Molly Adler (,) [James Roney]
Olympism and Ideology: An analysis of the conflict inherent in global sporting events
The purpose of this presentation is to contrast the 1980 Olympic games in Moscow and the 2014 Olympic games in Sochi and to explore the tensions present during both games. Despite the prominence of the Olympic games before the second world war, in the post-war era the olympic games came to stand for more than their original mission of bringing countries together. The Olympic games became a way for countries to prove their might without the inevitable body count of war and to promote unity between countries despite international tensions. While some contemporaries found this trade off appealing, analyzing the benefits of strengthening diplomatic ties with countries and using competition to lessen the bloodlust and some found the practice distasteful and harmful to national peace and understanding. Olympics are when a country puts its best foot forward, usually by sweeping less desirable traits under the rug. "In the post cold war world international sporting competition has, among certain circles, been accused of being a little vacuous and contrived". While the Olympic games aim for the formation of diplomatic ties, they end up causing international tension instead of releasing it due to the conflict between the Universalist goals of the events and the nationalistic identity brought forward by the games themselves.

Linden Allison () |Ye Lim Yi [Ursula Williams]
Synthesis and Purification of Tripodally Coordinated Iron Complexes

Deonte Alston (,) |Rachel Cline-undefined, undefined|Brittany Mlynek-undefined, undefined|Kyle Moody-undefined, undefined|Joshua Gongloff-undefined, undefined [William Thomas]
Bandtasy's I.C.E. (Interactive Concert Experience)
This project researches technology-driven opportunities to connect musicians with their fans. Possibilities for fan communication include web and mobile applications for in-concert interactions, live streaming of performances, and opportunities to purchase concert videos and fan merchandise.

Nathan Anderson-Stahl (,) [Henry Escuadro]
Constructing a set of non-APR Lobsters

Amy Ankney (,) [Kimberly Roth]
Social Network Analysis of First Year Students

Sara Arnold (,) [Karen Rosell]
Dada Art: Pivotal Techniques of an Abiding Legacy
World War I was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, resulting in an upheaval in politics, morals, and societal norms. While the war impacted people of all professions, artists in particular began to question the traditional aesthetics to which they had previously adhered. Out of their increasing skepticism grew an art movement that was a reaction against accepted values and a protest of bourgeois society. The Dada movement, albeit brief, is seen as one of the most revolutionary and influential styles of the twentieth century. One of its greatest achievements lies in its establishment on an international scale. Until this point in art history, no movement had attained a following quite to this extent. Artists in Zurich, Berlin, Hannover, Cologne, Paris, and New York contributed to this movement that was born out of the shock of war.

Dada artists created their pieces in a way that made them accessible to audiences, often involving the use of non-traditional mediums. They rejected customary modes of representation and experimented freely, creating their art from objects of modern life. Four new artistic techniques grew out of the Dada period, including: collage, photomontage, assemblage, and readymade objects. In this thesis, I will explore these new modes while suggesting that each is a pivotal influence on art of subsequent decades.

Laura Berman (,) [Roy Nagle]
Life History and Ecology of Terrestrial and Freshwater Turtles

Ryan Bogdan (,) [William Ames]
Analysis of porphyrin doped thiophene nanoparticles as potential water oxidizing catalysts
A water soluble porphyrin (M-TPPS4) was doped into conductive polythiophene nanoparticles (M = MnIII, CoII, or CuII). SEM images and EDS spectroscopy were used to characterize the morphology and success of doping. CuII-TPPS4 doped polymers allow for metal to metal distances to be experimentally determined via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The MnIII-TPPS4 and CoII-TPPS4 were studied electrochemically to determine the water oxidizing capability of these polythiophene doped nanoparticles vs the polythiophene doped thin films of Swiegers et al.1
Chen, J; Wagner, P; Tong, L; Wallace, GG; Officer, DL; Swiegers, GF Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 1907.

Steven Bonn (,) [Paul Schettler]
Molecular Modelling of C99 Mutants in a Lipid Bilayer
C99 is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the γ-secretase enzyme within the lipid bilayer of cells. Depending on many different factors, C99 is cleaved into Aβ40, a fairly benign metabolite, or Aβ42, which has been implicated in development of Alzheimer's Disease. In seeking to find an explanation for what causes this differential cleavage, we have set up a model of the C99 transmembrane domain (TMD) within a lipid bilayer. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to examine the interactions between the TMD and its environment. Amino acid mutations were made by inserting tryptophan at certain locations along the TMD in an attempt to fix the level of the entire protein within the bilayer. The results will help us understand how the bilayer affects C99's position when it interacts and is cleaved by γ-secretase, potentially shedding light on how different positions of C99 lead to the differential cleavage.

Danielle Boothe (,) [Regina Lamendella]
Beeromics: Using genomics tools to evaluate beer quality

Jeffrey Brabec (,) |Elijah Hall-undefined, undefined|Larissa Bubb-undefined, undefined|Brennen Novak-undefined, undefined [Trisha Staab]
Effects of bacterial diet on organismal life history traits, Data generated in First Year Biology Lab

Wendy Briggs (,) [Hannah Bellwoar]
Perfectly Awful Regulatory Teaching
Reading an essay that I wrote for Creative Nonfiction Writing.

Frank Brumbaugh (,) [Ryan Mathur]
Who Shot That Bullet?

Heather Bumbarger (,) |Megan Brennaman-undefined, undefined|Jerry Kruse-undefined, undefined [Gerald Kruse]
How to Make a Graphaghan
blah, blah, blah

Heather Bumbarger (,) |Megan Brenneman-undefined, undefined [Gerald Kruse]
Taking Pretty Pictures and Using Them in Your Digital Scrapbook Layouts
We are going to make you say "oooooohhhhh" and "aaaawwwww" when you see our fine layouts.

Richard Burgan (,) [Daniel Dries]
Identifying Transcriptional Changes in a Conditional Knockout Mouse
gamma-secretase is a multi-subunit, proteolytic complex that is directly involved in the pathogenicity of Alzheimer's disease. Recently, a mouse was developed in which gamma-secretase was conditionally knocked out of oligodendrocytes, or the myelinating cells of the brain. Knockout of gamma-secretase produced a striking non-cognitive neurological phenotype, reminiscent of schizophrenia. Here, we compare the transcriptomes of cKO mice and control mice by means of RNA-seq analysis to identify candidate genes that may explain the complex neurological phenotype exhibited by our conditional knockout mice.

Victoria Buser (,) |Alexandra Eby-undefined, undefined|Kiera Foster-undefined, undefined|Sari Baba-undefined, undefined [Anne Gilman]
It's more than the reading level: Adapting survey questions for children's comprehension
An adult measure of musical expertise was adapted for children. Questions were modified to be shorter in length, use simpler vocabulary, and eliminate depersonalized language, negative phrasing, and double-barreled structures. To prepare for a study with children, we asked adults to complete our modified version of the Gold-MSI. Modified questions had a significantly lower reading level than original questions. Responses to revised questions correlated significantly with participant answers to all but one of the original questions. There was no significant difference in question comprehensibility between the original and revised surveys. Future research will involve giving the adapted survey to children and having them complete a beat-matching task to determine if musical expertise has an effect on beat-matching accuracy.

Joshua Bussard (,) [Matthew Beaky]
Automation Of Juniata College Observatory
The idea of this project is to automate Juniata College's observatory dome. At this point the dome is manually turned, and sometimes the telescope is blocked by the dome. My project will try to automate the dome so that the telescope will always be pointing through the dome opening. The project will focus on the programming of a controller and user interface to allow manual and automatic control.

Emma Campbell (,) [Jennifer Streb]
The Art of Portrait Miniatures
Prior to the invention of photography portrait miniatures were a way of keeping images of loved ones close. For centuries miniatures were used as tokens of affection for the living and mementos by which to remember the dead. At the Juniata College Museum of Art we are bringing these pieces out of the shadows by analyzing them from multiple disciplinary perspectives in the upcoming exhibit titled "The Art & Science of Portrait Miniatures". This paper will provide historical background on portrait miniatures and will closely investigate one of the European miniatures in the JCMA's collection.

Adam Caraballo (,) |Brittni Devlin-undefined, undefined [J. McKellop]
Female Gaze-Tracking of the Male

Karley Christian (,) |Valerie Hersh-undefined, undefined|Caitlin Emsilie-undefined, undefined|Sven Koetterjohann-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
Robotics: Who's in Control?
A look into robotics. Focuses on Artificial Intelligence, Brain Technologies, Robotics and Medicine, and Transhumanism.

Zane Clarke (,) [Peter Baran]
Oxovanadium Complexes with Pyrazoles
Vanadium complexes have been studied for their potential uses in medicine. The applications include insulin mimicking drugs as well as anticancer drugs. Our research focuses on vanadium complexes with pyrazole and 4- and 3- substituted pyrazole.

Zane Clarke (,) [Peter Baran]
Oxovanadium Complexes with Pyrazoles
Vanadium complexes have been studied for their potential uses in medicine. The applications include insulin mimicking drugs as well as anticancer drugs. Our research focuses on vanadium complexes with pyrazole and 4- and 3- substituted pyrazole.

Lucas Corbin (,) |Jonathan Ofiara-undefined, undefined|Caitlyn Pingatore-undefined, undefined|Courtney Sledzianowski-undefined, undefined [B Halloran]
Distribution of Rusty Crayfish in South Central Pennsylvania
Rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) are an invasive species that has spread from their native range in the Ohio River Basin to northeastern areas of the United States, including Pennsylvania. Rusty crayfish have been found to displace native crayfish species, alter macrophyte composition and diversity, and negatively impact native fishes by predating on their eggs. The goal of this study was to determine the distribution of rusty crayfish over a two-month period (Oct.-Nov. 2014) in the Juniata River (PA). The Juniata River, a seventh order stream, is one of the dominant fluvial systems in south-central Pennsylvania. The tributaries of the Juniata River system that were sampled for rusty crayfish included the Frankstown Branch of the Juniata River, Aughwick Creek (including Little Aughwick Creek), Little Juniata River, and Standing Stone Creek. To obtain crayfish density estimates, we used a 1-m² trap to sample multiple cross sections (range 12.1%-41.0% of total stream width) focusing on dissimilar microhabitats present in each stream. A total of 148 rusty crayfish were collected during this study which ranged from 0.2/m² - 3.5/m2. The carapace length of rusty crayfish collected averaged at 17.3mm (range: 49.8mm - 7.4mm). The gender distribution in this study documented males 33.7%, females 30.4%, and unknown 35.8%.

Ethan Cree (,) [Mark Pearson]
All Terrain Robotic Sphere
Using my background of electronics, programming, physics, and hands on experience I will develop a robot in the shape of a sphere with an internal engine/motor that can be remote controlled by the user through the use of a program (i.e. Raspberry Pi). The design purpose is to maximize the efficiency of the shape in order to show that robots are unique and don't necessarily follow set guidelines. Perhaps this type of design will even prove better than a 4-wheeled RC car.

