October 10, 2014. I argue that through her speeches, a tension arises between her self-referencing use of "I" and her inclusive use of "we" and that Malala emerges as a key symbol that encapsulates the more general struggle for girls' education. I explore and connect the ideas and themes that frequent these speeches by using the key terms: "I," "We," "Rights," "Taliban," "God," and "Voice." By attending to the frequency and intensity of her language use, the textual analysis reveals her god and devil terms and ultimately, her attitude. A rhetorical perspective of language as symbolic action significantly contributes to a more concrete understanding of how her style and focused message is so powerful and persuasive.

Amberle Nickas (,) [Belle Tuten]
"Suffer Little Children": The Burial Grounds for Unbaptized Infants in Early Modern Ireland
Baptism held an important role Irish society before and during the Catholic Counter-Reformation in the seventeenth-century. During the early stages of the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Synods of Ireland had taken a special focus in the proper administration of the sacraments, baptism being a particularly important sacrament. Those who were not baptized were denied the right of an ecclesiastical burial following their death. During this time the development of cilliní, a burial ground designated for unbaptized infants, began appearing across the Irish landscape. This presentation will focus on the beliefs relating to unbaptized infants in Early Modern Ireland as well as the history of cilliní, such as theories of origin, location, and the archaeology of these sites.

Julia Noack (,) |Julia Noack-undefined, undefined [Paula Beckenbaugh]
Connecting with the Community
There are many initiatives out there trying to connect with or build a stronger community, so why not choose something we all love? Food is a great way to connect with others, and you can use it as an educational tool in the process. I will talk about a job I had the past two summers working with underprivileged teenagers, what we did, how I taught them, and most importantly how they taught me, changed me, and even changed my POE.

Abby Nolan (,) |Jaylene Brown-undefined, undefined|Hannah Hrobuchak-undefined, undefined [Jason Chan]
Effects of Sphingolipids on Stress Response
Changes and fluctuations in an environment act as stressors on a population; heat stress is one such stressor. When cells are exposed to an environment with excessive heat, proteins undergo changes in conformation and kinetic properties, resulting in loss of function and possibly cell death. An animal's ability to respond to heat exposure is mediated by factors, including age and the presence of cell survival factors. In particular, heat stroke is a serious injury in the elderly, and identifying factors regulating heat stress will be important. One cell survival factor that may influence the animal's ability to respond to stress is sphingolipids. Sphingolipids are bioactive molecules that are interconverted by metabolic enzymes. In particular, these enzymes can regulate the abundance of a sphingolipid ceramide, a cell death factor, while other enzymes produces sphingosine-1-phosphate a cell survival and proliferation factor. Interestingly, sphingosine and ceramide levels increase with age, but it is unknown whether this change impacts heat stress. We aim to understand the relationship between sphingolipids and an organism's age, and how this relationship impacts the organism's stress response. Using the model organism C. elegans wild type and sphingolipid mutants, we exposure animals of different ages to heat stress. We hypothesize that older animals will have a decreased resistance to stress when compared to younger animals. Also, we hypothesize that sphingolipid mutants that limit sphingosine-1-phosphate production will have a decreased resistance when compared to wild type animals as well as sphingolipid mutants that do not limit sphingosine-1-phosphate production. We show that animals with increased sphingosine and decreased sphinogosine-1-phosphate are more susceptible to heat stress. Thus, our data implicate that regulating sphingolipid levels may combat heat stress.

Rika Opio (,) [Karen Rosell]
The Devil, Demons, and Damnation, Oh my!: Demonic Portrayals in Art
The idea of damnation has tormented many throughout the ages. Heaven's path is flanked by demons who wish to steal souls and drag them to Hell, tempting people into straying from the righteous way. Earthly pleasures become more alluring than devotion. Evil uses force to invade the bodies of holy people. Women are prone to falling victim to Satan's will. They can be seduced into serving him.
Ghastly images based on these themes have often been portrayed in art, specifically from the Middle Ages through the Renaissance, when the church was highly influential. Paintings and illuminated manuscripts served as cautionary tales, illustrating the horrors that may have been faced in the afterlife if lives were lived sinfully. At the end of life, souls were to be judged, and depending on how pure they were, persons could have found themselves eternally surrounded by hellfire. My thesis will focus on the reasons behind the images of: judgment and Hell; Satan, demons and demonic possession; witches and seductresses; and the temptation of St. Anthony. I will also shed light on how these themes have evolved in a modern age where the church exerts less power and influence.

T Nang Pan (,) [James Roney]
How Identity Politics Affect Myanmar
According to Benedict Anderson, national identity or nationality arises from the idea of imagined communities, in which people believe that they belong to a certain group of people who arise from the same blood origin, speak the same language or stay in a certain region with them. These nations are imagined in that it is impossible for everyone in the so-called community to know everyone else in the community. Nonetheless, the idea of nationalism is so ingrained in people's mind that it is impossible for them to imagine themselves without belonging to a nation.
From this imagined nationality and identity arise the ideas of 'otherness' and 'oneness.' People see themselves as belonging to one group and not to the other group. This separation of one group from another can lead to ethnic tensions and conflicts. Additionally, when different types of identities coexist in a country, it is harder to achieve the minimum threshold capabilities for all citizens because the majority identity can control the rights of the minorities and limit their capabilities.
Myanmar is an excellent case study of how ethnic conflicts and human rights abuses arise out of the idea of nationality and multiple identities and affect the achievement of minimal threshold human capabilities and development in a country. Myanmar has a long history of ongoing civil wars due to the government's attempt to force one main national identity (being Burmese and Buddhist) on a population in which various identities coexist. These conflicts lead to difficulties in achieving minimal threshold human capabilities in Myanmar. The presentation explains what these identity conflicts could mean for achieving development in Myanmar.

T Nang Pan (,) [James Roney]
The HIV/AIDS successes and failures in South Africa and Indonesia
Public Health and the policies which try to shape it are complex because they involve not only the multiple dimensions of healthcare within a country (healthcare workers, facilities and patients) but also many factors that are not related to health. International politics, local governmental policies, sociocultural practices, and socioeconomic structures fundamentally shape the public health of a country and determine whether that country can successfully eliminate an epidemic. The development of HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Indonesia illustrates how the aforementioned factors have led to successes and failures in eliminating and reducing the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

The presentation explains the factors shaping the forces behind the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa and Indonesia, showing the similarities in the factors which affect the epidemic in each country and the similarities and differences in the ways both countries have responded to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The presentation will also explain what the different sectors of public health in both countries have learned from their failures and successes and how the future of HIV/AIDS looks in each country.

Jung Bin Park (,) [James Roney]
Global Citizenship and Climate Change
The thesis of this paper is that climate change can mark the beginning of a new phase of modern globalization by awakening people's consciousness of global citizenship. This study firstly examines the meaning and necessity of global citizenship in this day and age of highly interconnected and interdependent world. Then it lays out the three issues that requires global citizenship: Promoting Peace, Addressing Economic and Social Injustice, and Protecting the Earth. After this examination, it further studies people's abiliy to develop global citizenship by looking at Jeremy Rifkin's book Empathic Civilization. Fianlly, it shows how global climate change might have a positive effect on people's development of global citizenship.

Stephen Park (,) [Alison Fletcher]
Cold War Politics and the Olympic Games
During the Cold War era the Olympic games became a stage for conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. This presentation looks at the summer Olympic games starting with the 1936 Berlin Olympics and then focuses on the period between 1968 and 1980 culminating with the United States boycott of the Moscow Olympics. This thesis critically analyzes the political events that took place during each Olympic games and their role during the broader Cold War era.

Jonathan Partsch (,) [Jill Keeney]
Identification of Proteins that Co-immunoprecipitate with RTT105 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Bakers yeast, S cerevisiae, is a well studied fungus and has become a model organism for biological research. Ty1 is a retrotransposon and contains several long terminal repeat regions flanking the Gag and Pol genes. Ty1 is regulated by the host cell and Gag particles assemble in the cytoplasm through interactions with host cell proteins. RTT105 is an uncharacterized gene and is a negative regulator of native Ty1 mobility. Fluorescent microscopy experiments show that Ty1 Gag co-localizes with Rtt105 and indicates that they interact. It may be that Rtt105 protein binds with protein products of Ty1 Gag, or other genes. Co-immunoprecipitation is a technique that can identify binding interactions between proteins by using antibodies. Here I will be using antibodies to Ty1, Gag and Rtt105 TAP-tag to investigate to see if Rtt105 binds to Ty1. If successful, future studies will look to see if there are other proteins interacting with Rtt105

Kate Passannante (,) |Kate Passannante-undefined, undefined [Richard Hark]
The Scienctific Analysis of Portrait Miniatures
A variety of analytical methods were used as part of a multidisciplinary approach to study the Juniata College Museum of Art's collection of American and European portrait miniatures. In this presentation the specific analytical tools employed to identify the pigments and other materials used to create these portraits will be presented. Several non-invasive and non-destructive spectroscopic and imaging approaches were used to preserves the miniatures in their original condition. We will discuss the science behind techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, X-ray radiography and X-ray fluorescence, and learn how ultraviolet and infrared light was used to learn more about paintings.

