Cristin Albert (Lewisville, Texas) |Yu Miao-Shanghai, China|Ines Nau-Lille, France|Felicia Segelken-Delhi, New York [Lynn Cockett]
Is Touch Gendered?
Touch plays a significant role in our everyday life. Previous research suggests that there is a tendency for female dyads to touch more than male dyads. Other research stated that males show a higher avoidance of same-gender touches than females. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of setting and gender on touch frequency. We observed seventy-six dyads for five minutes in social and academic settings and recorded how many times the individuals touched one another. These academic settings included academic buildings on Juniata's campus. The social settings included the dining areas on campus as well as at the gym during sporting events. Findings suggest that gender is less important than setting in determining frequency of touch behaviors. Thus, more social environments allow individuals to touch more frequently than those in more academic environments.


Zachary Alexakos (Lancaster, Pennsylvania) [Mark Pearson]
Determining Practical Applications of the Biefeld Brown Effect in Electrohydrodynamic Propulsion?
The Biefield-Brown effect is a property of electrohydrodynamics that describes how an ionic wind is created by sending a high voltage through a bare wire. An ionocraft is a device that achieves propulsion by utilizing this effect. As a high voltage is sent through a bare wire, it strips the surrounding air particles of their electrons, ionizing them and thus leaving them positively charged. Magnetic attraction causes the positively charged air ions to travel from the bare wire towards the negatively charged collector to become neutralized, and the velocity of the moving ions creates an ionic wind. For this project, an ionocraft was built out of balsa wood, bare wires, and some aluminum foil along with a 5kV power supply and force sensor were used to power and measure it respectively. The goal of this project is to confirm the force equation that describes the propulsion. Areas of interest specifically looked at increasing voltage or current, and changing ionic properties.


John Apostolides (Pittsburgh, PA) [Xinli Wang]
Intention concepts and brain-machine interface
Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed patients. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret ("decode") the agent's intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent's intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications.


Jennifer Arbella (Miami, Florida) [Dr.Christopher Grant]
Malevolent Mercury
Mercury bioaccumulation in the environment is increasing as anthropogenic sources continuously discharge it into the atmosphere. As mercury is transported to watersheds, it can be converted into toxic forms such as MeHg by sulfate reducing bacteria. Previous studies have found that mercury can cause many developmental effects on organisms. In this study, growth rate of brook trout and brown trout were calculated and statistically compared to mercury concentrations found in their muscle tissue. The results revealed...


Bryan Aungst (Millerstown, Pennsylvania) [Donna Weimer]
Lost in a Woman's World: A Narrative Criticism on the Changing Perceptions of Male Nurses
Between the years of 1950 and 2000, America saw a nearly 400% increase in the percentage of nurses that were men. In 1950, around 2% of nurses self-identified as male nurses, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. By 2000 that number rose to just under 8% (Burton and Misener). According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the number of employed registered nurses will increase approximately 26% between 2010 and 2020. A host of negative stereotypes about male nurses have existed for a long time, including the ideas that all male nurses are medical school flunkouts or homosexuals. The media has been central in perpetuating these stereotypes (Burton and Misener). Despite this stereotyping, the data show that the number of male nurses has steadily increased in the last 60 years. Society is in turn adjusting to this increase in the number of male nurses. Our society's narrative of male nursing is also changing. For my research I have conducted four in-depth narrative interviews with male nurses of different generations. I interviewed male nurses who started their careers in the 1950s, 1970s, 1990s, and 2010s. Using narrative criticism of these interviews, I argue that our society's perception of male nursing is changing from one of negative judgment to one of more general acceptance. I explore the changes in the perception of male nurses over the past 60 years to postulate these changing perceptions.