Christopher Cueto (,) [Richard Hark]
A Novel Method for the Preparation of Esters Using Neat Borontrifluoride Etherates
Previously our group reported neat BF3??OEt2 as a fast and effective reagent for esterifying acids and acid derivatives. We have since refined this methodology and tested it on a wider and more diverse library of substrates. In order to fully explore the scope and utility of this unusual synthetic tool, we attempted to repeat our procedures using several commercially available etherates: BF3??OMe2, BF3??O(n-Bu)2, and BF3??(t-Bu)OMe. Neat BF3??OMe2 and BF3??(t-Bu)OMe both effect rapid transformation of acids to their corresponding methyl esters in high yield. BF3??O(n-Bu)2 is not consistent in its ability to produce esters and will assume a radically different course of reaction depending on the substrate. Details of the core and expanded methodology will be presented.

Alexander Dean (,) [J Barlow]
Police Misconduct and Accountability in the U.S.

Alexander Debrecht (,) [Wade Roberts]
Factual Fluidity

Alexander Debrecht (,) [Matthew Beaky]
Comparison of Conducting Styles Using Accelerometer Data

Peter Defnet (,) [Ursula Williams]
Electrochemical analysis of iron nitrilotriacetate complexes

Nathan Deitcher (,) [Xinli Wang]
Chimeras and Nonexitents

Nicole Dengler (,) [Sharon Yohn]
Water Chemistry in Relation to Microorganism Distribution in Raystown Lake

Paige Dennison () [Cynthia Merriwether Devries]
Public Safety
I will be completing a site assessment safety survey of the Raystown Field Station for Juniata College Public Safety. I will develop safety and security questions for a bench-marking survey. I have been researching the best practices and will present my findings and suggestions. I will compare and contrast safety surveys between multiple schools and their field stations. I am also observing and experiencing daily operations of public safety personnel.

Catherine Douds (,) [Jill Keeney]
The Yeast Genome Project: Understanding APD1

Carl Douglas (,) [Matthew Beaky]
Restoration of a Thermal Evaporator

Micah Dowdy (,) [Cynthia deVries]
Prison Problems of Today
This poster is explaining why Prisons are important to change and how someone can get involved through the Pennsylvania Prison Society

Lillian Dudek (,) [J Barlow]
Surveillance State: Privacy & the Private Home

Morgan Dux (,) [Dennis Plane]
Social Media Use by Members of and Candidates for the Pennsylvania House of Representatives

Alexandra Eby (,) |Johnathan Abend-undefined, undefined|Sari Baba-undefined, undefined [Anne Gilman]
Can a Zombie fit in a Shoebox? Ancestral Priorities and Word Recall
Past research has suggested that priorities from our ancestral enviroments boost memory, while others attribute this advantage to more arousing scenarios. Our word recall study contrasted eight scenarios of varied survival status, including grasslands and zombie scenarios. Contrary to the ancestral priorities hypothesis, the shipwreck scenario had the highest recall, whereas zombie and grasslands scenarios had lower, yet similar, scores. This suggests that ancestral priorities do not fully explain memory today.

Caitlin Emslie (,) |Demetrius Floyd-undefined, undefined|Brooke Walls-undefined, undefined|Michael John-undefined, undefined|Nick Weit-undefined, undefined|Mark Feiler-undefined, undefined [Kathy Baughman]
JC Blair Reporting System
We worked with JC Blair to develop comprehensive reports of their doctors' productivity through in depth analyses of financial data. Using Microsoft Excel, we were able to provide easy to read, educative representations of the doctors' performance throughout the different practices. We then worked with their IT department to develop a reporting program that can share those kinds of analyses with the doctors on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis for the edification and financial development of the doctors.

Airokhsh Faiz Qaisary (,) |Airokhsh Faiz Qaisary-undefined, undefined [J Barlow]
The impact of US intervention on Afghan Women

Stephanie Farfan (,) Maria Nachbor-undefined, undefined|Hannah Hostak-undefined, undefined [Polly Walker]
Inclusivity as Intractable Conflict: Creating Nuanced Dialogue at Juniata

Ethan Farrell (,) [Loren Rhodes]
Can I Have Your Password?
If someone asked a person they didn't know for their password, would that person provide it? Would they report the incident to the authorities? This presentation reveals the results of a survey of Juniata Student's password use, and begins to explore the causes and consequences of the unsettling findings.

Elizabeth Faust (,) [Jennifer Streb]
The Stories of Women: How They Reflect Their Renaissance Counter-Parts
Throughout the history of art the figures of men and women have been portrayed in different ways. This includes not only paintings and sculptures but also the stories in which the art works were modeled after. The art in the early Renaissance is no exception. What is important in this essay is how female subjects are rendered and the stories that Renaissance artists and their patrons choose to depict up until the 1500s when the ideas of women started to change. Four of the most popular female stories that were chosen to be depicted were Eve, the Virgin, Judith and Mary Magdalene. Other stories which were popular but not as much as the four mentioned, were Daphne, Rebecca, Queen of Sheba and Herodias. These stories are important in understanding how people in the Renaissance saw women and the morals and teachings they were trying to impress upon them.

Elizabeth Faust (,) [James Tuten]
How Scream into a Quiet Night go Unheard
During World War II, the United States government created the Office of Censorship to censor information that might threaten the war effort. This thesis examines one subject of censorship that was censored not only by the United States government but also voluntarily by the biggest newspaper in America, the New York Times. This subject is the European concentration camps and the people inside of them. From the history of the Office of Censorship itself to the reasons of voluntary censorship, this thesis illuminates the key ingredients found in the formula for creating an unknowing and unbelieving public until 1944 and what changed the public's state of denial.

Elizabeth Faust (,) [Tamara Stuber]
The Smithsonian National American History Museum

Demetrius Floyd (,) [William Thomas]
The Hard Drive Disk
This project focuses on what a Hard Disk Drive is, how it works, and the different types of malicious viruses that can compromise the data that is stored on the Hard Disk Drives. In all, this project is to give insightful information on Hard Disk Drives.

Luke Gangi-Wellman (,) |Lexi Schmidt-undefined, undefined|Dustin Servello-undefined, undefined [Jason Chan]
Effect of Intestinal Lipids on Gut Bacterial Composition and Host Stress Response using C. elegans

Luke Gangi-Wellman (,) [Jason Chan]
Role of Cadherins on Synaptic Specificity in the Hippocampus
The brain is a complex network made of millions of cells and trillions of connections. These connections, called synapses, are where electrical stimuli are turned to chemical signals to trigger electrical responses in the post-synaptic cell. Synapse formation is mediated by cell adhesion molecules which hold the connection together. Many of these cell adhesion molecules are known, such as Neuroligin, but many are still left undetermined. The Cadherin family of proteins are known to be involved in synapse formation and may play a role in synapse specification. We hypothesize that different types of Cadherins regulate formation of different types of synapses. Synaptic coculture assays show the direct effect of Cadherin presence on synapse formation and development through confocal microscopy analysis. We find that presence of both N-Cadherin and Cadherin-9 drives up the number of synapses and specifies to precise regions of the hippocampus. Protein recruitment screening shows the effect of Cadherin-9 on synaptic protein recruitment and activity. We find a highly variable data set of proteins which Cadherin-9 may be responsible for. These experiments provide a basis to further understand synapse formation and development in the hippocampus and will lead to further insight into developmental disorders and diseases.

Christian Gehman (,) [William Ames]
Exploration of Long Chain Dialdehydes for use as Metallodiporphyrin Linkers
Metallodiporphyrin research has become increasingly popular due to their capabilities in separating water into its elemental components. If metallodiporphyrins prove to be effective catalysts in water oxidation, then a new clean and environmentally friendly method for hydrogen production would be developed. However, to successfully perform water oxidation the metallodiporphyrins require a specific spacing between the molecules and a cofacial orientation. To achieve these spacing and orientation requirements, a linker is employed.
In this study, the effects of having a long carbon chain as a linker are being explored. The selected molecules for synthesis are 1,6 hexanedial and 1,5 pentanedial.

Brian Gilbert () [Matthew Beaky]
Physics Concept Demonstration Aid Development

Alexandria Groves (,) [Hannah Bellwoar]
Lover of Love

James Guanciale (,) [J Barlow]
Approaches to Helping the Mentally Ill Homeless

Jada Hackman (,) [Regina Lamendella]
Clostridium Difficile

Alexis Hadden (,) [Donna Weimer]
Can You Be Fat and Feminine? A Content Analysis of the Language Used in Continuing the Stigmatization of
Facing only negative representations and unfavorable stereotypes about being overweight or obese in the media, American women are constantly pressured to slim down or remain thin. In turn, the diet industry in the United States has grown exponentially, peaking at an annual revenue of 61 billion dollars in 2013 (LaRosa 2013). Since our society has placed an enormous emphasis on becoming thin, overweight and obese individuals, particularly women, have become a target group for discrimination. However, the exact reason for the cultural fixation surrounding "fat" remains unclear. Based on Burke's rhetoric of motives and Goffman's definition of stigma, this study aims to determine what it means for an individual to be labeled "fat" and in what ways, physically and emotionally, weight-related stigma is communicated to young men and women. Based on the idea that rhetoric creates meanings, I hypothesize that responses on the questionnaire reveal motives that affirm that "fat" is not just a physical state, but it continues to be a moral failure of character. Even in 2014, the stigmatization of "fat" remains negative. Approximately 100 college-aged women and men from central Pennsylvania are given an anonymous questionnaire that explores the perception of women's self-concept, one's perception of overweight women, and the messages that the media send to consumers about femininity, size, and health. For example, the survey asks questions such as, "What adjectives comes to mind when you hear the word fat?" and "Are there certain foods that you would consider masculine? Feminine?" Through a content analysis, this study affirms that the label "fat" is undesirable due to not only health-related concerns, but also remain a strong negative stigma, affecting a woman's self-concept or self-esteem.

Christian Hague (,) |Melissa Topping, Junior, Biochemistry-undefined, undefined [Daniel Dries]
Functions of γ-secretase in Arabidopsis thaliana
γ(gamma)-secretase, a multisubunit proteolytic complex, is constructed of four separate protein subunits ?" presenilin (PS), Nicastrin (Nct), APH-1, and PEN-2 ?" all of which must be present to allow for the its proteolytic activity. A notable product of this proteolytic complex are neurotoxic β-amyloid peptides, which, when in excess, constitute the amyloid plaque build-up found in Alzheimer's patients. Despite the activity of γ-secretase in the brain and nervous system, all four protein subunits have been found in plants, suggesting a conserved function. However, its function in plants is unknown due to plants lacking nervous systems and, therefore, the inability to develop Alzheimer's disease. In this study, OEPCR is used to subclone each of the individual protein subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana γ-secretase into a single plasmid to allow simultaneous recombinant co-expression in Sf9 host cells, which ensures 100% co-infection.