David Paul (,) [Douglas Glazier]
Environmental influences on the ontogenetic body-mass scaling of gill surface area in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus minus
Interspecies analysis of the ontogenetic body-mass scaling (growth rate relative to body size) of gill surface area among gammaridean amphipods has suggested that gill development is strongly influenced by environmental factors, primarily metabolic demand and ion availability. However, little is known about how environmental factors influence gill surface area scaling among conspecific populations. Therefore, we compared the ontogenetic body-mass scaling of gill surface area among eight naturally occurring populations of Gammarus minus inhabiting central Pennsylvania springs that differed in pH, conductivity, temperature, predation regime, and amphipod population density. We hypothesized that gill surface area should be strongly related to oxygen-requiring metabolic demand, which is in turn influenced by the presence of fish predators. If so, gill surface area scaling should mirror that of the scaling of metabolic rate. Correlation analysis supported this prediction, though analyses of the observed scaling relationships suggested a more complex picture. At large body sizes, relative gill surface area appeared to vary among populations in accordance with metabolic predictions. However, at small body sizes, interpopulation variation in relative gill surface area was not explainable in terms of the effects of fish predation on metabolic demand or any other environmental effects examined. The influence of various environmental factors on ontogenetic body-mass scaling of gill surface area in G. minus appears to vary in an age-specific manner. Further analyses of additional populations with selected environmental differences may help us better understand the nature of these influences.

MaryElizabeth Petrie (,) [Matthew Beaky]
Exploring non-equilibrium behavior using the Ising model
Systems that are in thermodynamic equilibrium have no net change in energy and have a uniform temperature distribution. The probability of finding the system in a certain configuration is defined by the canonical distribution. However, equilibrium systems are not common in nature, so the purpose of this study is to compare equilibrium and non-equilibrium steady states through computer simulations using the Ising model, a simple model for ferromagnetism. With this model, there are a collection of sites which can contain either a spin up or spin down particle that can interact with their neighboring sites. Two Ising models were simulated using Mathematica: one in contact with two heat baths of the same temperature, and the other with two baths of different temperatures. A comparison of the equilibrium versus non-equilibrium system will be presented.

Daniel Phillips (,) Daniel Phillips-undefined, undefined|Ankara Shepard-undefined, undefined|Caitlin McCann-undefined, undefined|Kayla Causer -undefined, undefined [Anne Gilman]
Improving Auditory Stimuli for Cognition Research
Individuals are often quicker to take a holistic or global interpretation of a stimulus than to focus on its individual components; this tendency is called global-local precedence (Navon, 1997, 2003). However, in both visual and auditory modalities, this precedence is less common in individuals with autism (Mottron, Peretz, & Menard, 2000). A previous study assessed the ability of individuals with varying levels of musical education to distinguish global versus local trends in pitch (Gilman & Ebbets, 2013). Several of the auditory stimuli used suffered from clipping and thus weakened the study's internal validity. Results indicated that individuals with a higher level of musical education outperformed others in regard to global processing, while research by Ouimet, Foster and Hyde (2012) provided opposite results. The differences between the studies could be a result of differences in definitions of musical training. Additionally, the triplet note sequences used by Ouimet et al. (2012) would be more familiar to musicians than the octave "chirps" utilized by Gilman and Ebbets (2013). Resolving questions about the role of music training will require better stimuli, as 20 out of the 44 stimuli showed some clipping ranging from 1% to 47%. All stimuli have been recreated in Audacity, using the same frequencies and amplitudes from the original study. Currently, the original data collection software, PEBL, is malfunctioning when using both old and new stimuli. However, new software is being sought out to conduct the research. We hypothesize that global processing will be more difficult for non-trained individuals due to less access to ways to meaningfully organize complex auditory input.

Kaitlynn Plummer (,) [John Bukowski]
Hark! How the Bells: A Study of Inversions in Change Ringing
Change ringing is the act of ringing a set of bells in a specific arrangement so that no order is repeated more than once. The idea of change ringing has been around for centuries and has fascinated musicians and mathematicians alike. This research seeks to explain the basics of change ringing and how it relates to a specific idea in combinatorics. We will define inversions and make observations about them for particular arrangements of bells

Brandon Reis (,) [Donna Weimer]
The capacity of the visual arts to destroy cultural and generational compartmentalization: An alternative to verbal language, which induces "the negative"
John Dewey argues in the Art as Experience lecture series that the enemy of humanity's natural state is language: language can be just as bad as it can be good. Language allows tasks to be completed with a sense of urgency and efficiency, but with this efficiency comes a loss: society forgets that each individual has not only a unique identity but also a unique viewpoint. That, somehow, even those who share the same "identity" through self-identification by language, whether it be race, ethnicity, sexuality, gender, have completely different experiences with the world around them. In an effort to communicate, Language does not take into account this unique experience. However, as Dewey details time-and-time again, art does.

This research seeks to reveal the consistent drawbacks of language as a limiting medium of expression. In the long run, language has done more damage to the human psyche across each generation by separating us from our natural human condition. Society has forgotten what it means to be part of a natural process, instead opting to be ruled by the artificial selfhoods symbols provide us. However, art plays a role in the long-term opposition of language. Art has the capacity to showcase a culture's attitudes, values, and beliefs, therefore their experiences as well, without the necessity of translation or previous knowledge of said culture. A medium accessible to all, art has become a driving force in breaking boundaries, reminding society that even with our newfound "individuality" all humans are capable of engaging in art.

Through an analysis of John Dewey's argument in Art as Experience where he presents the increasingly dangerous phenomenon he calls, "the Human Contribution," I use this work to explain the genuine importance of an undivided, complete world experience and art's role over language, in supplying one. This research details what it means to be "inventors of the negative," as Kenneth Burke deemed a defining characteristic of language users. I then argue that society has used language as a crutch forsaking holistic understanding for efficiency and introduce the long and short-term benefits of both mediums: art and language. Through a concise review of The Fallen Angels by Salvatore Albano, among other works, I argue Dewey's Human Contribution is attainable and understandable. As a consequence, I conclude that society has an obligation to itself to invest in art. This investment in art has more worth to society's well being, as it creates a holistic understanding on the communal and individual level, across cultures and generations.

Brandon Reis (,) [Karen Rosell]
Matisse and Picasso: How Their Rivalry Fueled Their Astonishing Abstractions
Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse are assuredly two of the most influential artists at the dawn of modern art. Not friends, nor lovers, nor even enemies, in fact, the two shared a distinctly unique relationship�?"a rivalry�?"that pushed each to produce extraordinary works. It seemed that fate alone was the primary factor of their initial meeting, and prevalent throughout their unpredictable game, pushing the boundaries of what was considered tolerable art at the time. At first, it was strange that two artists with a twelve-year age difference between them, one a Spanish prodigy while the other was the founder of the Fauves, would compete with one another. Upon analysis of their works, however, it becomes obvious why the two would engage in a dialogue that would change modern art forever.

Picasso, the Apollonian of the two, gave primary focus to form through his obsession with line. Matisse, however, chose the Dionysian route, finding inspiration in Delacroix and Cezanne to manipulate light and color to achieve form. While each shared a different method, the realm in which they worked remained the same: the mastery over dimensions of flat space. The influence they had over each other cannot be disputed. Some of Picasso's greatest works were born from artful disputes with Matisse and, much later, the two would eventually engage in an about-face, with Picasso beginning to understand the importance of decorative color over linear structure and Matisse giving color a tangible existence with his cutouts, the ultimate physical form. The two possessed the power to be both the antagonizer and the antithesis of one another. Both artists engaged in a dialogue where, consciously or subconsciously, they would creatively borrow from and implement each other's techniques. The goal of this research is to showcase, through comparisons between their artworks, just how Matisse and Picasso fueled each other.

Jacklyn Renninger (,) [Paula Beckenbaugh]
A Look into Early Education in Ireland
During the fall semester of the 2014-2015 school year I studied abroad in Cork, Ireland. Along with experiencing higher education internationally, I got to spend three hours a week in The Greenmount School. Through this opportunity I was able to compare the Irish education system to what I have experienced through my practicum placements from Juniata's education department. I spent my time in a junior infants classroom, which included ages four through six. Though there were some similarities between the Irish system and the Pennsylvania system that I have experienced in Huntingdon and Juniata Valley schools, differences included the country-wide use of Montessori schools to prepare children for primary school. Ireland uses the Primary School Curriculum, which is taught in all institutions. The curriculum implements religion and celebrates the uniqueness of the child. Because of the major differences in the curriculum used in Ireland, many of my observations and experiences were also very different from what I was used to. These differences will be discussed in comparison to the type of educational system used in the Huntingdon County and Juniata Valley School Districts.

Sarah Roberts (,) |Desnor Chigumba-undefined, undefined [Matthew Beaky]
Shape and Spin Modeling of Asteroids through Lightcurve Inversion
Unlike planets, asteroids have not undergone differentiation, so they have recorded details of the solar system's evolution. Their rotational lightcurves, which show the amount of sunlight they reflect toward Earth while rotating, are acquired using photometry. CCD images of multiple asteroids were taken during the summer of 2014 using Juniata College's sixteen-inch Meade LX200-GPS Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope with an attached SBIG ST-8XME CCD camera and a SBIG ST-i guide camera and at Lowell Observatory using their thirty-one-inch reflecting telescope with a 2Kx2K Loral CCD camera. The images were calibrated using Maxim DL before lightcurves were generated for 199 Byblis, 660 Crescentia, 65 Cybele, 1842 Hynek, 855 Newcombia, 547 Praxedis, and 490 Veritas. These lightcurves were combined with others from online databases to generate shape and spin axis models using MPO LCInvert. Final models were determined for 199 Byblis, 537 Praxedis, 855 Newcombia, and 490 Veritas. These models can be used for calculations of the Yarkovsky and Yarkovsky?"O'Keefe?"Radzievskii?"Paddack (YORP) effects. Understanding how asteroid orbits change over time is important for classifying their families and predicting their orbits.