Wilbert Beachy (Somerset, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Regina Lamendella]
Tracking sample specific microbial species through competitive DNA hybridization
Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) a type of wastewater infrastructure, where sanitary and storm sewer are combined. Thus, when a precipitation event occurs, wastewater and stormwater are diverted directly to our waterways. One of the main hazards associated with CSOs are pathogenic organisms that can be introduced into the watershed. Distinguishing differences in the microbial communities associated with CSOs can provide valuable information as to which harmful organisms have entered the watershed. Currently, isolating rare pathogenic species and sequencing their complete genomes remains a prohibitively expensive and laborious process. Through the use of a novel competitive hybridization procedure called Genomic Fragment Enrichment (GFE), species unique to a CSO inputs will be targeted to demonstrate a cost effective model for uncovering these rare members. To accomplish this, samples were collected from the sediment upstream of a CSO, the sediment in the CSO, and the sediment downstream a CSO located in the Juniata River. CSO sediment DNA (target DNA) will be biotin labeled and initially hybridized with sediment DNA from upstream of this CSO (blocker DNA). Subsequently a competitive hybridization with terminally tagged DNA sequences from the target DNA sample will be combined with the DNA from the initial hybridization. Microbial members, who are unique to the target DNA sample, will hybridize and fragments specific to the CSO-impacted sample, will be selectively amplified by targeting the terminal sequence tag. Targeted GFE products will be sequenced using the Illumina high-throughput sequencing platform. This sequence data will be used to identify the differences in genomic content specific to CSO impacted samples. GFE may provide a possible model for identifying low abundance virulence genes and organisms in an environment sample. Currently predictive models for assessing the risk of contamination in humans are infeasible, but providing evidence for the potential presence of low abundance pathogens in an environmental sample could provide benefit for assessing risks associated with a CSO overflow.


Dakota Bearden (Johnstown, Pennsylvania) |Annette Masterson-Sacramento , California|Annette Masterson-Sacramento, California|-, |Rose Lucidi-Bayville , New York|Louise Vandenbussche-Dunkerque, France [Lynn Cockett]
Are You Laughing because I'm Attractive?
This study examines a possible relationship between perceived physical attraction and perceived humor. Previous research suggests that physical attractiveness is related to perceptions of charisma and initial likability. We tested forty subjects asking them to rate the attractiveness and humor of an actor on a video clip. Our participants viewed thirty seconds of a female comedian. Once they completed viewing the clip, they were asked how funny they found the video and how attractive they found the comedian. They rated each topic on a scale from one to ten, one being least and ten being most. Our test results were inconclusive. We found no significant correlation between the attractiveness and the humor level of the actress in this video. The female participants, however, viewed the actress as more funny then male participants did. This research showed that physical attraction does not directly affect people's reactions to an actor's communication. Future research would suggest studying the effects of physical attraction on subjects conversing in person. Such research may render more conclusive finding.


Timothy Berguson (Mansfield, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Mark Pearson]
Using Geant4 Simulations to Model a Muon Detector
Many underground physics experiments, such as the searches for neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter, require ultra low background detectors. In these experiments, backgrounds become a major issue because the interactions scientists are searching for occur at such low rates. One source of background is cosmogenic activation, which occurs when cosmic rays create isotopes that decay in the energy region of interest of the experiments. High purity germanium and electroformed copper are examples of materials which are often used for ultra low background experiments and are susceptible to cosmogenic activation. Some experiments establish limits on the total sea-level equivalent days of exposure materials receive in order to minimize the contributions from cosmogenic activation to the experiments. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has designed a portable muon detector prototype, the Muon-Witness, with the aim to monitor the sea-level equivalent exposure of detector materials. However, this method needs further investigation to confirm its validity. This research focused on modeling the detector in Geant4, a software modeling package. A simulation was created to model the passage of muons through a detector in order to compare the detector's efficiency based on the simulation to the efficiency determined by other studies. The simulations were then adjusted for different elevations in order to investigate whether or not the efficiency depends on elevation. This research will be complemented by measurements taken with a detector that is identical to the Muon-Witness. On-going work will be presented.


Timothy Berguson (Mansfield, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Catherine Stenson]
A Mathematical Model of Fighting Forest Fires in Siberia
We construct a mathematical model of forest fires in Siberia using a Java simulation in an attempt to minimize the expected total cost of burnings based on the placement of firefighting units. We split Siberia up into different cells which have a probability of fires occurring as well as associated costs of burning based on their level of development. We assume that the fires follow a Poisson process and the time between fires follows an exponential distribution. The problem allows for a limited number of firefighting units, both ground and air, to be stationed in each cell. In addition to the expected total cost of burnings, we calculate the expected total cost of expenditures and the probability that the firefighting units would prove insufficient to keep a fire under control. This research is done as part of the "Mathematical Games," an international mathematics competition sponsored by the French Federation of Mathematical Games and the Société de Calcul Mathématique. On-going results will be presented.