Jeannine Haizlip (,) [Donna Weimer]
Narrowing the Divide: Power of Politics or Power to the People?
The aim of this research is to explore global initiatives that are narrowing the digital divide between the "haves" and the "have not's" i.e., those with access to technology and those without. The digital divide is a key area of study in communication and media studies, which continues to analyze and debate policy responses to the inequality, amplified as a result of technological advances. Both public and private sectors develop and implement their own strategies in the hopes to eradicate the technology inequality that permeates our communities. Regardless of their origin, the hope is to narrow this divide at both the macro and micro levels of peoples' lives in order to prevent an hegemonic monopoly of knowledge that is hardly conducive to equality. Once equal access to knowledge, tools and opportunities are available, the possibility for greater freedom and global communication can be achieved.

In order to gain this understanding, I present a critical analysis of several countries from two different continents: North America and Africa. These will include the United States,Tunisia and Uganda. I have chosen representative countries, which advocate for technological change and development. First, I reveal the attitudes towards technology of each country providing a basis for understanding. Secondly, I examine the state of technology in each area and their position as it relates to the digital divide. Finally, I relate all of these findings to the implications these initiatives have on the future state of the digital divide in each of these countries.

I argue through global initiatives the bridge between the digital divide is narrowing rather than expanding. Through the use of data visualization and critical analysis I clarify the importance of implementing global initiatives in the face of technological advances to narrow the divide between those with access and those without.

Ezra Halstead (,) [Polly Walker]
The Art of Trans*lation: Discourse Analysis in the Trans* Community

Alexander Hansen (,) |Alexander Hansen-undefined, undefined|Yasmine Naama-undefined, undefined|Maximilian Wehmeier-undefined, undefined|Tristan Avelis-undefined, undefined [William Thomas]
I4I - Megaman Voice Controlled Media Player for Videon, Inc.

Alexander Hansen (,) |Alexander Hansen-undefined, undefined [William Thomas]
Case Study: Cross Site Request Forgery (XSRF)

Brandon Hark (,) |Colin Laubauch-undefined, undefined|Dustin Servello-undefined, undefined|Jaylene Brown-undefined, undefined [Jason Chan]
Effects of Sphingolipids on Life History Traits in C. elegans

Nokota Harpster (,) [Neil Pelkey]
Average Deer Harvests per County vs. Average Forest Age Classes per County

Trevor Havemann (,) [J Barlow]
Politics and Space Exploration

Olivia Hockenbroch (,) [Donna Weimer]
All Ways of Loving (AWOL) shaping a student's college experience: The impact of an LGBT advocacy group's influence on identity
Drawing from Sartre's and Goffman's theories regarding identity construction, the purpose of this study is to examine how affirmation assists the identity development of sexual minorities. The identity is a more fluid aspect of a person, which is increasingly true for those who are considered to live outside of the societal norm, because they struggle to negotiate self-presentation with societal expectations. For the sexual minority youth, this is especially true; and existing research suggests that many educational institutions have limitations in regards to general informational and emotional support. For this reason, affirmation groups for sexual minority youth are found to assist self-acceptance, identity assumption, and identity commitment. Past research has explored the impact of social support from high school institutions, though little research has been done to show how a group of like-minded college students can act as a social support system. Research suggests that to identify with a group is beneficial to anyone of minority status, since it gives members a sense of validation; increased access to information; generally aids self-acceptance; and eventual individual identity development. This study argues that participating in AWOL is helpful to sexual minority students in developing their personal identity and feelings of safety.

Using the data from three focus groups to explore the effect that affirmation groups in colleges can have on their sexual minority population. This study specifically targets students that participate in AWOL and self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, intersex, asexual, pansexual, or polyamorous. It was found that while AWOL does not solve all the problems that sexual minorities experience at college, students who participated found themselves to be more secure throughout their college experience and felt empowered to influence change.

Michelle Hoover (,) |Garret Kratina-undefined, undefined|Nathaniel Selleck-undefined, undefined|Jessica Rolland-undefined, undefined|James Kollinger-undefined, undefined [Uma Ramakrishnan]
Training and field protocols for surgical implantation of radio telemetry tags into adult brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Little Juniata River.
The purpose of this research is to design a long-term study to monitor movement of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Little Juniata River during fluctuating water temperatures. Brown trout are a popular cold-water recreational sport fish in Pennsylvania, with a preferred water temperature range of 12-19°C. However, over the last two years the temperature has consistently reached 20°C in the Little Juniata River, occasionally exceeding temperatures of 23+ ° C. First, as part of our study, we researched several techniques available to monitor fish movement including mark-and-recapture, passive integrated transponder tags, thermal tags, radio tags and sonar tags. We found that surgically implanted radio transmitters are the best option for this study because we needed year-long locational data. These transmitters allow collection of GPS coordinates and water temperature of each tagged fish. Next, we determined the number, size and sex of fish to track, and the capture location. To successfully implant the transmitters in wild fish, we practiced on dead trout and then on live hatchery trout. We recorded the time taken for the anesthetic to take effect, the time taken for us to perform the surgery, and the time taken for the fish to recover from the anesthetic. We captured 24 fish greater than 13" in length in 3 separate reaches within the river using rod and reel with barbless hooks. Finally, we verified and amended our data collection protocol by testing our procedure in the field.

Connor Hunter-Kysor (,) [Kimberly Roth]
Applying Time Series Data Analysis to Biological Data

Jera'lyne Hyland (,) [Christopher Grant]
Chemical Contamination and Land Use Patterns Influencing Chesapeake Bay Macroinvertebrate Diversification

Oceane Imber (,) [James Roney]
Americanization of the world: truth or myth?
Travel has always been an important part of humanity. Human beings have always been curious to discover new places, as Christopher Columbus' travels emphasized. Our quest for knowledge is constant and has been highlighted through travel.The evolution of the meaning of the concept "travelling" can be linked with the evolution of our own societies. Indeed, with the development of technology, travelling has been opened, democratized and encouraged so that more people can afford the luxury of discovering the world which led to an intensive cultural interaction.
This presentation aims to show that the principle of globalization is much more complicated than one might think, particularly with regards to the United States. Indeed, the thesis of this project is that globalization is not a simple Americanization of the world.

Leah Jans (,) [Valerie Park]
Literacy Acquisition in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Research supports using phonics as a method for teaching literacy skills, however, it is not an effective method when teaching students who are deaf and hard of hearing. Phonics specifically relates to the relationship of letters and their sounds which deaf and hard of hearing students do not have access to due to their hearing loss. Therefore, these students are unable to adequately learn solely from phonics based teaching styles. This presentation will address effective methods that have been developed to effectively teach these students to read and write.

Cody Johnson (,) [Mark Pearson]
Advanced Lab Project

Marshall Johnston (,) [J Barlow]
The Cycle of Homelessness

Taylor Johnston (,) [Sharon Yohn]
Evaluation of Drawdown as a Management Tool for Controlling Invasive Exotic Plants

Fatema Juma (,) [James Roney]
The Arab Spring & Mobile Identities

Chinami Katahara (,) [Paula Beckenbaugh]
Special Olympics Changed My Perspective
Fall semester, I did an internship at Special Olympics Japan Summer National Game Head office from June to end of December. As an intern, I was in charge of the Young Athlete Program, which was the first time attempted in Japan as a National Game event. The Young athlete program focuses on 2 to 7 year-old children who have an intellectual disability. The purpose of this program is children will promote their motor skills through exercises with their parents. I collaborated with Special Education teachers from Japanese public schools. We had several meetings to develop a program and it was a great opportunity to apply what I have learned through my college courses and practicum. In addition, I learned current Japanese special education system. The internship gave me a clearer image of my future and broadened my perspectives.

Amelia Kepler (,) [Peter Baran]
Synthesis of Purine N-Oxide Complexes
Purines as a biological molecule have been found to be useful as commercial drugs. The most common use for these compounds is to target and inhibit cancer cells from growing. As the purines incorporate themselves with nucleic acid strand, they cause a kink which prevents the DNA from replicating itself. It has also been determined that these purine derivatives have more biological activity when coordinated with a metallic center. Metals including Pt, Pd, Fe, Co, Sn, and Cu have shown promise as metal centers to the purine ligands. Purine N-oxide complexes therefore also show promise with a similar structure, but only adenine 1-oxide has been complexed with a metal ion.
The focus on the continuation of studying guanine 3-N oxide has been important. Although there are four derivatives of guanine oxide, the synthesis of guanine 3-N oxide can be done through a direct oxidation of guanine using triflouroacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Once this is isolated, a synthesis is done with the addition of CuCl2·2H2O in methanol to form a complex. Different ratios of the ligand to metal will yield either water or methanol bridging complex with the guanine 3-N oxide and CuCl2·2H2O. This presentation will focus on the synthesis of these complexes and the determination of a definitive structure of the complexes.

Collin Kessler (,) [Regina Lamendella]
CRISPRs: A Bacterial Response to Viral Elements

Andrew Kilpatrick (,) [Karen Rosell]
Surrealism and the Graphic Novel: Where Dreams Meet Reality

Heidi Kleber (,) [Donna Weimer]
Call me Ganymede: A Feminist Critique Using Bormann's Fantasy Theme Analysis of Shakespeare's As You Like It
Elizabethan England's theater differs from contemporary theater. In the Elizabethan Era, it was conventional to witness young boys in female clothing and roles as females did not appear on the stage at all. This gender-switching from the male actor to the female character was even further challenged in some of Shakespeare's later comedies. The female characters often took on a masculine disguise. This meant that young male actors played a female character that then cross-dressed as a man in order to move the plot forward or achieve an objective. In As You Like It, this gender switching is iconic in Rosalind's character. There is a young boy actor playing Rosalind, who then gender-switches to a boy, Ganymede. Ganymede represents a second imaginary "Rosalind" in order to get closer to Orlando and then switches back to his role as the male Ganymede and the female Rosalind.

Bormann's work with fantasy-theme analysis argues that an audience shares a rhetorical vision: a shared belief among a community of people triggered by a word or phrase from the rhetor (Foss 123). For an Elizabethan audience, I argue that Shakespeare's choice of language creates a shared rhetorical vision about the complexity of gender switching. Through a feminist lens, I apply a fantasy-theme analysis to understand the shared rhetorical vision on gender and gender switching in As You Like It. Patriarchal themes helped the young boy actors in playing feminine roles that involved gender switching. With the elimination of some patriarchal conventions, contemporary women have a harder time playing some of the roles that these young boys mastered. Additionally, contemporary females playing these roles do not suggest the homoerotic feelings to the audience and other actors. Further research is focused on contemporary renditions of As You Like It to examine the modern complexity of gender-switching characters.