Abigail Rosenberger (,) [Regina Lamendella]
Relationship between fish gut microbial communities and environmental mercury concentrations
The mechanism of mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems is a mechanism that has important impacts for understanding ecosystem heath. Many species of bacteria possess the ability to transform mercury either from its inorganic form to its methylated form. With respect to the fish gut, discovery of the role of bacteria in mercury transformation and accumulation has been dramatically supported by the advent of metagenomics sequencing, which allows for the taxonomic and functional analysis of uncultivable bacteria. This study examines fish gut microbial communities and their relationship to internal and environmental mercury concentrations. Water and Salvelinus Fontinalis were collected from 19 streams in western Pennsylvania in the summer of 2012. Stream water and fish organs were tested for methylmercury and inorganic mercury. Bacterial DNA was extracted from fish gut contents, and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified through PCR. Bacteria were assigned operational taxonomic units using QIIME and the 2013 greengenes database. Abundances were correlated to mercury levels using spearman correlations. Further trends were visualized using Phyloseq. Visualization of OUT abundances in Phyloseq bar plots revealed broad variation in the overall microbial composition of the streams. In general, OTUs correlated similarly among all measures of mercury. The families Enterococcaceae and Clostridiaceae, the class Mollicutes, and the orders Rhizobiales and Lactobacillales positively correlated with mercury concentrations in the stream water. The relationship between these bacteria and mercury concentrations suggests bacteria in the fish gut are responding to mercury concentrations. Of these bacteria, the families Lactobacillacceae, and Clostridiaceae, and the genus Lactobacillus have the potential to reduce toxicity caused by methylation through demethylation and have been shown to contain genes related to mercury resistance including the Mer operon. While further research is warranted, this study highlights which members of the fish associated microbiomes are likely involved in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of mercury.

Michael Roth (,) [William Ames]
Characterization of Carbene Intramolecular Reactivity with Various Substituents through Computer Modeling
Carbenes are molecules that contain a neutral carbon bonded to only three atoms resulting in a pair of non-bonded valence electrons. This produces an interesting reactivity between the carbon and electron donating atoms. When these carbenes are paired with an amide anion or carboxylic acid anion on the same molecule, a three-membered ring can be observed using computer modeling techniques. This research focuses on which substituents and ligands encourage the carbene to form these three membered rings.

Jacob Rowe (,) |Jacob Rowe-undefined, undefined|Jung Bin Park-undefined, undefined|Eric Lambert-undefined, undefined [Jeff Krause]
Health and Growth Rate of Containerized American Chestnut Plantings in Response to Media and Mycorrhizae Fungi
The American chestnut tree (Castanea dentata) was the dominant tree species throughout most forest communities in the Eastern United States, until the Asian bark fungus (Cryphonectria (Endothia) parasitica) was introduced in the U.S. during the early twentieth century. Cryphonectria parasitica, also referred to as chestnut blight, devastated the American Chestnut population, causing death to billions of mature trees. Chestnut blight drastically changed forest composition and structure within affected regions. Attempts have been made by the American Chestnut Foundation and other organizations to reestablish American chestnuts in their native ranges. This effort involves backcrossing blight resistant Chinese Chestnuts (Castanea mollissima) with pure American chestnuts. The ideal product is a blight resistant tree that is 15/16th American Chestnut and 1/16th Chinese Chestnut. The focus of our study was to examine health and growth rates of the backcrosses in various media. Six different soil compositions were used: 100 % peat moss, 50 % peat/50 % perlite, 25 % sand/75 % peat, 100% peat with fungi, 50% peat/50% perlite with fungi, and 75% peat/25% sand with fungi. We arranged them in a latin square matrix in a greenhouse and measured growth rate over time, as well as health, to determine the best growing media. This study will help the restoration process by advancing the understanding of media use in backcross plantings.

Kyle Salage (,) [J Barlow]
Greece has been embroiled in a debt crisis since 2009, which led to the European Central Bank coordinating a ?240 billion bailout as a rescue plan. In return for this bailout, Greece accepted a contractual agreement to partake in austerity measures, structural reforms, and eventually repayment. It is now 2015, and Greece has discovered that it is not in a position to pay off its debts, even despite the 53.5% "haircut" that it was granted in 2012. A four month extension was reached in February of this year to avoid Greek bankruptcy, Greece and the Troika?"the European Council, the ECB, and the IMF?"are seemingly stuck in a stalemate at the bargaining table. Led by the far-left Syriza party and Prime Minister Alex Tsipras, Greece is tired of the growth-inhibiting austerity measures, and that it desires to have some?"or, preferably, all?"of its debt forgiven. The Troika, represented by unofficial spokeswoman Chancellor Angela Merkel, says that Greece has already asked for too many favors. If it cannot pay back its debt and continue the proscribed austerity measures, then it ought to leave the Eurozone via a "Grexit", an unprecedented suggestion given that no member nation has left the Eurozone before. The most likely outcome, however, is compromise between the two sides. The Troika cannot afford to let Greece leave, for the possibility exists that it may succeed and thereby encourage other Eurozone nations to go out on their own as well. The Greek population, meanwhile, is still heavily in favor of remaining in the Eurozone, and its Syriza leaders will ultimately have to balance their far-left platform with the practicalities of dealing with the Troika.

Anthony Salpietro (,) [J Barlow]
The Right to Be Forgotten: Expression and Privacy in the US and the EU
The right to be forgotten is a controversial new Internet data protection law for citizens of the European Union. This is the ability to request companies like Google to remove links which are harmful. In the United States, groups are divided on the feasibility of this law. This presentation will lay out the arguments for and against this measure in the EU and the US, and what that means for law and society going forward as the amount of information published about individuals grows

Zachary Sanna (,) [Emil Nagengast]
Xi's Dream: The Chinese Dream and China's Quest For "National Rejuvenation"
What is the Chinese Dream, and what does it represent? More importantly, what aim does the Chinese government, particularly president Xi Jinping, have in propagating the Dream? This paper analyzes the Chinese Dream by examining scholarly literature, Xi's words and actions, news articles in domestic publications, government propaganda materials, and interviews I have conducted with Chinese students in Shanghai. My analysis reveals that the Chinese Dream is inextricably linked to Xi's leadership goals. Seen as a strong leader and Chinese Communist Party reformer, Xi has embarked on several controversial campaigns aimed at restoring legitimacy to the Party and strengthening his rule. His leadership goals are embodied in the Chinese Dream's evocations of patriotism and national rejuvenation. An analysis of the nationwide campaign that has been used to disseminate propaganda about the Dream reveals that the exact policy changes the Dream may herald are purposefully ambiguous. This allows the Dream to serve as a convenient political vessel, allowing Chinese citizens and leaders to literally "dream" about what Xi might do to repair China's political system. Yet after examining Xi's own words and actions, this study reveals that the Chinese Dream is far from insignificant. Xi sees himself as a strongman leader and potential savior of the much maligned CCP. For Xi, the Chinese Dream serves as a reaffirmation of the legitimacy of CCP rule over China, as well as his role in restoring China to its former glory. In this context, the Chinese Dream's effective use by Xi as a political statement becomes clear: After decades of successful CCP rule, China is once again knocking on the doors of greatness. Xi Jinping is here to knock those doors down.

Jessica Scales (,) [Jill Keeney]
RTT105 in Ty1 retrotransposition: a possible role in virus-like particle (VLP) assembly
The mRNA of retrovirus-like transposons encodes the envelope and replication proteins (gag and pol), and serves as the genomic material for virus-like particles (VLPs), a cytosolic structure in which the element's genome is reverse transcribed. In the genome of Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), there are several families of such retrotransposons, including the abundant Ty1 element. Ty1 contains several long terminal repeat (LTR) regions flanking the gag and pol genes required for VLP assembly and Ty1 mobility. In S. cerevisiae, genome-wide screens have identified numerous candidate genes that mediate Ty1 retrotransposition activity. One of these candidates, RTT105, was identified as a negative regulator of native Ty1 mobility in a Ty1 suppressor screen by Scholes et al. 2001. Here, we show RTT105 as a positive regulator of galactose-induced Ty1 mobility at non-permissive temperature. Because RTT105 is uncharacterized and contains no conserved domains, the nature of the role of RTT105 in Ty1 retrotransposition activity remains unknown. We identified that rtt105 mutation does not interrupt Ty1 translation, Gag protein processing, and reverse transcriptase activity in mature VLPs; therefore, RTT105 must function prior to cDNA synthesis and subsequent to co-translational translocation of Gag at the endoplasmic reticulum. In permissive conditions, Rtt105p localizes at discrete cytoplasmic Ty1 Gag foci, suggesting a possible role in VLP assembly and maturation. Growth in stressful environmental conditions, such as the presence of galactose or glucose deprivation, triggers Rtt105p and Ty1 Gag protein localization at the vacuole. Interestingly, rtt105 mutation inhibits movement of cytoplasmic Ty1 Gag protein to the vacuole in the presence of these stressors. This result illuminates an important step in the processing and regulation of retrotransposons and suggests an additional route for which the host cell actively maintains Ty1 activity in variable environmental conditions.