Timothy Berguson (Mansfield, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Jamie White]
Estimating Cosmic Exposure for Ultra-low Background Experiments
Many underground physics experiments, such as the searches for neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter, require ultra low background detectors. In these experiments, backgrounds become a major issue. One source of background is cosmogenic activation, which occurs when cosmic rays create isotopes that decay in the energy region of interest of the experiments. High purity germanium and electroformed copper are examples of materials which are often used for ultra low background experiments and are susceptible to cosmogenic activation. Some experiments establish limits on the total sea-level equivalent days of exposure materials receive in order to minimize the contributions from cosmogenic activation to the experiments. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory designed a portable muon detector prototype, the Muon-Witness, with the aim to monitor the sea-level equivalent days of exposure detector materials receive. However, this method needs further investigation to confirm its validity. This research focused on assembling a similar detector to the Muon-Witness. After assembly, measurements will be taken with this detector in order to compare to Muon-Witness measurements. Furthermore, measurements will be taken at varying elevations in order to compare to models of muon-flux as a function of elevation. Finally, the measurements will be complemented by simulations of muons through the detector done on Geant4, a software modeling package. On-going work will be presented.


Laura Bitely (Independence, WV) [Judy Katz]
The Keeper of Both Speech and Silence



Allison Blumling (Hummelstown, Pennsylvania) [Donna Weimer]
Le Rire de la Méduse: why biological destiny may prevent women from having the last laugh
From as early as 19th century Europe, the physiological and emotional changes that women experience as a result of their maturing reproductive organs and menstrual cycle have been classified as "hysteric?during which the infant woman demands not less careful and assiduous supervision than the infant child" [sic]. Young women were traditionally removed from study when these changes occurred, and forced to adopt an inactive lifestyle as a homemaker and eventual mother. For social critics Hélène Cixous and Julia Kristeva, cultural norms such as this are only one part of a larger patriarchal power structure used to silence woman, creating her role as a passive member of society. Using Cixous, discussions by Michel Foucault and Julia Kristeva's Women's Time, analyze the role of female biological destiny in shaping the cultural and sociological roles of women.


Jonathan Bogue (East Berlin, Pennsylvania) |Lauren Taylor-Marlton, New Jersey [Dr. Pearson]
Applications of Transducers in Ultrasonic Imaging
Ultrasound is a non-destructive method of imaging used in various scientific fields including medicine. Medical ultrasound technologies make use of ultrasonic transducers which drive or detect pulses of high frequency sound to probe bodily tissue. Detected signals can be processed to produce intensity distributions from which analysis of signal interference may be conducted. In this particular study, a virtual instrument was developed using LabVIEW software to drive a pair of 18 mm, waterproof 40 kHz ultrasonic transducers. Signal analysis was performed to determine efficiency of signal transmission and reception as well as a correlation between intensity and signal interference. Experimentation was expanded to determine interference related to signal obstruction. Obstructions were probed in either water or air to determine physical dimensions. Using a two dimensional adjustable housing, driving and receiving components were translated such that accurate scans of obstructions could be performed.


Justin Bookhammer (Williamsburg, PA) [Bill Thomas]
Smart Phone Security
When people think of smartphones people do not usually think of security. Our smartphones contain a large amount of personal information. If people get ahold of your phone they get ahold of your data. Are you prepared to have your phone lost of stollen? This poster will explain what you need to do to protect yourself.


Nathan Brock (Hummelstown, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Jackson Barlow]
The Effect of Political Policies on the Irish Conflict
Conflict has plagued the isle of Ireland for hundreds of years. On the surface, the conflict is between two groups. One group, the Unionists who are largely Protestants, want to remain part of the United Kingdom. They believe that the United Kingdom holds a legitimate claim over Ireland and that the people of Northern Ireland should remain within the UK. The other group, the Nationalists who are largely Catholics, want to break away from the United Kingdom and form a Republic of Ireland. They believe that there is no rightful claim to Ireland and that Ireland should be united and free. Religious views and practices slowly formed the backbone major political parties of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The problem is that these political groups, backed by religion, turned to violence in order to attain objectives. This violence reinforces the hatred between the groups and hinders nearly all the attempts to achieve peace. This paper focuses on the legislation of Ireland, Northern Ireland, and the United Kingdom and examines how it affected the violence. It then argues that it was only after the bond between politics and violence was severed that peace was able to be achieved. The Anglo-Irish Agreement and Belfast Agreement culminated in this political effort to weed out the violence and finally attain peace on the island.