Heather Kleber (,) [James Tuten]
"Horseshoe Curve Marked": How Operation Pastorius Brought World War II to the Juniata Valley

David Knecht (,) [Larry Mutti]
Fluid Inclusions in Quartz from Fairgrounds Road, Huntingdon, PA

Vincent Knecht (,) [Jill Keeney]
Finding ORFans a Place to GO: IdenORF YLR042C in S. cerevisiae

Mitsuki Koh (,) [James Roney]
The relationship between conventional and traditional medicine in the Gambia

Erik Krueger (,) [Judith Benz]
Wolfram and the East - An Examination of how German Medieval Poet Wolfram von Eschenbach understood the East in
This presentation discusses the two major works of the medieval German poet, Wolfram von Eschenbach. Wolfram lived in the early 13th century and has been enjoyed by audiences ever since. Parzival and Willehalm are known for their highly-inventive plots, but this presentation will focus on the conversion of one character from each story from Islam to Christianity and what effects that has on the story. It will also briefly explore his thoughts on Islamic culture and beliefs and will illustrate his lack of knowledge in the Middle East.

Erik Krueger (,) [Alison Fletcher]
Pride and Prejudice: An Examination of the Nazi's anti-Semitic Propaganda Campaign
This presentation analyzes the methods used by Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich in their anti-Semitic propaganda movement. It will condense key aspects before the 1933 election and their continuation up to and including the year 1941. I will discuss how film and print media were very influential in persuading many stoic Germans into becoming Anti-Semitic believers, helping Hitler accomplish the Final Solution from 1942-1945.

Gerald Kruse (,) |Heather Bumbarger-undefined, undefined|Megan Brenneman-undefined, undefined [Gerald Kruse]
This Is A Test

Paul Kuhn (,) [Loren Rhodes]
Telemedicine: Analysis of Benefits and Framework for Implementation

Aaron Kulig (,) [Christopher Grant]
Temperature Dependent Estrogenic Response in Salvelinus Fontinalis (Brook Trout)

Emily Kutz (,) [Sarah Clarkson]
Bilingual Education in the United States: The Demand, the Need, the Responsibility, the Numbers
According to figures from the United States Department of Education in 2011, there are 5 million English-language learners enrolled in American public schools, and the number continues to grow. For educational, economic, social, and moral reasons, we have a responsibility to accommodate these students in our schools by providing a bilingual education program that serves to help them assimilate, and which ensures their successful academic transition. Bilingual education programs are necessary in the public education system of the United States to accommodate the influx of English-language learners, maintain their bilingualism, and allow them to find success in school and their communities.

Marshall Leland (,) [Jill Keeney]
Characterization of ORF YCL-042W and YIL-169C
I will be presenting on work completed last semester and this semester about the functional characterization of two unknown genes in the Yeast genome. The ultimate goal of our research is to characterize them, so that there are fewer unknown ORFs on the YeastGenomeDatabase and to get a publication. I will most likely discuss techniques used to determine protein location, sequence analysis, and possible experiments that we will be running to identify function.

Adam Lescallette (,) [Daniel Dries]
In vivo γ-Secretase-Mediated Cleavage of Slitrk5

Adam Lescallette (,) |Vincent Knecht-undefined, undefined [Daniel Dries]
Student Reflections from an Upper Level Problem-Based Learning Biochemistry Course

Elana Levine (,) [J. McKellop]
The Buffer of a Screen: The effects on levels of anonymity on judgment

Elana Levine (,) |Shayna Yeates-undefined, undefined|Kathryn McElwee-undefined, undefined|Alexis Albright-undefined, undefined|Jacqueline Bryers-undefined, undefined|Claire Moulder-undefined, undefined|Sophie Chambers-undefined, undefined|Jecenia Duran-undefined, undefined|Chau Tran-undefined, undefined [Philip Dunwoody]
What Would Authoritarians Do? Social Norms versus Submission to Authority

Lauren Liacouras (,) [Hannah Bellwoar]
This is Awkward

Kelsey Livoti (,) [Donna Weimer]
Social Media and Rural Healthcare: A Data Analysis of its Relevancy and Role in a Small Community
Social media has become an increasingly powerful tool utilized by today's business world. Its exponential growth and popularity is becoming of greater interest to healthcare systems. It is slowly changing how healthcare systems communicate within their organization and with their consumers. Acknowledging social media's expanding acceleration, hospitals in rural communities are starting to pay attention. Recognizing that rural communities are unique in their technological use, exploring how they use it and what they use it for requires further study. My research explores a rural community's use of social media in the particular area of healthcare. Using social capital theory to guide my discussion, I investigate a small hospital in a rural community's place in the social media world, and explore how their healthcare system can benefit from its use.
To address this issue, I administered a twelve question survey distributed to individuals in the rural community of Huntingdon, Pennsylvania with a response rate of 337 people. I analyze this survey and conduct a data analysis that interprets the responses of the survey in a meaningful way. This exploratory survey aims to gain a better understanding of how a small community utilizes social media in regard to healthcare, and tackles the issue of its relevancy. I argue that social media has a beneficial place in rural healthcare and can be utilized by healthcare systems to increase social capital. I suggest ways in which healthcare systems can engage their rural communities through social media networks.

Kate Lorenzen (,) [Henry Escuadro]
Counting Cayley-Sudoku Tables
A Cayley table is a generalized multiplication table for a collection of objects or a group. It naturally follows that every element of the group appears exactly once in every column and every row. This requirement is one of the rules of placing numbers in the popular game Sudoku. In addition, a Sudoku table requires each element to appear exactly once in every inner box. A Cayley-Sudoku table is a Cayley table that follows the rules of a Sudoku table. Carmichael, Schlowman, and Ward in Cosets and Cayley-Sudoku Tables examined ways to construct a Cayley-Sudoku table and we use one of these methods. In particular, we count the number of Cayley-Sudoku tables can be constructed. Some of these tables have the special property that one can be obtained from another by interchanging rows and columns. We determine what conditions are necessary for this to occur in order to accurately count how many such tables there are.

Allison Lutz (,) [Christopher Grant]
Net-spinning Caddisfly (Hydropsychidae Diplectrona) Gill Morphology and Stream Characteristics in the Marcellus Shale Basin of Northwestern Pennsylvania

Arielle Maines (,) |Robert Baronner-undefined, undefined [Ryan Mathur]
Chloride and Nitrate Concentrations in Huntingdon County Waterways

Tyler Mandley (,) [Mark Pearson]
Heating the Printer

Benjamin Martin (,) [Christopher Grant]
Mercury Accumulation in Stocked Trout

Kymberly Mattern (McCoy) (,) [Alison Fletcher]
Nazi Ideology of Women
In 1933, when the National Socialist Party came to power in Germany, the party had specific gendered expectations for women. These expectations include providing Germany with many children and running a 'German' household. When the war started, women were still expected to run a 'German' household and to provide Germany with many children, but they also had to balance these tasks with work outside the home. Women were needed in the workforce, especially in agriculture and in factories, to help with the war effort. This presentation will explore National Socialist propaganda to reveal what was expected from German women from 1933 until 1945, and will reflect on the changes in gendered expectations during the Third Reich.

Christopher McLimans (,) [Regina Lamendella]
Comparative Genomics of Hydrocarbon Degrading Microbes
A major concern with the Deepwater Horizon well blow-out that spilled more than 4.1 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico in spring/summer 2010 was the fate of the oil following the leak. From the blow out site, a large underwater plume of oil and natural gasses leaked into the gulf. While it is known that certain bacteria have the ability to degrade hydrocarbons, the contribution by specific members of the microbial community towards degradation is largely unknown. In this study biotraps were place at different depth in the gulf near the location of the blowout to enrich for hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from these biotraps and their genomes were sequenced using a combination of Illumia and PacBio sequencing platforms at the Joint Genome Institute. High quality draft genomes were retrieved for eight isolates. The sequenced genomes were assembled and annotated using Integrated Microbial Genomes and functional genomic analysis was completed with the KEGG database to examine the functional genes that provide the capability for hydrocarbon degradation. The data gained from the Ahrensia, Alcanivorax, Colwellia, Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, and Tenacibaculum analysis were evaluated for common pathways and genes for that relate to hydrocarbon degradation ability.

Forest Miller (,) [J. McKellop]
Social Modeling to Reduce Disgust Toward Eating Insects
Abstract will be included upon completion of data collection.

Shelby Miller (,) [Karen Rosell]
Confronting Fear: Modern Interpretations of the Holocaust Inferno
The Holocaust was a horrific period in history where the Nazi regime nearly decimated six million Jews, among others. Many artists lived through this genocide and their personal experiences have compelled them to dissect the evil in this period through their art. Often, conventional Holocaust artwork renders its victims in an empathetic manner. The Swastika is also important to analyze in accordance with this era as it, too, is associated with suffering and death. In contrast to the Nazi party's belief that this symbol stood for affecting and creating life, it is believed by many more contemporary viewers to be synonymous with torture weapons and pain. Modern artists also grapple with themes that require the viewer to gain the perpetrators' perspective, to view pornography, death, and the effects of consumer culture and technology on genocide. This harsh subject matter forces a personal confrontation that generates strong emotions towards these difficult themes. Generally, viewers not only feel sorrow for those that were tortured but confusion and disorientation as well. Confronting these fearful images highlights global events that have impacted society in a major way, raising awareness for genocide.

Kyle Moody (,) |Kyle Moody-undefined, undefined [William Thomas]
Firewall Configuration

Kyle Moody (,) |Lucas Navin-undefined, undefined|John Tomchick-undefined, undefined|Brittany Mlynek-undefined, undefined|Doug Smith-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
Nanotechnology and the Military
Nanotechnology and the future of the military go hand in hand. Future applications of this technology will transform the military by revolutionizing medicine, equipment and soldier identity. These technologies will focus on healing soldiers both on and off the battlefield and other technologies will look to make them more effective war machines. No matter what they are used for though, they will be developed using nanotechnology.

Marjorie Moreno (,) [J Barlow]
Vargas Llosa: Literature and Politics

Ariel Mouallem (,) [Peter Baran]
Synthesis and Characterization of Pyridine N-oxide Complexes

Colton Myers (,) [William Ames]
Electrocatalytic Activity of Metal Centered Porphyrin Thin Films

Brea Neri (,) |Brea M. Neri-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
The "I" of Malala: A Cluster-Agon Analysis of her Advocacy for the Education of Young Girls Worldwide
Malala Yousafzai, just 17 years old in July of 2014 has been named one of "The Most Influential People in the World in 2014" by Time Magazine, projected her message to thousands in the United Nations, and earned the title of the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. She has quickly become an international symbol for human rights, specifically the education of young girls and women.