Haley Schneider (,) [Donna Weimer]
Political Dialects: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceived Bias in Democratic and Republican Speech
In American politics, the success of a political party depends on how its candidates communicate their values. Party identification hinges largely on narrative outlook and issue ownership. The two main political parties, Republican and Democrat, separate from each other by selecting different values and issues to call their own. Naturally, each party has developed a separate language to frame political issues in a way that highlights the strengths and downplays the weakness of their party. Partisan language is perpetuated through the way politicians speak and how the media frames political issues. Voters identify with a particular party by adopting this language into their own discussions.
This study explores the way partisan voters talk about the economy and the extent to which perceived bias can hinder bipartisan communication. I interviewed ten voters who identify with one of the two main political parties: five who identify as Republicans, and five who identify as Democrats. Each participant is asked to read a paragraph about the economy that contains language used by the opposite party. Words with similar meaning are substituted in for one another, so that Democrats read the Republican words and Republicans read Democratic words. Participants are asked to identify the bias of the paragraph; circle words that they feel are biased, and explain what the words mean to them.
I argue that partisan voters find it difficult to point out specific biased words. I infer that voters who are active in politics are able to determine bias based on a "gut feeling" that comes from absorbing partisan discussion in the media. This research is important to the study of bipartisan communication, which is becoming increasingly more difficult. This study contributes to a greater understanding of ways that Republicans and Democrats frame an economic issue that matters to an effective American politics.

Catherine Scholl (,) |Catherine Scholl-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
A Fantasy Theme Analysis of crisis communication management in social media: how joining the conversation saved the reputations of the Red Cross and FedEx
The debate whether or not businesses should create social media accounts to connect with consumers is over. As of 2014, 93% of marketers use social media for businesses in the United States. Research has proven social media participation positively influences relationships between consumers and organizations. But what happens when these accounts are abused? By using Bormann's Fantasy Theme Analysis, I examine the rhetoric of mission and vision statements crafted by the American Red Cross and FedEx in order to piece together the individual shared rhetorical visions that the organizations created to bond with their consumers and shareholders. I then explore their social media mishaps that devalue and discernibly raise questions among followers regarding each company's reputation. I analyze the crisis communication executed to revive the fantasy themes necessary for symbolic re-convergence.
With the Red Cross I examine their Twitter feed for the month of February 2011, as well as every public tweet containing the hashtag #gettingslizzard from the time of the mishap to the present. With FedEx I examine a YouTube video created by a disgruntled consumer as well as the video response created by the CEO of FedEx. To finalize my research, I analyze the crisis communication implemented through the lens of Fantasy Theme Analysis, which reveals how re-convergence can occur.
The constraints and speed of social media have changed the face of PR and crisis communication. I argue that the implementation of effective PR and crisis communication are more imperative than ever in repairing and reviving the shared rhetorical visions that have been challenged through these social media crises. Joining the online communication gives organizations the ability to change the direction of the conversation. I argue through appropriately executed crisis communication the American Red Cross and FedEx turned mishaps into opportunities to create new constructs for symbolic re-convergence with their followers.

Katie Schroeder (,) [Chuck Yohn]
Relationship between invasive plants and wetland use by migratory birds in central Pennsylvania
Bird migrations are energetically expensive, and multiple stopover sites with abundant food sources are required along the way for refueling. A conservation concern is that invasive plants can affect the quality of available food sources. This study examined if occurrence of invasive plants in wetlands is related to the bird species or guilds observed. A site with no invasive plants, Old Crow, was compared to a site, Fouse's Crossing, with the following berry-producing invasives: Rosa multiflora, Elaeagnus umbellate, Lonicera morrowii, and Berberis thunbergii. Old Crow showed overall higher avian species diversity and statistically higher densities of kingfishers, warblers, sparrows, blackbirds, granivores, and long- and short-distance migrants. Only corvids and starlings were more abundant at Fouse's Crossing. The prediction that frugivores would be more abundant in the presence of berry-producing invasive plants was not supported. Between-site differences may be attributed to other habitat quality factors.

Derek Schultz (,) [J Barlow]
Changing United States foreign policy to ensure lasting peace in the Middle East
In this paper, I examine the United States' foreign policy pertaining to the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. The 65 year long history of Israel is one of contention, and political strife with everyone in their direct geographical area. Fighting between Muslim Arabs and Jewish Israelis has been ongoing since the late 1940s fostering a mistrust that is at the heart of the political confrontation. The Current political climate is one hostile to peace while the arbitrating country is seen as bias towards Israel. I will illustrate the two differing political philosophical strategies used by the last two United States administrations. After I give an accord of the contentious history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, I use current political strategies in order to theorize two alternate philosophical solutions to the Israeli-Palestinian peace. The first solution is based off the realist perspective and advocates for a one state solution, while the second solution is based of the idealist perspective and advocates for a two state solution grounded in individual and political freedom. Both of the alternative solutions are aimed at creating a lasting peace.

Derek Schultz (,) [Dennis Plane]
Newspaper Coverage of Presidential Policy in the United States and Great Britain
Do British newspapers focus more attention on public policies than do American newspapers? To answer this question, I examine the extent of public policy coverage related to the 2008 presidential election in both U.S. and British newspapers. I examine newspaper coverage during the month-long span immediately preceding the 2008 presidential election between, Barack Obama and John McCain. I have chosen to examine policy in two U.S. papers ( the Washington Post and the Denver Post) and two British papers (the Guardian and the Daily Telegraph). Within each paper, I examine the amount of policy coverage in three specific policy areas: the Iraq War, health care, and energy policy. I find that U.S. newspapers had more articles mention each policy, however the British newspapers had a higher percent of news articles mention the policy multiple times. This research allows us to understand the relationship between U.S. media consumers and British media consumers pertaining to the 2008 U.S. presidential election. British readers craved more substantive coverage based on the number of articles that contained multiple mentions of a contentious public policy. This is in stark contrast to the cursory coverage of public policy that U.S. readers were given.

Arnold Schwemmlein (,) [Henry Escuadro]
Studying Nonlinear Systems of Equations Using Newton's Method and Microsoft Excel
This study used Newton's Method for nonlinear systems of equations to numerically solve a particular system of two equations that arose in a physical problem. Since a single application of Newton's Method delivers only one solution, Newton's Method was applied to all seeds in a specified domain to identify all solutions in that domain. The considered system had two solutions on all domains used, and, depending on which solution it converged to, each seed was color-coded and plotted. The implementation was done in Microsoft Excel using Visual Basic. The plot showed characteristics of a fractal, so it was concluded that the multivariable Newton's Method exhibits chaotic behavior, like the one variable Newton's Method. Finally, the fractal was analyzed using a multivariable fixed point analysis.

Dustin Servello (,) [Jason Chan]
Role of Sphingolipids in Aging, Locomotor Healthspan and Lipid Metabolism
As people age, various bodily processes begin to decline. Aging degrades tissues, decreases movement and increases susceptibility to diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and dementia. These neuronal degenerative conditions involve a failure of old, poorly-maintained neurons being unable to produce strong signals at neuromuscular synapses, or the junctions between muscle and nerves. One type of molecule that regulates the signaling rates in the neuromuscular synapses is sphingolipids, which are involved in the formation of lipid rafts and synaptic recycling important for neuronal function. These molecules also regulate the growth and survival of neurons. By altering the concentrations of these molecules, the progression of various diseases could be retarded. Alterations in these molecules' concentrations can be achieved through genetic mutants that lack enzymes responsible for the production of them. However, mutations are hard to study in humans for lifespan and developmental studies since humans have a long lifespan, don't produce many offspring per generation, and mutations to the human genome are not easily controlled. In order to more easily study these mutations, the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was used. C. elegans are easily mutated, have a short lifespan, reproduces in large quantities, and is widely studied in the field of aging. Visual and pharmacological locomotor assays were performed to study movement differences between wild type and sphingolipid enzyme mutants. By analyzing a panel of mutants that have various changes in sphingolipid content, we can model how lipid signaling at neuromuscular synapses change in aging neurons. Further study in this field could one day produce preventative treatments to halt the degeneration caused by aging and allow for the elderly to move more comfortably for longer.

Katharine Shelledy (,) [Wade Roberts]
Misdirected Scientific Criticism in Rousseau's "First Discourse"
In Rousseau's "First Discourse", he responds to the Academy's question with a controversial depiction of Enlightenment's consequences; at odds with his contemporaries, Rousseau extols "ignorance, innocence, and poverty" while characterizing science and the knowledge obtained through its application as "fatal arts". However, the principle components of Rousseau's defense reflect issues of superficiality in society; his true criticism therefore lies with humanity's pride rather than their scientific undertakings. Rousseau establishes from the beginning that he defends virtue rather than abuses science and concludes by endorsing the melding of scientific and political spheres, yet Rousseau's argument neither aligns with nor supports these assertions, thereby undermining his own antagonistic portrayal of science. Rousseau errs in idealizing the uninformed, misdirecting his social criticism, and overlooking that science at its best yields truth, a universally accepted virtue. To resolve these errors, knowledge must be reevaluated so that its definition reflects knowledge's role in the path to truth. Similarly, pride must be held apart from science; Rousseau's criticism of science can be reduced, essentially, to a discourse against human pride. A reformed scientific community that is devoid of pride would serve Rousseau's purpose more adequately than complete abolishment of scientific pursuit.