Kathryn Brown (Manchester, Michigan) [Jill Keeney]
The short-term effects of TNF on intestinal villus structure
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) affects 10% of premature infants, has a mortality of 30%, and leaves survivors with significant morbidity. Intestinal immaturity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced inflammation are two major risk factors predisposing infants to develop NEC. Prior studies have shown TNFR1-dependent effects on epithelial cell signaling and on goblet cell mucus production and secretion, indicating its significance in NEC pathology. This study investigated TNF-induced changes in intestinal villous structure. After intraperitoneal injections of TNF (0.5μg/gbw), mice pups ages 7, 14, and 28 days showed significant villous height blunting. TNF had no effect on mice at ages 0 or 21 days. TNF-induced villous blunting was lost in mice lacking TNFR1 compared to controls. TNF induces significant age-dependent shortening of vili in developing small intestine of mice. These effects are dependent on TNFR1 signal pathways and on stage of development. These results reinforce that TNF plays a critical role in development of NEC in the immature intestine and contribute to our understanding of TNF-induced effects that may predispose the immature intestine to develop injury.


Kathryn Brown (Manchester, Michigan) [Amy Frazier-Yoder]
El poder del personaje en las obras metaficticias "Stranger Than Fiction" y Niebla
¿Quién tiene el poder ultimo en la vida? Esta pregunta es una de las más profundas y más preguntadas en el mundo, y es un tema muy explorado y desarrollado dentro del modo metaficticio. Obras aclamadas y obras populares igual nos hacen cuestionar el estado de la vida en que vivimos. El poder del autor en el mundo ficticio y como se lo transfiere a la realidad es un tema en obras famosas, como Niebla, por Miguel de Unamuno, y en obras populares, como "Stranger Than Fiction," una película estadounidense. Diferente de una historia en que un personaje tiene un crisis existencial en que los lectores observan con simple interés, estas obras metaficticias, por poner en duda las reglas del mundo ficticio y las barreras entre el autor y el personaje, hacen más real el cuestionamiento que inspiran. La metaficción es un modo perfecto para inspirar pensamiento y conversación de las preguntas más profundas del estado de la vida, y estas dos obras son ejemplos claros para mostrar este efecto.


Rebecca Carr (Morrisdale, Pennsylvania) [Hannah Bellwoar]
Living on a Farm
The author reflects on working with her family on their farm.


Samuel Carruthers (Oberlin, OH) [Dr. James Barlow]
Mexican Policy in the Drug War: The Mérida Initiative
In the historic Mexican presidential elections of 2000, the National Action Party (PAN) was voted into power after nearly a century of one-party domination under the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). The administration of Felipe Calderón (2006-2012) implemented far-reaching changes in Mexican policy towards illegal narcotics trafficking through their territory, attacking powerful cartel networks and militarizing the drug war with the help of the Mérida Initiative, a massive aid package from the U.S. The policy has had unintended consequences, unleashing a wave of violence across the country and creating increasingly eccentric criminal networks such as the infamous Los Zetas cartel. The Mérida Initiative has failed to deal with root problems behind the narcotics trade in Mexico, namely widespread political corruption, lack of economic opportunity, and domestic consumption patterns in the U.S.


Harris Cauler (Moorestown, NJ) |Tessa Thomas-Coalport, PA|Joseph Giebel-Cassville, PA|Jordan Cheslock-Altoona, PA [Donna Weimer]
Technology and Education: How Much Should They Go Together?
Digital technology is changing the way students think. Because students spend so much time using technology in today's society, their brains have been conditioned to learn in a different way than the traditional educational system uses to teach. There are several new trends in classroom structure that are already being used to try and incorporate more technology into the classroom. These new styles of teaching will hopefully be able to accommodate the students new learning styles and maximize their learning abilities. In the end though, we must decide what to support: teachers, technology, or a combination of both. The classroom structure needs to be reformatted to reflect this new way of learning so that today's students can maximize their learning experience.


Colleen Chiochetti (Annapolis, Maryland) [James Roney]
Russian Identity and Conflict in the Caucasus
National identity and the protection of that identity is one of the main reasons conflict occurs around the world. If a group feels that their fundamental identity is being challenged, they will take extreme measures against the group or action that poses the threat. This is particularly true when looking at Russian identity in relation to the conflict that has occurred in the Caucasus region in the past 20 years. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia was confronted with the need to define a new identity in the face of a very drastic political, geographical, and structural change. The struggle to define and defend this identity has created conflict with ethnic groups and nations that are perceived as a threat. This paper will explore the development of this new Russian identity and the conflict it has created specifically with Georgia and Chechnya.