Using Cluster-Agon Analysis, I investigate two speech artifacts for the purpose of understanding Malala's attitude and motive. As Kenneth Burke states, "Language reflects, selects, and deflects meaning as a way of shaping the symbol systems that allow us to cope with the world." Malala utilizes language in a compelling way that comes across as humble and sincere, while using her own hardships as an empathetic and symbolic construction to unite people globally towards a common goal. I conduct a sensitive textual analysis of Malala's language in her speech to the United Nations Youth Assembly on July 12, 2013, as well as her more recent Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech on October 10, 2014. I argue that through her speeches, a tension arises between her self-referencing use of "I" and her inclusive use of "we" and that Malala emerges as a key symbol that encapsulates the more general struggle for girls' education. I explore and connect the ideas and themes that frequent these speeches by using the key terms: "I," "We," "Rights," "Taliban," "God," and "Voice." By attending to the frequency and intensity of her language use, the textual analysis reveals her god and devil terms and ultimately, her attitude. A rhetorical perspective of language as symbolic action significantly contributes to a more concrete understanding of how her style and focused message is so powerful and persuasive.

Amberle Nickas (,) [Belle Tuten]
Suffer Little Children: The Burial Grounds of Unbaptized Infants in Early Modern Ireland

Julia Noack (,) |Julia Noack-undefined, undefined [Paula Beckenbaugh]
Connecting with the Community
There are many initiatives out there trying to connect with or build a stronger community, so why not choose something we all love? Food is a great way to connect with others, and you can use it as an educational tool in the process. I will talk about a job I had the past two summers working with underprivileged teenagers, what we did, how I taught them, and most importantly how they taught me, changed me, and even changed my POE.

Abby Nolan (,) |Jaylene Brown-undefined, undefined|Hannah Hrobuchak-undefined, undefined [Jason Chan]
Effects of Sphingolipids on Stress Response

Rika Opio (,) [Karen Rosell]
The Devil, Demons, and Damnation, Oh my!: Demonic Portrayals in Art
The idea of damnation has tormented many throughout the ages. Heaven's path is flanked by demons who wish to steal souls and drag them to Hell, tempting people into straying from the righteous way. Earthly pleasures become more alluring than devotion. Evil uses force to invade the bodies of holy people. Women are prone to falling victim to Satan's will. They can be seduced into serving him.
Ghastly images based on these themes have often been portrayed in art, specifically from the Middle Ages through the Renaissance, when the church was highly influential. Paintings and illuminated manuscripts served as cautionary tales, illustrating the horrors that may have been faced in the afterlife if lives were lived sinfully. At the end of life, souls were to be judged, and depending on how pure they were, persons could have found themselves eternally surrounded by hellfire. My thesis will focus on the reasons behind the images of: judgment and Hell; Satan, demons and demonic possession; witches and seductresses; and the temptation of St. Anthony. I will also shed light on how these themes have evolved in a modern age where the church exerts less power and influence.

T Nang Pan (,) [James Roney]
How Identity Politics Affect Myanmar
According to Benedict Anderson, national identity or nationality arises from the idea of imagined communities, in which people believe that they belong to a certain group of people who arise from the same blood origin, speak the same language or stay in a certain region with them. These nations are imagined in that it is impossible for everyone in the so-called community to know everyone else in the community. Nonetheless, the idea of nationalism is so ingrained in people's mind that it is impossible for them to imagine themselves without belonging to a nation.
From this imagined nationality and identity arise the ideas of 'otherness' and 'oneness.' People see themselves as belonging to one group and not to the other group. This separation of one group from another can lead to ethnic tensions and conflicts. Additionally, when different types of identities coexist in a country, it is harder to achieve the minimum threshold capabilities for all citizens because the majority identity can control the rights of the minorities and limit their capabilities.
Myanmar is an excellent case study of how ethnic conflicts and human rights abuses arise out of the idea of nationality and multiple identities and affect the achievement of minimal threshold human capabilities and development in a country. Myanmar has a long history of ongoing civil wars due to the government's attempt to force one main national identity (being Burmese and Buddhist) on a population in which various identities coexist. These conflicts lead to difficulties in achieving minimal threshold human capabilities in Myanmar. The presentation explains what these identity conflicts could mean for achieving development in Myanmar.

T Nang Pan (,) [James Roney]
The HIV/AIDS successes and failures in South Africa and Indonesia
Public Health and the policies which try to shape it are complex because they involve not only the multiple dimensions of healthcare within a country (healthcare workers, facilities and patients) but also many factors that are not related to health. International politics, local governmental policies, sociocultural practices, and socioeconomic structures fundamentally shape the public health of a country and determine whether that country can successfully eliminate an epidemic. The development of HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Indonesia illustrates how the aforementioned factors have led to successes and failures in eliminating and reducing the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

The presentation explains the factors shaping the forces behind the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa and Indonesia, showing the similarities in the factors which affect the epidemic in each country and the similarities and differences in the ways both countries have responded to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The presentation will also explain what the different sectors of public health in both countries have learned from their failures and successes and how the future of HIV/AIDS looks in each country.

Jung Bin Park (,) [James Roney]
Global Citizenship and Climate Change
The thesis of this paper is that climate change can mark the beginning of a new phase of modern globalization by awakening people's consciousness of global citizenship. This study firstly examines the meaning and necessity of global citizenship in this day and age of highly interconnected and interdependent world. Then it lays out the three issues that requires global citizenship: Promoting Peace, Addressing Economic and Social Injustice, and Protecting the Earth. After this examination, it further studies people's abiliy to develop global citizenship by looking at Jeremy Rifkin's book Empathic Civilization. Fianlly, it shows how global climate change might have a positive effect on people's development of global citizenship.

Stephen Park (,) [Alison Fletcher]
Cold War Politics and the Olympic Games
During the Cold War era the Olympic games became a stage for conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. This presentation looks at the summer Olympic games starting with the 1936 Berlin Olympics and then focuses on the period between 1968 and 1980 culminating with the United States boycott of the Moscow Olympics. This thesis critically analyzes the political events that took place during each Olympic games and their role during the broader Cold War era.

Jonathan Partsch (,) [Jill Keeney]
Identification of Proteins that Co-immunoprecipitate with RTT105 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Bakers yeast, S cerevisiae, is a well studied fungus and has become a model organism for biological research. RTT105 is an uncharacterized gene and is a negative regulator of native Ty1 mobility. Ty1 is a retrotransposon and contains several long terminal repeat (LTR) regions flanking the gag and pol genes. It may be that RTT105 proteins bind with protein products of Ty1, gag, or other genes. Co-immunoprecipitation is a technique that can identify binding interactions between proteins. I am investigating to see if RTT105 binds to Ty1, or other proteins.

Kate Passannante (,) [Richard Hark]
The Science of Portrait Miniatures

David Paul (,) [Douglas Glazier]
The effect of environmental influences on the ontogenetic scaling of gill surface area in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus minus

MaryElizabeth Petrie (,) [Matthew Beaky]
Physics Research Presentation

Daniel Phillips (,) Daniel Phillips-undefined, undefined|Ankara Shepard-undefined, undefined|Caitlin McCann-undefined, undefined|Kayla Causer -undefined, undefined [Anne Gilman]
Improving Auditory Stimuli for Cognition Research

Kaitlynn Plummer (,) [John Bukowski]
Hark! How the Bells: A Study of Inversions in Change Ringing

Benjamin Redman (,) [Matthew Beaky]
Research in Physics

Brandon Reis (,) [Donna Weimer]
The capacity of the visual arts to destroy cultural and generational compartmentalization: An alternative to verbal language, which induces "the negative"
John Dewey argues in the Art as Experience lecture series that the enemy of humanity's natural state is language: language can be just as bad as it can be good. Language allows tasks to be completed with a sense of urgency and efficiency, but with this efficiency comes a loss: society forgets that each individual has not only a unique identity but also a unique viewpoint. That, somehow, even those who share the same "identity" through self-identification by language, whether it be race, ethnicity, sexuality, gender, have completely different experiences with the world around them. In an effort to communicate, Language does not take into account this unique experience. However, as Dewey details time-and-time again, art does.

This research seeks to reveal the consistent drawbacks of language as a limiting medium of expression. In the long run, language has done more damage to the human psyche across each generation by separating us from our natural human condition. Society has forgotten what it means to be part of a natural process, instead opting to be ruled by the artificial selfhoods symbols provide us. However, art plays a role in the long-term opposition of language. Art has the capacity to showcase a culture's attitudes, values, and beliefs, therefore their experiences as well, without the necessity of translation or previous knowledge of said culture. A medium accessible to all, art has become a driving force in breaking boundaries, reminding society that even with our newfound "individuality" all humans are capable of engaging in art.

Through an analysis of John Dewey's argument in Art as Experience where he presents the increasingly dangerous phenomenon he calls, "the Human Contribution," I use this work to explain the genuine importance of an undivided, complete world experience and art's role over language, in supplying one. This research details what it means to be "inventors of the negative," as Kenneth Burke deemed a defining characteristic of language users. I then argue that society has used language as a crutch forsaking holistic understanding for efficiency and introduce the long and short-term benefits of both mediums: art and language. Through a concise review of The Fallen Angels by Salvatore Albano, among other works, I argue Dewey's Human Contribution is attainable and understandable. As a consequence, I conclude that society has an obligation to itself to invest in art. This investment in art has more worth to society's well being, as it creates a holistic understanding on the communal and individual level, across cultures and generations.

Brandon Reis (,) [Karen Rosell]
Matisse and Picasso: How Their Rivalry Fueled Their Astonishing Abstractions
Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse are assuredly two of the most influential artists at the dawn of modern art. Not friends, nor lovers, nor even enemies, in fact, the two shared a distinctly unique relationship�?"a rivalry�?"that pushed each to produce extraordinary works. It seemed that fate alone was the primary factor of their initial meeting, and prevalent throughout their unpredictable game, pushing the boundaries of what was considered tolerable art at the time. At first, it was strange that two artists with a twelve-year age difference between them, one a Spanish prodigy while the other was the founder of the Fauves, would compete with one another. Upon analysis of their works, however, it becomes obvious why the two would engage in a dialogue that would change modern art forever.

Picasso, the Apollonian of the two, gave primary focus to form through his obsession with line. Matisse, however, chose the Dionysian route, finding inspiration in Delacroix and Cezanne to manipulate light and color to achieve form. While each shared a different method, the realm in which they worked remained the same: the mastery over dimensions of flat space. The influence they had over each other cannot be disputed. Some of Picasso's greatest works were born from artful disputes with Matisse and, much later, the two would eventually engage in an about-face, with Picasso beginning to understand the importance of decorative color over linear structure and Matisse giving color a tangible existence with his cutouts, the ultimate physical form. The two possessed the power to be both the antagonizer and the antithesis of one another. Both artists engaged in a dialogue where, consciously or subconsciously, they would creatively borrow from and implement each other's techniques. The goal of this research is to showcase, through comparisons between their artworks, just how Matisse and Picasso fueled each other.