Katharine Shelledy (,) [Vincent Buonaccorsi]
Genetic Differences in Brook Trout Populations
Pennsylvania has been undergoing marcellus shale hydraulic gas extraction, more commonly referred to as "fracking," at increasing rates for more than a decade. Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) serve as a key indicator species, as they are only found in high quality streams, and are therefore of interest for monitoring adverse environmental impacts generated through fracking of natural gas. This ongoing study aims to analyze how fracking-based pollutants have influenced brook trout population dynamics within fracked and not-fracked watersheds. Twenty-three populations of brook trout in northwestern Pennsylvania are being analyzed to find loci containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) between "fracked" and "not-fracked" brook trout populations. These SNPS will provide insight into the brook trout genes most significantly impacted by fracking, utilizing STACKS population genomics software and multivariate statistical analysis techniques. The results will reveal the extent to which marcellus shale hydraulic gas extraction has impacted brook trout on a genetic level.

Katherine Shoemaker (,) [Jill Keeney]
Characterization of YML020W and YGL117W in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a single-celled, eukaryotic yeast commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast. As a model organism, genes can be easily inserted and removed allowing researchers to utilize deletion genetics to better understand the function of open reading frames (ORFs) within the S. cerevisiae genome. ORFs are characterized using gene ontology, which includes three categories: biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. The characterization of genes within the S. cerevisiae genome is of importance in order to understand the functionality of these uncharacterized genes. Through a better understanding of how genes and their products interact with one another, we can gain a better understanding of S. cerevisiae as a model organism. The purpose of this study is to characterize two S. cerevisiae ORFs, YML020W and YGL117W. In order to further the understanding of the structure and function of these ORFs deletion strains of YML020W and YGL117W were constructed. Isolated RNA of the deletion and wildtype strains was used to create cDNA libraries to be sequenced with Illumina and their transcriptomes were compared to observe differences in gene expression. To determine the location of the gene within the cell, the protein product associated with each gene will be fluorescently labeled at the C terminus and observed using fluorescence microscopy. These strategies will add details to gene ontology.

Kortney Showers (,) [Valerie Park]
Utilizing Technology in the Literacy Classroom
This presentation will focus on utilizing technology in the literacy classroom. Current research points to the need for teachers to implement the use of technology to help students improve their ability to read and write. The ultimate goal for teachers is to be able to choose technology that meets every student's needs and create lifelong learners, while meeting goals and standards of the curriculum.

Ashley Snyder (,) |Brianna Watt-undefined, undefined|Justin Waldorf-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
Social Media Effects On Identity
Social Media has become a large part of our everyday lives. We need to make sure that we understand where the social media movement is taking us and what it means for our future. The social media movement has caused a shift from group communication, which affects our identity through changes in interpersonal skills, marketing and privacy. Most would argue that the social media movement has caused us to have more of a group identity but we argue the opposite, social media has in fact created a more individualized identity for online users.

Ashley Snyder (,) [William Thomas]
CAPTCHA in actually an abbreviation for Completely Automated Public Turing-test to tell Computers and Humans Apart. A CAPTCHA is a visual test to help differentiate between human users and bots. Bots can be used to assist in stealing user information. A CAPTCHA prevents that from happening by providing an obstacle for the bot because it can't read the CAPTCHA display. The goal of this project is to inform users how the CAPTCHA, or the updated reCAPTCHA, helps to prevent data from being stolen online.

Bradley Spayd (,) [Mark Pearson]
Using an Arduino to Improve Data Collecting for Undergraduates
Over the past decade, Arduinos have allowed hobbyists, students, and professionals alike to explore the world of microcontrollers. An Arduino is a type of microcontroller, or minicomputer, which uses an open-source electronics platform to sense and interact with its surroundings. Arduinos are inexpensive, portable, easy to use, and customizable. They have a wide variety of uses, which could include running an RC car, controlling a robot, or monitoring a home automation system. A variety of sensors can be attached to an Arduino, which are controlled by a program written in a language similar to Java.

For this project, a temperature sensor, LCD screen, and sound sensor from a SeeedStudio starter kit are connected to an ArduinoUno. Data is displayed onto the LCD in real time and then recorded. The intent of this project is to develop an Arduino that would be powered by a solar panel, set in a remote area, collect temperature, humidity, and audio measurements, among other possibilities, and then record this information onto an SD card. This system could be used for twenty-four hour wildlife monitoring or for studying weather patterns.

Mitchell Stanton (,) |Ben Souders-undefined, undefined|Will Lupold-undefined, undefined [B Halloran]
Developmental Methodology of Inter-Watershed Transport of Benthic Macroinvertebrates
Miller Run is a cold, headwater stream located in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. Widespread acid mine drainage (AMD) associated with intensive coal mining operations over a 150-year period produced suboptimal water quality that reduced aquatic biodiversity. Since 1998, the Shoup's Run Watershed Association and the Huntingdon County Conservation District, have worked to remediate the effects of AMD pollution throughout the system. As a result, Miller Run now contains a healthy, reproducing population of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). However, in contrast, a robust, species-rich community of benthic macroinvertebrates (BMI) has not been documented. The paucity of BMI appears to result from episodic acidic runoff that retards the development of a stable, abundant invertebrate community.

Our study focused on developing a simple, low-cost technique that would allow the introduction of BMI into Miller Run. To accomplish this we deployed leaf packs in regionally comparable streams that were relatively free of any anthropogenically-induced stressors. We selected Laurel Run, Shavers Creek, and Trough Creek (all in close proximity to Miller Run) as potential BMI "donor" streams. The long-term goal of this project was to both identify and develop a protocol, utilizing leaf packs, of transplanting BMI into Miller Run in order to re-colonize and eventually supplement the diet of the native brook trout. This process could eventually be utilized in other streams that have chronic non-normal environmental perturbations that result in subpar BMI communities.

Mitchell Stanton (,) [B Halloran]
Zooplankton Communities of Raystown Reservoir, PA
Surficial and subsurface rotifer and microcrustacean zooplankton densities were compared between the three different zones (lacustrine, transitional, and riverine) of Raystown Lake in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. Surficial samples were collected using two 65-μm push nets and subsurface samples were collected using Kemmerer samplers. Physicochemical data was recorded at each sample site. Rotifers, copepods (adults and copepodites), nauplii, and cladocerans were identified in each sample. We evaluated differences between sample sites for total zooplankton and taxa specific densities for each sampling week using ANOVA. Statistical differences were observed between sample sites for each week. Rotifers were the most abundant, conversely cladocerans were the least observed in the study.

Gregory Stewart (,) Jason Boblick-undefined, undefined|Chris Bomgardner-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
Survaillance and Security
We researched the idea that the balance between surveillance and security online is adversely
affecting our ability to control our digital identity, and explored how we can use the internet and keep our information safe.

Nicholas Stone-Weiss (,) [Matthew Beaky]
Photonic Bandgap Modeling by Use of Coaxial Cables
In recent years, photonic crystals have been studied widely as their total reflective properties lead to very high efficiency. By transmitting light of a certain frequency along photonic crystal pathways, this light will reflect back and forth in a certain pattern. Coaxial cables can be used to replicate the flow of light that takes place at the nanoscale. By using assemblies of coaxial cables, constructive and destructive interferences are shown due to variance in length and impedance of cables. By generating the necessary signal and using a spectrum analyzer, an optical bandgap can be displayed and manipulated, which is defined as a frequency range in which transmittance decreases significantly. Additionally, by adding defects to the cable assembly via 93 Ω impedance cables, certain frequencies within the bandgap can be transmitted. Through alterations in the cable assemblies used, bandgaps were successfully engineered and defects were utilized, both of which can have a direct relationship to the photonic interactions taking place on the microscale and nanoscale in materials.

Leila Terrab (,) [John Unger]
Developing a Synthesis of α-Diazoamides
Carbenes that are stabilized by an anionic β-heteroatom display unique nucleophilic reactivity. While carboxylate carbenes have been synthesized and studied, the analogous amidate carbenes have not yet been realized. This body of research reports a three-step synthetic strategy that allows the synthesis of α-diazoamides, the immediate precursors of amidate carbenes, from acyl cyanides. The development and optimization of this strategy will be reported.