Mario Cintron (Bronx, NY) [Dr. Christopher J. Grant]
Aging of Eastern Coyotes by Microscopy Analysis of Tooth Cross-Sections
In most mammalian species, cementum, a specialized bony tissue that covers the root of a tooth is deposited in daily and annual intervals. This study examines the accuracy of cementum analysis using microscopy techniques, and quantifies gender-based average deposition of cementum of eastern coyotes found in Pennsylvania. Using a grinding and polishing wheel, sagittal plane cross-sections of eastern coyote incisors and premolars were constructed and mounted onto microscope slides with subsequent analysis using ImageJ software. Overall aging accuracy was shown to be comparable to reported rates of other aging methodologies. Results suggest that there are no significant differences between the annual rate of cementum deposition between male and female coyotes.


Joseph Cook (Wasquehal, France) [Dennis Johnson]
Modelling nutrient and sediment outflow for the Juniata River using MapShed - a GIS based watershed modelling tool.
Standing Stone Creek is a 58.4 km river flowing into the Juniata at Huntingdon after draining its 347 km² rural watershed, composed of a mix of forest, agricultural land and some urbanised areas. The object of this study was to explore the use of agricultural BMPs (Best Management Policies) in terms of their impact on the levels of sediment, nutrients and pathogens in the river. From this it was possible to come up with the most cost effective management program for reducing loads in Standing Stone Creek. In order to model the river, the MapShed program was used. It is a GIS based watershed modelling tool developed by Penn State University based on the Generalised Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) which clumps the areas based on common features and then sums the results to produce the data for the outflow point. After generating a viable model for Standing Stone Creek, the study focused on trying to reapply the same methods to the Juniata basin and discusses some of the issues encountered.


Clayton Cooper (Hummelstown, PA) [Peter Baran]
The Larga and Complicada History of Spanish Vino
Spanish history is long and complicated, and so is the history of Spanish wine. Because of Spain's desirable climate, mineral wealth, and valued location on the Mediterranean coast in trade routes, it has been conquered many times. Since the beginning of recorded history, however, wine has played an integral role in Spanish culture and economics during each phase of its history. Because of its ideal climate and geography for viticulture, one would think that Spanish wine would have always been among the best in the world. Through a thorough understanding of Spanish wine history, the reason for the relatively recent emergence of Spain as a producer of wine top quality wines can be understood.


Clayton Cooper (Hummelstown, PA) [Amy Frazier-Yoder]
La metaficción en la cultura popular: La autonomía versus el guión en The Labyrinth
Patricia Waugh, en su obra Metafiction: The Theory and Practice of Self-Conscious Fiction, describe la metaficción en varias maneras, uno de los cuales es un libro u obra, "drawing on the traditional metaphor of the world as a book,". La película El laberinto de 1986 hace exactamente esto. El personaje principal, Sarah, lee el libro El laberinto, y cuando pide a Jareth, el rey de los duendes, que le quite a su hermano menor, le lleve a su laberinto. Le da a Sara 13 horas para llegar al centro de su laberinto, y se llega a tiempo, le devolverá al hermano de Sara a ella. En realidad, Sara solo entra el laberinto dentro de su propia mente. A través de su fascinación con el libro, el libro se convierte en la realidad para Sara. Esta transformación se evidencia en la primera y la última escena, los objetos que Sara tiene en su dormitorio, y a través de sus conocimientos del libro. Además, muestra la lucha entre la autonomía de Sara y el guión del libro y ejemplifica la metaficción en la cultura popular.


Brennan Cornelius (Orbisonia, Pennsylvania) |Sara Johnson-Easton, Connecticut|Sarah Hodge-Six Mile Run, Pennsylvania [Kathleen Jones]
Forestry Follies: A Presentation on a Collaborative Interdisciplinary Field Trip for Eighth Grade Students
In the spring semester of 2012, five education students were assigned, as part of pre-student teaching, the task of developing and executing an interdisciplinary field trip for 8th grade students from nearby Everett Area School District. The trip would be held at the Raystown Field Station, where each student teacher would apply his or her particular subject of expertise to an outdoor lesson about forestry. The unique thing about this trip would be its interdisciplinary nature, as the five student teachers, whose fields of study range across chemistry, biology, Earth and space science, and mathematics, had very limited formal training in forestry. The field trip was a great success - students and student teachers had a great time working with each other, and the student teachers each discovered a lot of value in incorporating ideas from different disciplines into teaching, especially doing so in creative, nontraditional ways. The results were later shared at the annual PSTA (Pennsylvania Science Teachers Association) Conference in Hershey, in hopes of receiving feedback on the project, gaining some valuable experience in presenting research findings in a formal setting, and hopefully even inspiring some experienced educators with an early success story of five aspiring teachers. This presentation will serve mostly as an overview of the process of planning and carrying out the field trip itself, as well as some brief personal reflections, and possible plans for the future.