Jacklyn Renninger (,) [Paula Beckenbaugh]
A Look into Early Education in Ireland
During the fall semester of the 2014-2015 school year I studied abroad in Cork, Ireland. Along with experiencing higher education internationally, I got to spend three hours a week in The Greenmount School. Through this opportunity I was able to compare the Irish education system to what I have experienced through my practicum placements from Juniata's education department. I spent my time in a junior infants classroom, which included ages four through six. Though there were some similarities between the Irish system and the Pennsylvania system that I have experienced in Huntingdon and Juniata Valley schools, differences included the country-wide use of Montessori schools to prepare children for primary school. Ireland uses the Primary School Curriculum, which is taught in all institutions. The curriculum implements religion and celebrates the uniqueness of the child. Because of the major differences in the curriculum used in Ireland, many of my observations and experiences were also very different from what I was used to. These differences will be discussed in comparison to the type of educational system used in the Huntingdon County and Juniata Valley School Districts.

Sarah Roberts (,) |Desnor Chigumba-undefined, undefined [Matthew Beaky]
Shape and Spin Modeling of Asteroids through Lightcurve Inversion
Unlike planets, asteroids have not undergone differentiation, so they have recorded details of the solar system's evolution. Their rotational lightcurves, which show the amount of sunlight they reflect toward Earth while rotating, are acquired using photometry. CCD images of multiple asteroids were taken during the summer of 2014 using Juniata College's sixteen-inch Meade LX200-GPS Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope with an attached SBIG ST-8XME CCD camera and a SBIG ST-i guide camera and at Lowell Observatory using their thirty-one-inch reflecting telescope with a 2Kx2K Loral CCD camera. The images were calibrated using Maxim DL before lightcurves were generated for 199 Byblis, 660 Crescentia, 65 Cybele, 1842 Hynek, 855 Newcombia, 547 Praxedis, and 490 Veritas. These lightcurves were combined with others from online databases to generate shape and spin axis models using MPO LCInvert. Final models were determined for 199 Byblis, 537 Praxedis, 855 Newcombia, and 490 Veritas. These models can be used for calculations of the Yarkovsky and Yarkovsky?"O'Keefe?"Radzievskii?"Paddack (YORP) effects. Understanding how asteroid orbits change over time is important for classifying their families and predicting their orbits.

Abigail Rosenberger (,) [Regina Lamendella]
Relationship between fish gut microbial communities and environmental mercury concentrations

Michael Roth (,) [William Ames]
Characterization of Carbene Intramolecular Reactivity with Various Substituents through Computer Modeling
Carbenes are molecules that contain a neutral carbon bonded to only three atoms resulting in a pair of non-bonded valence electrons. This produces an interesting reactivity between the carbon and electron donating atoms. When these carbenes are paired with an amide anion or carboxylic acid anion on the same molecule, a three-membered ring can be observed using computer modeling techniques. This research focuses on which substituents and ligands encourage the carbene to form these three membered rings.

Jacob Rowe (,) |Jacob Rowe-undefined, undefined|Jung Bin Park-undefined, undefined|Eric Lambert-undefined, undefined [Jeff Krause]
Health and Growth Rate of Containerized American Chestnut Plantings in Response to Media and Mycorrhizae Fungi

Kyle Salage (,) [J Barlow]
"Grexit" Stage Right?: Greece and the Eurozone Predicament

Anthony Salpietro (,) [J Barlow]
The Right to Be Forgotten: Expression and Privacy in the US and the EU

Zachary Sanna (,) [Emil Nagengast]
Xi's Dream: Interpreting the Meaning and Context of the Chinese Dream

Jessica Scales (,) [Jill Keeney]
RTT105 in Ty1 retrotransposition: a possible role in virus-like particle (VLP) assembly
The mRNA of retrovirus-like transposons encodes the envelope and replication proteins (gag and pol), and serves as the genomic material for virus-like particles (VLPs), a cytosolic structure in which the element's genome is reverse transcribed. In the genome of Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), there are several families of such retrotransposons, including the abundant Ty1 element. Ty1 contains several long terminal repeat (LTR) regions flanking the gag and pol genes required for VLP assembly and Ty1 mobility. In S. cerevisiae, genome-wide screens have identified numerous candidate genes that mediate Ty1 retrotransposition activity. One of these candidates, RTT105, was identified as a negative regulator of native Ty1 mobility in a Ty1 suppressor screen by Scholes et al. 2001. Here, we show RTT105 as a positive regulator of galactose-induced Ty1 mobility at non-permissive temperature. Because RTT105 is uncharacterized and contains no conserved domains, the nature of the role of RTT105 in Ty1 retrotransposition activity remains unknown. We identified that rtt105 mutation does not interrupt Ty1 translation, Gag protein processing, and reverse transcriptase activity in mature VLPs; therefore, RTT105 must function prior to cDNA synthesis and subsequent to co-translational translocation of Gag at the endoplasmic reticulum. In permissive conditions, Rtt105p localizes at discrete cytoplasmic Ty1 Gag foci, suggesting a possible role in VLP assembly and maturation. Growth in stressful environmental conditions, such as the presence of galactose or glucose deprivation, triggers Rtt105p and Ty1 Gag protein localization at the vacuole. Interestingly, rtt105 mutation inhibits movement of cytoplasmic Ty1 Gag protein to the vacuole in the presence of these stressors. This result illuminates an important step in the processing and regulation of retrotransposons and suggests an additional route for which the host cell actively maintains Ty1 activity in variable environmental conditions.

Haley Schneider (,) [Donna Weimer]
Political Dialects: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceived Bias in Democratic and Republican Speech
In American politics, the success of a political party depends on how its candidates communicate their values. Party identification hinges largely on narrative outlook and issue ownership. The two main political parties, Republican and Democrat, separate from each other by selecting different values and issues to call their own. Naturally, each party has developed a separate language to frame political issues in a way that highlights the strengths and downplays the weakness of their party. Partisan language is perpetuated through the way politicians speak and how the media frames political issues. Voters identify with a particular party by adopting this language into their own discussions.
This study explores the way partisan voters talk about the economy and the extent to which perceived bias can hinder bipartisan communication. I interviewed ten voters who identify with one of the two main political parties: five who identify as Republicans, and five who identify as Democrats. Each participant is asked to read a paragraph about the economy that contains language used by the opposite party. Words with similar meaning are substituted in for one another, so that Democrats read the Republican words and Republicans read Democratic words. Participants are asked to identify the bias of the paragraph; circle words that they feel are biased, and explain what the words mean to them.
I argue that partisan voters find it difficult to point out specific biased words. I infer that voters who are active in politics are able to determine bias based on a "gut feeling" that comes from absorbing partisan discussion in the media. This research is important to the study of bipartisan communication, which is becoming increasingly more difficult. This study contributes to a greater understanding of ways that Republicans and Democrats frame an economic issue that matters to an effective American politics.

Catherine Scholl (,) |Catherine Scholl-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
A Fantasy Theme Analysis of crisis communication management in social media: how joining the conversation saved the reputations of the Red Cross and FedEx
The debate whether or not businesses should create social media accounts to connect with consumers is over. As of 2014, 93% of marketers use social media for businesses in the United States. Research has proven social media participation positively influences relationships between consumers and organizations. But what happens when these accounts are abused? By using Bormann's Fantasy Theme Analysis, I examine the rhetoric of mission and vision statements crafted by the American Red Cross and FedEx in order to piece together the individual shared rhetorical visions that the organizations created to bond with their consumers and shareholders. I then explore their social media mishaps that devalue and discernibly raise questions among followers regarding each company's reputation. I analyze the crisis communication executed to revive the fantasy themes necessary for symbolic re-convergence.
With the Red Cross I examine their Twitter feed for the month of February 2011, as well as every public tweet containing the hashtag #gettingslizzard from the time of the mishap to the present. With FedEx I examine a YouTube video created by a disgruntled consumer as well as the video response created by the CEO of FedEx. To finalize my research, I analyze the crisis communication implemented through the lens of Fantasy Theme Analysis, which reveals how re-convergence can occur.
The constraints and speed of social media have changed the face of PR and crisis communication. I argue that the implementation of effective PR and crisis communication are more imperative than ever in repairing and reviving the shared rhetorical visions that have been challenged through these social media crises. Joining the online communication gives organizations the ability to change the direction of the conversation. I argue through appropriately executed crisis communication the American Red Cross and FedEx turned mishaps into opportunities to create new constructs for symbolic re-convergence with their followers.

Katie Schroeder (,) [Chuck Yohn]
Relationship between invasive plants and wetland use by migratory birds in central Pennsylvania
Bird migrations are energetically expensive, and multiple stopover sites with abundant food sources are required along the way for refueling. A conservation concern is that invasive plants can affect the quality of available food sources. This study examined if occurrence of invasive plants in wetlands is related to the bird species or guilds observed. A site with no invasive plants, Old Crow, was compared to a site, Fouse's Crossing, with the following berry-producing invasives: Rosa multiflora, Elaeagnus umbellate, Lonicera morrowii, and Berberis thunbergii. Old Crow showed overall higher avian species diversity and statistically higher densities of kingfishers, warblers, sparrows, blackbirds, granivores, and long- and short-distance migrants. Only corvids and starlings were more abundant at Fouse's Crossing. The prediction that frugivores would be more abundant in the presence of berry-producing invasive plants was not supported. Between-site differences may be attributed to other habitat quality factors.

Derek Schultz (,) [J Barlow]
The United States Stance on Illegal Israeli Settlements

Derek Schultz (,) [Dennis Plane]
Newspaper Coverage of Presidential Policy in the United States and Great Britain
Do British newspapers focus more attention on public policies than do American newspapers? To answer this question, I examine the extent of public policy coverage related to the 2008 presidential election in both U.S. and British newspapers. I examine newspaper coverage during the month-long span immediately preceding the 2008 presidential election between, Barack Obama and John McCain. I have chosen to examine policy in two U.S. papers ( the Washington Post and the Denver Post) and two British papers (the Guardian and the Daily Telegraph). Within each paper, I examine the amount of policy coverage in three specific policy areas: the Iraq War, health care, and energy policy. I find that U.S. newspapers had more articles mention each policy, however the British newspapers had a higher percent of news articles mention the policy multiple times. This research allows us to understand the relationship between U.S. media consumers and British media consumers pertaining to the 2008 U.S. presidential election. British readers craved more substantive coverage based on the number of articles that contained multiple mentions of a contentious public policy. This is in stark contrast to the cursory coverage of public policy that U.S. readers were given.

Arnold Schwemmlein (,) [Henry Escuadro]
Studying Nonlinear Systems of Equations Using Newton's Method and Microsoft Excel
This study used Newton's Method for nonlinear systems of equations to numerically solve a particular system of two equations that arose in a physical problem. Since a single application of Newton's Method delivers only one solution, Newton's Method was applied to all seeds in a specified domain to identify all solutions in that domain. The considered system had two solutions on all domains used, and, depending on which solution it converged to, each seed was color-coded and plotted. The implementation was done in Microsoft Excel using Visual Basic. The plot showed characteristics of a fractal, so it was concluded that the multivariable Newton's Method exhibits chaotic behavior, like the one variable Newton's Method. Finally, the fractal was analyzed using a multivariable fixed point analysis.