David Toole (,) [Regina Lamendella]
Identification of a Shell-Degrading Family of Cyanobacteria Using the High-throughput Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene
In a branch of the Juniata River, gastropods and other freshwater shellfish have been observed to have green and white discoloring on their shells along with higher frailty when compared to healthy gastropods. This kind of shell degradation has previously not been documented in Pennsylvania freshwater systems. The present study focuses on the microbial communities associated with the shells of infected and uninfected gastropods. Six gastropod hosts, Pleurocera virginica, were collected from a site afflicted with this degradation (Juniata River) and a site where this shell discoloring was not observed (Raystown Branch) within the system. Fragments of these gastropod shells underwent DNA extraction using the MoBio PowerSoil DNA extraction kit, followed by 16S-amplification and Illumina sequencing using the Miseq Platform (250 bp paired end chemistry). The sequence data were then analyzed using the QIIME workflow for quality filtering and taxa clustering. Subsequent normalization and diversity analyses were performed using phyloseq. Microbial community structure analysis revealed significant differences between infected and uninfected shells. This analysis showed that the microbial communities in gastropods from the Juniata River site were dominated by Xenococcaceae. This group of cyanobacteria was unable to be identified past the taxonomic family-level, but the order to which it belongs to, Chroococcales, has been associated with degradation of coral exoskeletons. Additionally, samples were dominated by Sphingomonadales, Rhizobiales, and Rhodobacterales sequences. This alphaproteobacteria presence was likely from contamination by the snail gut when fragmenting the shells, and thus has helped us design better methodology for sample preparation prior to DNA extraction. Future work is focusing on evaluating a larger number of gastropods in several other freshwater ecosystems in central PA as a biomonitoring tool for evaluating the extent of this cyanobacterial infection in freshwater gastropods.

Teresa Turmanian (,) [Mark Pearson]
Riding the (Electromagnetic) Wave: Using EM Waves to Measure Material Properites
The electromagnetic properties of substances can be described by the characteristic values of certain parameters. This research focuses on two such parameters, relative permittivity and conductivity. The values of these parameters can be extracted by analyzing the change in resonant frequency and quality factor of a component called a split-ring resonator (SRR). The particular style of SRR used in this study was a hollow conducting cylinder with a slit cut down its length. With the SRR submerged in both water and an NaCl solution, radio-frequency electromagnetic waves were sent into one end of the SRR and the emerging waves were analyzed in order to identify its resonant frequency which was then used to calculate its quality factor. An RLC circuit model of an SRR was employed to identify the values of the relative permittivity of water and conductivity of an NaCl solution. Results from resonance in air, water and a NaCl solution will be presented. The value of the relative permittivity will explain why water responds the way it does to an externally applied electric field. The value of the conductivity will explain how well the NaCl solution would be able to conduct electricity.

Teresa Turmanian (,) [Jamie White]
Magnetic Ground State of Industrial Sensors
We have used polarized neutron reflectometry to study the magnetic ordering of giant magnetoresistive sensors. A repeating structure of metallic thin films detects the external magnetic field. In the absence of such a field, which we call the ground state, the ferromagnetic layers align antiparallel to one another. In the presence of such a field they align with the field. Their transition from anti-parallel to parallel alignment decreases their electrical resistance, allowing for the detection of the external field. To perform a PNR experiment, a monochromatic neutron wave reflects off the sample. The sample is mounted on a stage which rotates in unison with the detector to vary the neutron's angle of incidence. The reflected intensity as a function of angle over time was measured on a wafer at room temperature in magnetic fields of strengths 20mT and 0.5 mT. The high field data is fit well by a model in which each repeat of a material has the same scattering length density and the same thickness. The low field data was fit using the thickness and scattering length density values determined from high field data. Low field data is fit well with a model in which scattering length density and thickness vary among repeats of a particular material. This allows us to conclude that the ferromagnetic layers are not achieving the desired anti-ferromagnetic coupling at low external field.

Elizabeth Twigg (,) [J Barlow]
Capitalist Consumerism and LGBT Attitudes in China
After reflecting on the changes in LGBT acceptance in the United States during my lifetime and observing the substantial effect the buying power the LGBT market demographic had on it, I became interested in how consumerism spreads ideas in capitalist societies, or even just in "communist with Chinese characteristics" societies. Though Chinese society is quite conservative when it comes to homosexuality, marketing has the potential to drastically shift cultural attitudes, and is beginning to do so.

Nikea Ulrich (,) [Regina Lamendella]
A Temporal Assessment of Impacts of Natural Gas Extraction on Microbial Communities in Headwater Stream Ecosystems in Northwestern Pennsylvania
Unconventional natural gas extraction also known as fracking has increased dramatically in Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale formations. Unconventional shale gas extraction presents risks to the environment via infrastructure activities, drilling and fracturing processes, and waste management of injected fracturing fluid and flowback/produced fluids. Assessing the impact of fracking operations on water quality is still incompletely understood. In this study, we evaluate the potential impacts of fracking on aquatic microbial communities in headwater stream ecosystems. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to characterize the microbial community structure of water, sediment, bryophyte, and biofilm samples from 26 headwater stream sites in northwestern Pennsylvania exhibiting different histories of fracking activity within the Marcellus Shale region over the course of three years of sampling (2012-2014). In addition to analyzing microbial community structure, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic libraries are being prepared for sequencing using the Illumina Hiseq platform (n=24; fracturing fluid, flowback fluid, pre- and post- fracking samples). Characterizing the functional potential and activities of these microbial communities will be central in defining the biodegradation capabilities of the microorganisms associated with hydrofrack operations and potential recipients (e.g., aquifers, surface waters, and streambed sediments).

Duc Vu (,) [Peter Baran]
Synthesis and Coordination Study of 3-hydroxyimidazole 1-oxide Copper Complexes
Information storage is known as one of the most crucial applications of magnet. In fact, nano-magnet has been studied, developed, and considered to be the promising material for the construction of quantum computers. To address the properties of these individual materials, molecules consisting of several transition metals ions, whose properties are similar to nano-magnets, can be used. These d and f-block complex molecules are proved to have the ability to retain magnetization for a long period of time, at a very low temperature, in the absence of magnetic field. They are named single-molecule magnets (SMMs).

In recent years, synthetic chemists have attempted to synthesize a novel form of SMMs, polynuclear metal complexes containing Mn, Fe, V, or Cr with larger spin ground states. Magnetic exchange interactions can be enhanced by bridging O2-, OH-, RO-, or RCO2- ligands into the central metal. It is important to arrange the meals and these bridging ligands so that this arrangement could provide the complex a high spin ground state. In our project, 3-hydroxyimidazole 1-oxide was synthesized by Juniata alumni, Nick Morgan, then these ligands were later coordinated with two copper(II) salts (nitrate, and acetate) under different stoichiometries between ligand and metal: 4:3, 3:2, and 2:1. Coordination products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, melting point, and single-crystal X-ray diffractometer to gain a better understanding of their coordination properties.

Alexis Waksmunski (,) [J Barlow]
Going Beyond Blowback: An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Policy and Peace & Conflict Studies
Blowback is characterized by the unintended consequences of U.S. foreign policy decisions particularly in covert affairs and trade marked by the CIA. The United States has become increasingly associated with the term "blowback" after its many lengthy military interventions in the Middle East. However, blowback is a simple term that only captures part of the narrative about U.S. foreign policy. Significant questions arise when discussing the consequences of U.S. foreign policy. People wonder what causes the U.S. to act in certain ways, what actions are taken to correct the national ideology, and how future consequences from military interventions can be prevented. In order to understand the consequences of U.S. foreign policy, it has to be analyzed through the multi-faceted lens of peace and conflict resolution theories as it is tied to how individuals and nation-states interact with one another. The literature that exists on U.S. foreign policy and blowback is limited in the way that it perceives the U.S. as both very negative and very patriotic. Within the field of peace and conflict studies it is difficult to incorporate theories into practice. U.S. foreign policy and peace & conflict studies are not mutually exclusive fields; therefore it is important to bridge the divide in order to achieve international peace.

Andrea Waksmunski (,) [Vincent Buonaccorsi]
Automated de novo Transcriptome Analysis of Eukaryotic Organisms
Sequencing of a transcriptome, a genome-wide representation of expressed genes, is quickly gaining traction in biological research, particularly in fields where species must be studied in their natural habitats or under natural conditions, but sequencing a genome is often too costly or difficult. Limited prior sequencing of non-model organisms necessitates a de novo transcriptome assembly approach, where coding sequences are reconstructed from sequence data rather than mapped to existing genomes. While many tools exist, most free tools require some knowledge of bioinformatics. Biologists are still under-trained to cope with the vast amounts of data that can now be sequenced relatively cheaply. Furthermore, traditional assembly metrics for evaluating the quality of transcriptome assemblies rely on length and size assessments but give little indication of the accuracy of the transcriptome assembly. Alternative, annotation-based metrics have been integrated slowly due to their relative difficulty to install and implement.The purpose of this project was to automate and optimize a pipeline to produce and evaluate high quality de novo transcriptomes.

Andrea Waksmunski (,) [Vincent Buonaccorsi]
RNA-Seq analysis of muscle and bone growth and regulation in juvenile Seriola lalandi
Aquaculture is a global industry aimed at maximizing growth and minimizing the cost of farming aquatic organisms, such as fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and algae. California yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) are considered a promising aquaculture species because of their high activity and growth rate. The production of marketable California yellow tail would be enhanced with the development of stronger, more viable juveniles. To combat culture issues, a California yellowtail breeding program began at the Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute using wild adult yellowtail. In fish, muscle and bone growth are continuous processes that persist throughout their lives. Monitoring the fishes' muscle and bone development over time may provide insights into which genes and hormonal regulators are over- or under-expressed at any given stage of development, which may vary due to environmental factors such as diet, exercise, light and temperature. This project aimed to identify and characterize expression patterns in genes that would indicate how muscle and bone growth progression differs between the fast and slow growing groups of California yellowtail. Master hormonal switches related to bone and muscle growth were to be determined in both groups of fish based on shifts in gene expression levels.

Brianna Watt (,) |Jason Boblick-undefined, undefined|Christian Bomgardner-undefined, undefined|Lucas Navin-undefined, undefined [William Thomas]
MBG Innovation for Industry Project
Mutual Benefit Group (MBG), a local insurance company, wishes to upgrade their current email to a cloud-based email system. MBG presently uses a communications productivity suite known as Lotus Notes, which includes email. MBG has found that Lotus Notes is problematic for the IT staff to manage. By moving their email service to the cloud, MBG hopes to keep users happy while also lessening the burden on the IT staff. Our Innovation for Industry team has been tasked with completing research on a multitude of cloud-based email vendors and narrowing them down based upon the list of concerns and requirements laid out by MBG. The project will end with a final recommendation to MBG on which vendor the I4I team deems most suitable to meet MBG's needs.

Brianna Watt (,) [William Thomas]
Securing Mobile Phones from Malicious Attacks
The popularity of mobile phones has exploded in the last decade. It is more uncommon for an individual not to own a cell phone rather than not. Many users start using their phone right out of the box after purchase without making any security changes to their phone other than adding a passcode to unlock the phone. The belief that hackers only target corporations and personal computers is false in that almost any electronic device can be compromised and accessed by hackers, including cell phones. This poster explores the different tactics hackers use to gain access to mobile phones and their data and how you can help protect yourself against these attacks.

Clinton Webb (,) [Douglas Stiffler]
Xinjiang and the Campaign to Open Up the West
Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) implemented a series of reforms throughout the western half of the People's Republic of China (PRC) that significantly altered the demographic, economic, and infrastructural composition of several provinces. These policies became known as the campaign to Open Up the West, and their impact was felt most noticeably throughout the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, or simply Xinjiang. Throughout the implementation of these policies, the CCP argued that the campaign to Open Up the West would increase "common prosperity" throughout Xinjiang. However, scholarly analysis, verifiable statistics, and CCP documents have all demonstrated that the real objectives of the campaign to Open Up the West were concealed through government supported propaganda, and were much more ruthless than the CCP initially argued. Indeed, upon examination, it is clear that the campaign to Open Up the West was designed by the CCP to obtain Xinjiang's abundant natural resources, to forcefully stabilize and secure China's Muslim west, and to aid and benefit Xinjiang's Han population at the expense of Xinjiang's native Uyghur people.

Michael Weintraub (,) [Wade Roberts]
Contemporary Identity and The Consumption Imperative
I intend to investigate the development and functional byproducts of the neoliberal consumption imperative along with how this aligns with appeals to affective and "authentic" hyper-individualized understandings of the self. In doing so I will attempt to illustrate how identity categories of various sorts act as disciplinary mechanisms of production-consumption, even self-imposed ones, in attempts to regulate and fulfill through inscription upon the body what are ultimately a multiplicity of ongoing ontological processes in constant flux. The atomized subjectivity arising from this paradigm will be examined in the context of both linguistic and machinic enslavements operating within the domains of social, cultural, communicative, psychical, and political economies.

In addition to this, I wish to consider the modalities by which subjects both constantly come to embrace and grapple with such identitarian micro-political conflicts which are then constituted or embodied in a performative subjectivity. The desires to articulate such bodily speech utterances, even in as intended methods of supposed resistance, must be reconsidered as synthetically constructed and regulated by the demands derived from underlying capitalist logics which have privileged immaterial labor as part and parcel to existential fulfillment. Finally, I will conclude by pondering the various paths forward available to those who might wish to reconsider the currently accorded trajectory of identity in Western society.

Nicholas Weit (,) [Regina Lamendella]
AMD Microbial Community Structure
Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an environmental concern because it's role in the oxidation of metals, negatively affecting ecosystems. AMD is an ecological problem that must be dealt with in order to increase the health of waterways. While we understand the bacteria that can survive in these conditions, little is known about their involvement in AMD waste. In this study, we investigated the microbial community structure of a passive AMD remediation site and the surrounding stream at Middle Branch in the Kettle Creek Watershed. Illumina16S rRNA high throughput gene sequencing technology was used to investigate the microbial community structure of 20 samples from this site. The microbial community structure was compared to environmental parameters in order to understand how the environmental was shaping the microbial community. The microbial community structure varied with respect to location in the treatment site. The remediation sites exhibited significant differences compared to the remediation sites. Additionally, the microbial community structure showed differences between sample location, in which the orders Sphingomonadales and Pseudanabaenales dominated the settling pond. The upstream and downstream sitees; however, were dominated by the order Clostridiales, in which the Lachnospiraceae Clostridium were the most abundant family and genus, respectively. This study is the first to show differences between microbial communities in the remediation process of AMD waste, utilizing Illumina 16S rRNA high throughput gene sequencing, which will provide further insight in the development of AMD remediation networks and the microbial community structure that inhabits such environments.

Heather Wetzel (,) |Emma Kring-undefined, undefined|Corey Houck-undefined, undefined|Rebecca Kane-undefined, undefined|Bridget Canning-undefined, undefined [Uma Ramakrishnan]
Regional distinctions of coloration and morphometrics in Pennsylvanian coyotes (Canis latrans)
The goal of this study is to continue and enhance the research initiated last year on exploring the color and morphometric variation of coyotes (Canis latrans) in Pennsylvania. Members of the Canid family, including the Eastern coyote, are known to exhibit a wide variation of pelt colorations within populations. Recent studies have also indicated that Eastern coyotes have hybridized considerably with grey wolves (Canis lupus) and domestic dogs. In our study, we attempt to find regional patterns in these variations using data collected from over 200 coyotes brought to local sportsman's competition in 2014 and 2015. For each animal included in our study, we recorded the age, sex, weight, and county of harvest. We then took measurements of the head circumference, body length, distance between canine teeth, and foot pad width because coyotes, wolves and dogs differ in these measurements. To record color, we took photographs of the ear, side, and hind leg of each coyote under controlled lighting conditions. In 2014 the group encountered difficulty in interpreting their results using RGB because the red value did not accurately reflect how much red was present in the coat. We found a more straightforward way to document pelt color in Adobe Photoshop using a circular color gradient with a radial value mask; photos of the coyotes were qualitatively categorized by color using this gradient. We then performed a spatial analysis of the data using ArcGIS and statistical analyses were performed using R.

Taylor Whetsel (,) [Donna Weimer]
Does "IT" Really Matter: A Narrative Approach Exploring the Dynamic Definition of Virginity in the Formation of Women's Sexual Identity
Across cultures throughout the world, virginity is considered one of the most cherished possessions a young woman can have. Within our society, the emphasis on maintaining virginity has been a perceived female value. Previous studies have examined the impact on the loss of virginity; however, there has been a lack of discourse surrounding what this "possession" is. Research suggests that the loss of virginity can be characterized as a gift to give to a partner, a stigma to rid oneself of, or a rite of passage to adulthood (Carpenter, 2010). Although the classification of the loss of virginity can provide insight, it is the language involved in the narrative that proves to be of greater importance to the construction of a young woman's identity with regard to sexuality and virginity. More specifically, how has the narrative of remaining chaste been perpetuated throughout decades?

In this research, the objective is to explore how a definition of virginity is sustained over time through an investigation of the narratives used to describe sexual experiences. The rhetorical assumption is that the stories surrounding the "loss of virginity," specifically language, construct a woman's sexual identity. To create a clearer understanding of the narrative by which woman are expected to live, I examine the discourse surrounding virginity across six decades from a generational perspective in three interviews. I conducted these three in-depth interviews with each woman representing a specific generation. I interviewed white, middle class, heterosexual women who are classified members of the Baby Boomer generation, Generation X, and Generation Y.

Using these interviews as my data set, I apply Walter Fisher's narrative approach to assess the narrative rationality of these women's stories. I argue that the narrative rationality of these women's stories remain complete and true to society's expectations despite that contemporary society allows for greater expressions of differences about virginity. The narratives surrounding virginity offer an illustration of the standard created by society in constraining a woman's sexual identity

Taylor Whetsel (,) |Amy Ankney-undefined, undefined|David Spade-undefined, undefined|Zachary Trayer-undefined, undefined|Josh Gongloff-undefined, undefined|Micah Dowdy-undefined, undefined|Rounida Shwaish-undefined, undefined [Cynthia deVries]
Sociology Senior Seminar Capstone
Juniata College was built on the idea of creating change agents to be active in the global community. Mirroring Juniata's motto of "Think, Evolve, Act", seniors of the Sociology Seminar executed activities that stimulate understanding, generate motivation, and attain skills applicable to non-violent social justice. For several students in 1965, this meant participating in the march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama in support of the Civil Rights Movement. For several students in 2015, this meant commemorating the courageous acts of fellow alumni while educating and creating awareness to fellow peers. Through work with the Huntingdon community and the Office of Diversity and Inclusion, students engaged in partnerships bringing awareness to the campus and community. By planning and executing commemoration activities to increase knowledge and engagement across campus, the students demonstrate how the Sociology curriculum culminates into action.

The presentation incorporates the planning stages of various events, the students' reflections about taking part in the events, and integrating these activities into future endeavors. Also, it explores the student's journey with community relations, the connections the project has on each of their lives, and the way in which the Sociology curriculum plays into preparation. The students strove to fulfill Juniata's mission statement as well as discover their roll as change agents through this process. Through this assessment, the Sociology Seminar members take an introspective evaluation of their own personal transformation of what being a social change agent entails on both Juniata College's campus and the larger society upon graduation.