Dustin Servello (,) [Jason Chan]
Role of Sphingolipids in Aging, Locomotor Healthspan and Lipid Metabolism
As people age, various processes begin to decay within the body. Aging degrades tissues and slows certain processes, decreasing movement and lowering the body's defenses against a slew of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, hypertension, and cancer. Therapies that could halt the progression of aging could keep the elderly population healthier for longer. There are many classes of cellular regulators of aging that could be manipulated, one of which is sphingolipids. By altering the concentrations of these membrane-bound lipids, the aging process can also be altered. A model organism that has readily available mutants, has a short lifespan, reproduces in large quantities, and has been widely studied in the field of aging is the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. A visible and easily tested system for aging changes in C. elegans is the nervous system since their movement is easily measured by eye and through automation; their entire nervous system has also been mapped. Through various movement assays and lipid stains, providing the concentrations of lipids in the worm mutants, the overall health of the nervous system as regulated by sphingolipids can be determined. Following these analyses, sphingolipids will be identified that regulate the degradation of the nervous system. These can be used in future gene therapies and pharmacological techniques to reduce the effects of the aging process.

Katharine Shelledy (,) [Wade Roberts]
Misdirected Scientific Criticism in Rousseau's "First Discourse"
In Rousseau's "First Discourse", he responds to the Academy's question with a controversial depiction of Enlightenment's consequences; at odds with his contemporaries, Rousseau extols "ignorance, innocence, and poverty" while characterizing science and the knowledge obtained through its application as "fatal arts". However, the principle components of Rousseau's defense reflect issues of superficiality in society; his true criticism therefore lies with humanity's pride rather than their scientific undertakings. Rousseau establishes from the beginning that he defends virtue rather than abuses science and concludes by endorsing the melding of scientific and political spheres, yet Rousseau's argument neither aligns with nor supports these assertions, thereby undermining his own antagonistic portrayal of science. Rousseau errs in idealizing the uninformed, misdirecting his social criticism, and overlooking that science at its best yields truth, a universally accepted virtue. To resolve these errors, knowledge must be reevaluated so that its definition reflects knowledge's role in the path to truth. Similarly, pride must be held apart from science; Rousseau's criticism of science can be reduced, essentially, to a discourse against human pride. A reformed scientific community that is devoid of pride would serve Rousseau's purpose more adequately than complete abolishment of scientific pursuit.

Katharine Shelledy (,) [Vincent Buonaccorsi]
Genetic Differences in Brook Trout Populations

Katherine Shoemaker (,) [Jill Keeney]
Characterization of YML020W and YGL117W in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Kortney Showers (,) [Valerie Park]
Utilizing Technology in the Literacy Classroom

Ashley Snyder (,) |Brianna Watt-undefined, undefined|Justin Waldorf-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
Social Media Effects On Identity

Ashley Snyder (,) [William Thomas]

Bradley Spayd (,) [Mark Pearson]
Improving Long Term Data Gathering for Undergraduates in the Natural Sciences

Mitchell Stanton (,) |Ben Souders-undefined, undefined|Will Lupold-undefined, undefined [B Halloran]
Developmental Methodology of Inter-Watershed Transport of Benthic Macroinvertebrates
Miller Run is a cold, headwater stream located in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. Widespread acid mine drainage (AMD) associated with intensive coal mining operations over a 150-year period produced suboptimal water quality that reduced aquatic biodiversity. Since 1998, the Shoup's Run Watershed Association and the Huntingdon County Conservation District, have worked to remediate the effects of AMD pollution throughout the system. As a result, Miller Run now contains a healthy, reproducing population of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). However, in contrast, a robust, species-rich community of benthic macroinvertebrates (BMI) has not been documented. The paucity of BMI appears to result from episodic acidic runoff that retards the development of a stable, abundant invertebrate community.

Our study focused on developing a simple, low-cost technique that would allow the introduction of BMI into Miller Run. To accomplish this we deployed leaf packs in regionally comparable streams that were relatively free of any anthropogenically-induced stressors. We selected Laurel Run, Shavers Creek, and Trough Creek (all in close proximity to Miller Run) as potential BMI "donor" streams. The long-term goal of this project was to both identify and develop a protocol, utilizing leaf packs, of transplanting BMI into Miller Run in order to re-colonize and eventually supplement the diet of the native brook trout. This process could eventually be utilized in other streams that have chronic non-normal environmental perturbations that result in subpar BMI communities.

Mitchell Stanton (,) [B Halloran]
Zooplankton Communities of Raystown Reservoir, PA
Surficial and subsurface rotifer and microcrustacean zooplankton densities were compared between the three different zones (lacustrine, transitional, and riverine) of Raystown Lake in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. Surficial samples were collected using two 65-μm push nets and subsurface samples were collected using Kemmerer samplers. Physicochemical data was recorded at each sample site. Rotifers, copepods (adults and copepodites), nauplii, and cladocerans were identified in each sample. We evaluated differences between sample sites for total zooplankton and taxa specific densities for each sampling week using ANOVA. Statistical differences were observed between sample sites for each week. Rotifers were the most abundant, conversely cladocerans were the least observed in the study.

Gregory Stewart (,) Jason Boblick-undefined, undefined|Chris Bomgardner-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
Survaillance and Security
We researched the idea that the balance between surveillance and security online is adversely
affecting our ability to control our digital identity, and explored how we can use the internet and keep our information safe.

Nicholas Stone-Weiss (,) [Matthew Beaky]
Photonic Bandgap Modeling by Use of BNC Cables

Leila Terrab (,) [John Unger]
Developing a Synthesis of α-Diazoamides
Carbenes that are stabilized by an anionic β-heteroatom display unique nucleophilic reactivity. While carboxylate carbenes have been synthesized and studied, the analogous amidate carbenes have not yet been realized. This body of research reports a three-step synthetic strategy that allows the synthesis of α-diazoamides, the immediate precursors of amidate carbenes, from acyl cyanides. The development and optimization of this strategy will be reported.

David Toole (,) [Regina Lamendella]
Identification of a Shell-Degrading Family of Cyanobacteria Using the High-throughput Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene
In a branch of the Juniata River, gastropods and other freshwater shellfish have been observed to have green and white discoloring on their shells along with higher frailty when compared to healthy gastropods. This kind of shell degradation has previously not been documented in Pennsylvania freshwater systems. The present study focuses on the microbial communities associated with the shells of infected and uninfected gastropods. Six gastropod hosts, Pleurocera virginica, were collected from a site afflicted with this degradation (Juniata River) and a site where this shell discoloring was not observed (Raystown Branch) within the system. Fragments of these gastropod shells underwent DNA extraction using the MoBio PowerSoil DNA extraction kit, followed by 16S-amplification and Illumina sequencing using the Miseq Platform (250 bp paired end chemistry). The sequence data were then analyzed using the QIIME workflow for quality filtering and taxa clustering. Subsequent normalization and diversity analyses were performed using phyloseq. Microbial community structure analysis revealed significant differences between infected and uninfected shells. This analysis showed that the microbial communities in gastropods from the Juniata River site were dominated by Xenococcaceae. This group of cyanobacteria was unable to be identified past the taxonomic family-level, but the order to which it belongs to, Chroococcales, has been associated with degradation of coral exoskeletons. Additionally, samples were dominated by Sphingomonadales, Rhizobiales, and Rhodobacterales sequences. This alphaproteobacteria presence was likely from contamination by the snail gut when fragmenting the shells, and thus has helped us design better methodology for sample preparation prior to DNA extraction. Future work is focusing on evaluating a larger number of gastropods in several other freshwater ecosystems in central PA as a biomonitoring tool for evaluating the extent of this cyanobacterial infection in freshwater gastropods.

Teresa Turmanian (,) [Mark Pearson]
Advanced Physics Lab Independent Project

Teresa Turmanian (,) [Mark Pearson]
Magnetic Ground State of Industrial Sensors

Elizabeth Twigg (,) [J Barlow]
Capitalist Consumerism and LGBT Attitudes in China

Nikea Ulrich (,) [Regina Lamendella]
A Temporal Assessment of Impacts of Natural Gas Extraction on Microbial Communities in Headwater Stream Ecosystems in Northwestern Pennsylvania

Duc Vu (,) [Peter Baran]
Synthesis and Coordination Study of 3-hydroxyimidazole 1-oxide Copper Complexes

Alexis Waksmunski (,) [J Barlow]
Going Beyond Blowback: An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Policy and Peace & Conflict Studies

Andrea Waksmunski (,) [Vincent Buonaccorsi]
Automated de novo Transcriptome Analysis of Eukaryotic Organisms

Andrea Waksmunski (,) [Vincent Buonaccorsi]
RNA-Seq analysis of muscle and bone growth and regulation in juvenile Seriola lalandi

Brianna Watt (,) |Jason Boblick-undefined, undefined|Christian Bomgardner-undefined, undefined|Lucas Navin-undefined, undefined [William Thomas]
MBG Innovation for Industry Project

Brianna Watt (,) [William Thomas]
How Secure is Your Mobile Phone?

Clinton Webb (,) [Douglas Stiffler]
Xinjiang and the Campaign to Open Up the West
Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) implemented a series of reforms throughout the western half of the People's Republic of China (PRC) that significantly altered the demographic, economic, and infrastructural composition of several provinces. These policies became known as the campaign to Open Up the West, and their impact was felt most noticeably throughout the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, or simply Xinjiang. Throughout the implementation of these policies, the CCP argued that the campaign to Open Up the West would increase "common prosperity" throughout Xinjiang. However, scholarly analysis, verifiable statistics, and CCP documents have all demonstrated that the real objectives of the campaign to Open Up the West were concealed through government supported propaganda, and were much more ruthless than the CCP initially argued. Indeed, upon examination, it is clear that the campaign to Open Up the West was designed by the CCP to obtain Xinjiang's abundant natural resources, to forcefully stabilize and secure China's Muslim west, and to aid and benefit Xinjiang's Han population at the expense of Xinjiang's native Uyghur people.

Michael Weintraub (,) [Wade Roberts]
Identity Categories and the Consumer Imperative
I would like to explore the construction as well as the maintenance of contemporary Western identity narratives and cultural rhetoric through readings of several recent philosophers such as Michel Foucault, Judith Butler, Gilles Deleuze and Slavoj Zizek. I intend to investigate the functional byproducts of the post-modernist consumption imperative along with how this aligns with appeals to affective hyper-individualized understandings of the self. In doing so I will attempt to illustrate how identity categories of various sorts act as disciplinary mechanisms in what are ultimately futile attempts to regulate through inscription upon the body a multiplicity of ongoing ontological processes of becoming. In addition to this, I wish to consider the modes by which individuals both constantly embrace and grapple with such identitarian micro-political conflicts which are then constituted or embodied in a performative manner. The desires to perform such bodily and speech utterances, even in as intended methods of supposed resistance, must be reconsidered as socially constructed and regulated by the demands derived from capitalist ideology for immaterial labor.