Ryan Wickes () [Brad Andrew]
Cyclically Adjusted Price to Earnings Ratios and Subsequent Returns
This research project analyzed the ability of Cyclically Adjusted Price to Earnings ratios (CAPE) to predict subsequent returns. The number of annual periods of average earnings was varied to access how CAPEs of various time frames affected the predictability of returns. The subsequent return period was also varied to access the ability of the different CAPEs to predict returns over varying subsequent periods.

Miya Williams (,) [Michael Henderson]
Code Switching and Bilingualism
This presentation will explore the linguistic phenomenon known as code switching. The cultural, linguistic, and social aspects will be presented, focusing on how this function is acceptable and needed in certain settings while inappropriate in others.

Ethan Wilt (,) [J Barlow]
The Right To Self-Defense: A Consitutional Validation for Concealed Carry on Publicly Funded, Post-Secondary Educational Institutions
No provision of the Constitution is more passionately debated than the Second Amendment. Over the years, the Supreme Court has handed down a number of important decisions concerning what the right "to keep and bear arms" means. In the past decade, the Supreme Court has held the Second Amendment secures an individual right to firearms and that the protections of the Second Amendment apply to the States. This presentation focuses on an unexplored avenue of Second Amendment jurisprudence: Do students at public, post-secondary educational institutions have the right to conceal carry a firearm? Upon a thorough examination of subsequent Second Amendment decisions in the lower courts, analogous first amendment jurisprudence, and the arguments against such a policy, the conclusion is unequivocally, yes. This presentation is not about the effectiveness/ineffectiveness of guns in reducing crime or violence. Rather, this presentation seeks to defend a right explicitly stated in the Constitution. Forty-six years ago, our Supreme Court in the milestone case of Tinker v. Des Moines stated, "[i]t can hardly be argued that either students or teachers shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate." Students at public colleges and universities too, should not be asked to shed their constitutional right "to keep and bear arms" when they set foot on campus.

Victoria Wolf (,) |Colton Hallabuk-undefined, undefined|Ryan Mull-undefined, undefined|Anvy Tran-undefined, undefined [Carol Peters]
The Writing Center: Producing Professionals
The Juniata College Writing Center is a strong example of a campus organization that encourages student employees to develop professionalism and become student leaders. Writing Center tutors refine communication, teamwork, and leadership skills that are essential in the workforce. These skills not only benefit the tutors, but also directly benefit the student writers who patronize the Writing Center. Tutor-led focus groups investigating student perspectives of the Writing Center revealed that the Juniata student community finds the Writing Center to be a welcoming, productive, and professional place to receive guidance regarding their papers. These student perspectives are a result of the independence and professionalism of the tutors in the Writing Center. The student leadership in the Writing Center is a model for skill building through student careers at Juniata College.

Feiyang Xu (,) [John Unger]
Synthesizing Organic Azides through the Palladium-Catalyzed Cross Coupling of Aryl and Vinyl Sulfonates
This research aims to develop a new palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling method that will allow the synthesis of aryl and vinyl azides from sulfonates. The proposed method is attractive due to the ability of azides to be used in a multifaceted fashion. Although several different strategies exist to prepare organic azides, these methods must typically be run at elevated temperatures, at which azides can thermally decompose. Palladium catalysis could offer a milder alternative, allowing azide cross-coupling to be carried at lower temperatures. In cross-coupling reactions, aryl and vinyl sulfonates, including triflates, mesylates, and tosylates, serve as convenient alternatives to halides, and are synthesized from phenols and ketones.

Shayna Yeates (,) [J. McKellop]
The impact of millennial stereotypes on college students' self-perceptions
Stereotypes are present in any given social situation and have the potential to influence the way a person perceives themselves. Depending on the context of these stereotypes as being positively or negatively derived, the rippling effect produced has a wide range of possibilities. Past research has focused more exclusively on stereotypical elements around race or gender as influencing a person's self-perception. There is little research concerning generational differences and how these different age groups are influenced by generational stereotypes. Current generational stereotypes about millennials ?" also commonly referred to as Generation Y ?" are constructed from the academic perspective and Generation X perspective. The aim of the present study is to determine whether exposure to these different perspectives on generational stereotypes influence college students' self-perception, who represent Generation Y. It is hypothesized that exposure to a negative stereotype from the Generation X perspective will produce a different response compared to positive stereotypes from the academic perspective, regarding the participant's level of self-esteem and self-efficacy. The prediction is that negative generational stereotypes will promote poorer overall self-perceptions whereas positive stereotypes will promote more confident overall self-perceptions.

Shayna Yeates (,) |Elana Levine-undefined, undefined|Sophie Chambers-undefined, undefined|Jecenia Duran-undefined, undefined|Chau Tran-undefined, undefined|Claire Moulder-undefined, undefined|Kathryn McElwee-undefined, undefined|Alexis Albright-undefined, undefined [Philip Dunwoody]
What Would Authoritarians Do? Deontological versus Utilitarian Moral Reasoning
Authoritarianism goes beyond a straightforward political and social construct; it also influences moral judgment and decision making. While there is research showing connections between authoritarianism and different decision making strategies, there is an absence of research focusing on the extent to which authoritarianism and social dominance orientation (SDO) influence different moral reasoning styles. In general, those who display high levels of authoritarian tendencies also are high in religiosity and conservatism. Other studies show a distinct difference in morality between those who identify as religious and conservative and those who do not (Piazza & Sousa, 2013; Piazza & Landy, 2013). The aim for this study is to examine two distinct moral reasoning orientations ?" utilitarian versus deontological ?" given measures of authoritarianism and SDO. It is hypothesized that those high in authoritarianism will be high in deontological moral reasoning and low in utilitarianism. High levels of authoritarianism will negatively predict utilitarianism (positively predict deontological moral reasoning). It is predicted that SDO either will show a positive correlation or no relationship with utilitarian modes of moral reasoning, as measured via consequentialist thinking. Evidence was found that supported the hypothesis that authoritarianism can predict moral reasoning strategies. Those who are more authoritarian tend to endorse the belief that morality is founded on external authority figures, specifically on divine and traditional authorities. The results also indicate that those who endorse more consequentialist moral reasoning strategies are less likely to believe that morality is founded on an external authority figure.

Clarence Yeung (,) |Emilia Schneider -undefined, undefined|Robert Higgins -undefined, undefined|Madison Berrier -undefined, undefined|Timothy Hess-undefined, undefined [Marlene Burkhardt]
Kdan Mobile
Our team worked with the Taiwanese based company Kdan Mobile. Kdan Mobile Software is a tech company that was founded in 2010 in Yongkang District, Tainan, Taiwan. Kenny Su is the founder and CEO of Kdan Mobile Software, a mobile software development and business analytic company. Our team were assigned four projects and so, each team member had their own assignment to manage. Three of the four projects were app based and the fourth project dealt with opportunities for Kdan Mobile in the education industry. The three apps were Kdan Mobile's Animation Desk, Noteledge, and PDF reader. For each app a blog had to be written about its features and capabilities. Along with that team members need to create promotional video, instructional video, help the company to generate data from college students and manage a company twitter account.

Duk Yi (,) |Sam Gary-undefined, undefined [John Unger]
Optimization of Copper-Catalyzed Asymmetric Reduction of Aryl 2H-Azirines
Although several strategies exist that allow researchers access to chiral aziridines, one method that remains largely unexplored is the stereoselective reduction of prochiral 2H-azirines. This body of research is focused on the development and optimization of a catalytic asymmetric 2H-azirine reduction method that employs non-racemically ligated copper hydride. The synthetic route used to generate 2H-azirine starting materials, and the methods explored for derivatization and resolution of chiral aziridine products will be reported along with the reaction development and optimization.

Kaitlyn Yoder (,) [Dennis Johnson]
The Interaction of Forest Plant Communities with Biotic and Abiotic Factors
Pennsylvania contains approximately 16.7 million acres of forestland that is home to a large diversity of plants and animals. The dynamics and composition of forest plant communities are impacted by abiotic factors such as slope and soil moisture capacity, as well as, biotic factors such as herbivore browsing. In this study we investigate the impact of White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and topographic factors on the forest plant community composition within two study areas in central and northcentral Pennsylvania forests. The study plots were randomly distributed throughout the two study areas. Through GIS analysis using the Land Facet Corridor add-in we were able to classify the topography into ridges, valleys and side-slopes. This information will be used along with the aforementioned data to predict plant species presence or absence based on spatial location and physical environment.

Erika Young (,) |Erika Young-undefined, undefined [Hannah Bellwoar]
The essay I will be reading is on my relationship with my father. It will review the progress of this relationship. It will begin with my childhood when my father was only choosing when to be around and end in the present and how close we are. It will reveal the ups and downs of this relationship overall.

Erika Young (,) |Erika Young-undefined, undefined [Grace Fala]
Message Analysis Portfolio
This portfolio reveals the "art of persuasion." The portfolio will cover different techniques used in different ads in order to appeal to a larger audience.

Haining Zhu (,) | Ruggiero, Jonah F-undefined, undefined| Wilson, Elizabeth M-undefined, undefined|Haining Zhu-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
Visual communication
As communication technologies combine with art and science, digital visual language will evolve and transition all identities into an all-inclusive digital age.