Michael Weintraub (,) [Wade Roberts]
Contemporary Identity and The Consumption Imperative
I intend to investigate the development and functional byproducts of the neoliberal consumption imperative along with how this aligns with appeals to affective and "authentic" hyper-individualized understandings of the self. In doing so I will attempt to illustrate how identity categories of various sorts act as disciplinary mechanisms of production-consumption, even self-imposed ones, in attempts to regulate and fulfill through inscription upon the body what are ultimately a multiplicity of ongoing ontological processes in constant flux. The atomized subjectivity arising from this paradigm will be examined in the context of both linguistic and machinic enslavements operating within the domains of social, cultural, communicative, psychical, and political economies.

In addition to this, I wish to consider the modalities by which subjects both constantly come to embrace and grapple with such identitarian micro-political conflicts which are then constituted or embodied in a performative subjectivity. The desires to articulate such bodily speech utterances, even in as intended methods of supposed resistance, must be reconsidered as synthetically constructed and regulated by the demands derived from underlying capitalist logics which have privileged immaterial labor as part and parcel to existential fulfillment. Finally, I will conclude by pondering the various paths forward available to those who might wish to reconsider the currently accorded trajectory of identity in Western society.

Nicholas Weit (,) [Regina Lamendella]
AMD Microbial Community Structure

Heather Wetzel (,) |Emma Kring-undefined, undefined|Corey Houck-undefined, undefined|Rebecca Kane-undefined, undefined|Bridget Canning-undefined, undefined [Uma Ramakrishnan]
Regional distinctions of coloration and morphometrics in Pennsylvanian coyotes (Canis latrans)
The goal of this study is to continue and enhance the research initiated last year on exploring the color and morphometric variation of coyotes (Canis latrans) in Pennsylvania. Members of the Canid family, including the Eastern coyote, are known to exhibit a wide variation of pelt colorations within populations. Recent studies have also indicated that Eastern coyotes have hybridized considerably with grey wolves (Canis lupus) and domestic dogs. In our study, we attempt to find regional patterns in these variations using data collected from over 200 coyotes brought to local sportsman's competition in 2014 and 2015. For each animal included in our study, we recorded the age, sex, weight, and county of harvest. We then took measurements of the head circumference, body length, distance between canine teeth, and foot pad width because coyotes, wolves and dogs differ in these measurements. To record color, we took photographs of the ear, side, and hind leg of each coyote under controlled lighting conditions. In 2014 the group encountered difficulty in interpreting their results using RGB because the red value did not accurately reflect how much red was present in the coat. We found a more straightforward way to document pelt color in Adobe Photoshop using a circular color gradient with a radial value mask; photos of the coyotes were qualitatively categorized by color using this gradient. We then performed a spatial analysis of the data using ArcGIS and statistical analyses were performed using R.

Taylor Whetsel (,) [Donna Weimer]
Does "IT" Really Matter: A Narrative Approach Exploring the Dynamic Definition of Virginity in the Formation of Women's Sexual Identity
Across cultures throughout the world, virginity is considered one of the most cherished possessions a young woman can have. Within our society, the emphasis on maintaining virginity has been a perceived female value. Previous studies have examined the impact on the loss of virginity; however, there has been a lack of discourse surrounding what this "possession" is. Research suggests that the loss of virginity can be characterized as a gift to give to a partner, a stigma to rid oneself of, or a rite of passage to adulthood (Carpenter, 2010). Although the classification of the loss of virginity can provide insight, it is the language involved in the narrative that proves to be of greater importance to the construction of a young woman's identity with regard to sexuality and virginity. More specifically, how has the narrative of remaining chaste been perpetuated throughout decades?

In this research, the objective is to explore how a definition of virginity is sustained over time through an investigation of the narratives used to describe sexual experiences. The rhetorical assumption is that the stories surrounding the "loss of virginity," specifically language, construct a woman's sexual identity. To create a clearer understanding of the narrative by which woman are expected to live, I examine the discourse surrounding virginity across six decades from a generational perspective in three interviews. I conducted these three in-depth interviews with each woman representing a specific generation. I interviewed white, middle class, heterosexual women who are classified members of the Baby Boomer generation, Generation X, and Generation Y.

Using these interviews as my data set, I apply Walter Fisher's narrative approach to assess the narrative rationality of these women's stories. I argue that the narrative rationality of these women's stories remain complete and true to society's expectations despite that contemporary society allows for greater expressions of differences about virginity. The narratives surrounding virginity offer an illustration of the standard created by society in constraining a woman's sexual identity

Taylor Whetsel (,) |Amy Ankney-undefined, undefined|David Spade-undefined, undefined|Zachary Trayer-undefined, undefined|Josh Gongloff-undefined, undefined|Micah Dowdy-undefined, undefined|Rounida Shwaish-undefined, undefined [Cynthia deVries]
Sociology Senior Seminar Capstone

Ryan Wickes () [Brad Andrew]
Cyclically Adjusted Price to Earnings Ratios and Subsequent Returns
This research project analyzed the ability of Cyclically Adjusted Price to Earnings ratios (CAPE) to predict subsequent returns. The number of annual periods of average earnings was varied to access how CAPEs of various time frames affected the predictability of returns. The subsequent return period was also varied to access the ability of the different CAPEs to predict returns over varying subsequent periods.

Miya Williams (,) [Michael Henderson]
Code Switching for Bilingual Individuals

Ethan Wilt (,) [J Barlow]
The Right To Self-Defense: A Consitutional Validation for Concealed Carry on Publicly Funded, Post-Secondary Educational Institutions
No provision of the Constitution is more passionately debated than the Second Amendment. Over the years, the Supreme Court has handed down a number of important decisions concerning what the right "to keep and bear arms" means. In the past decade, the Supreme Court has held the Second Amendment secures an individual right to firearms and that the protections of the Second Amendment apply to the States. This presentation focuses on an unexplored avenue of Second Amendment jurisprudence: Do students at public, post-secondary educational institutions have the right to conceal carry a firearm? Upon a thorough examination of subsequent Second Amendment decisions in the lower courts, analogous first amendment jurisprudence, and the arguments against such a policy, the conclusion is unequivocally, yes. This presentation is not about the effectiveness/ineffectiveness of guns in reducing crime or violence. Rather, this presentation seeks to defend a right explicitly stated in the Constitution. Forty-six years ago, our Supreme Court in the milestone case of Tinker v. Des Moines stated, "[i]t can hardly be argued that either students or teachers shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate." Students at public colleges and universities too, should not be asked to shed their constitutional right "to keep and bear arms" when they set foot on campus.

Victoria Wolf (,) |Colton Hallabuk-undefined, undefined|Ryan Mull-undefined, undefined|Katherine Jeffress-undefined, undefined|Paniz Sehat Niaki-undefined, undefined [Carol Peters]
Student Perspectives of the Writing Center

Feiyang Xu (,) [John Unger]
Synthesizing Organic Azides through the Palladium-Catalyzed Cross Coupling of Aryl and Vinyl Sulfonates
This research aims to develop a new palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling method that will allow the synthesis of aryl and vinyl azides from sulfonates. The proposed method is attractive due to the ability of azides to be used in a multifaceted fashion. Although several different strategies exist to prepare organic azides, these methods must typically be run at elevated temperatures, at which azides can thermally decompose. Palladium catalysis could offer a milder alternative, allowing azide cross-coupling to be carried at lower temperatures. In cross-coupling reactions, aryl and vinyl sulfonates, including triflates, mesylates, and tosylates, serve as convenient alternatives to halides, and are synthesized from phenols and ketones.

Shayna Yeates (,) [J. McKellop]
The impact of millennial stereotypes on college students' self-perceptions

Shayna Yeates (,) |Elana Levine-undefined, undefined|Sophie Chambers-undefined, undefined|Jecenia Duran-undefined, undefined|Chau Tran-undefined, undefined|Claire Moulder-undefined, undefined|Kathryn McElwee-undefined, undefined|Alexis Albright-undefined, undefined [Philip Dunwoody]
What Would Authoritarians Do? Deontological versus Utilitarian Moral Reasoning

Clarence Yeung (,) |Emilia Schneider -undefined, undefined|Robert Higgins -undefined, undefined|Madison Berrier -undefined, undefined|Timothy Hess-undefined, undefined [Marlene Burkhardt]
Kdan Mobile
Our team worked with the Taiwanese based company Kdan Mobile. Kdan Mobile Software is a tech company that was founded in 2010 in Yongkang District, Tainan, Taiwan. Kenny Su is the founder and CEO of Kdan Mobile Software, a mobile software development and business analytic company. Our team were assigned four projects and so, each team member had their own assignment to manage. Three of the four projects were app based and the fourth project dealt with opportunities for Kdan Mobile in the education industry. The three apps were Kdan Mobile's Animation Desk, Noteledge, and PDF reader. For each app a blog had to be written about its features and capabilities. Along with that team members need to create promotional video, instructional video, help the company to generate data from college students and manage a company twitter account.

Duk Yi (,) |Sam Gary-undefined, undefined [John Unger]
Optimization of Copper-Catalyzed Asymmetric Reduction of Aryl 2H-Azirines
Although several strategies exist that allow researchers access to chiral aziridines, one method that remains largely unexplored is the stereoselective reduction of prochiral 2H-azirines. This body of research is focused on the development and optimization of a catalytic asymmetric 2H-azirine reduction method that employs non-racemically ligated copper hydride. The synthetic route used to generate 2H-azirine starting materials, and the methods explored for derivatization and resolution of chiral aziridine products will be reported along with the reaction development and optimization.

Kaitlyn Yoder (,) [Dennis Johnson]
The Interaction of Forest Plant Communities with Biotic and Abiotic Factors

Erika Young (,) |Erika Young-undefined, undefined [Hannah Bellwoar]
The essay I will be reading is on my relationship with my father. It will review the progress of this relationship. It will begin with my childhood when my father was only choosing when to be around and end in the present and how close we are. It will reveal the ups and downs of this relationship overall.

Erika Young (,) |Erika Young-undefined, undefined [Grace Fala]
Message Analysis Portfolio
This portfolio reveals the "art of persuasion." The portfolio will cover different techniques used in different ads in order to appeal to a larger audience.

Haining Zhu (,) | Ruggiero, Jonah F-undefined, undefined| Wilson, Elizabeth M-undefined, undefined|Haining Zhu-undefined, undefined [Donna Weimer]
Visual communication
As communication technologies combine with art and science, digital visual language will evolve and transition all identities into an all-inclusive digital age.