Ashlin Creeden (Palmyra, PA) [James Roney]
The Master and Margarita
Soviet writer Mikhail Bulgakov's novel The Master and Margarita portrays Russia's Moscow in the 1920's. It is based off of Goethe's Faust tragedy, with a focus on a deal with the Devil and the question of redemption. It also shares similarities with Fyodor Dostoevsky's book Brothers Karamazov, especially the conversation between Jesus and the Inquisitor in the chapter "The Grand Inquisitor." By analyzing the novel in relation to these two other works of fiction, one can get a better understanding of the literature as a whole. This presentation will give an in-depth comparison of Faust and "The Grand Inquisitor" in relation to The Master and Margarita, including their characters, use of magic, and religious themes, in order to experience Bulgakov's novel on a new level.


Christopher Cueto (Hagesrtown, Maryland) [Richard Hark]
Mechanism of the formation of 1-indanone via the base-catalyzed condensation reaction of o-phthalaldehyde with malonic acid
While the meta- and para-phthalaldehydes form the corresponding dicinnamic acids via a Knoevenagel-Doebner type reaction, previous experiments in our laboratory showed the condensation of ortho phthalaldehyde and malonic acid under similar conditions instead gives 1-indanone in high yield. Our goal was to determine the mechanism for this unusual reaction. A 1949 paper by Wiley and Hobson suggested that an intermediate in this reaction is o-formyl cinnamic acid, which, the authors claimed, could be converted to 1-indanone by dissolution in quinolone. Following their published procedure we isolated a compound that was characterized using IR, NMR, and x-ray crystallography and found to be 1-hydroxy-1H-indene-2-carboxylic acid rather than o-formyl cinnamic acid. Molecular modeling and NMR kinetic studies were used to understand the mechanism of formation and stability of intermediate. A revised mechanism for the formation of 1-indanone has been proposed.


Alexander Debrecht (Winston-Salem, North Carolina) |Adam Cline-Reston, Virginia [Matthew Beaky]
Analyzing Pulsating Variable Star Light Curves using Chaos Theory
Many pulsating variable stars, even those classified as regular, exhibit fluctuations in amplitude and period which seem to indicate the presence of low-dimensional chaos. By examining the historical light curves of pulsating variable stars spanning more than 100 years, we hope to establish whether their pulsations are truly chaotic. We began by examining techniques for binning and smoothing the observational data, eventually using the built-in binning function of the existing light curve analysis software VStar and creating a plugin to smooth the curve using a combination of an Akima spline and Gaussian weighting function. By analyzing the smoothed light curve in TISEAN, a time series analysis package written for UNIX, we were able to examine the light curve for evidence of chaotic behavior through graphical projections and analysis of the Lyapunov exponents. We first replicated the results seen by Kiss and Szatmáry in their analysis of the Mira-type star R Cygni, followed by an analysis of the light curves of other stars in which the possibility of chaotic behavior was explored.


Evan Decker (New Berlin, Pennsylvania) |Se-Lebanon, Pennsylvania [Uma Ramakrishnan]
Monitoring White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Population
The purpose of our research was to evaluate the group sizes of white-tailed deer (Odocoilious viginianus) within the herd surrounding the Juniata College Raystown Field Station. Using data collected by monitoring line transects and camera traps we are able to estimate population. Accurate population estimates are difficult to establish in the late winter and early spring months due to antler shedding. Data collected in the fall months is beneficial to our research and can be used to compare total herd size with individual group size in this time frame. We are then able to extrapolate and predict the herd size, or total population in the later months


Peter Defnet (Pottstown, Pennsylvania) [Richard Hark]
Provenance determination of Cassiterite using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Determining the geographic origin of cassiterite ore, the world's primary source of metallic tin, is of interest since it is sometimes mined in areas in central Africa associated with armed conflict and human rights abuses and can therefore be considered a 'conflict mineral'. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a versatile atomic emission spectroscopic technique for elemental analysis of materials in real-time that is being developed for man-portable application in the field. A total of 49 pulverized cassiterite ore concentrate samples from six countries in South America and Southeast Asia were analyzed using a commercial laboratory-based LIBS system. Chemometric analysis of the resulting spectra utilizing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and other pre-processing approaches in conjunction with Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) afforded high rates of correct geographic classification. The details of the procedures employed and discussion of the application for future fieldwork will be presented.


Nicole Dengler (Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania) [Sharon Yohn]
The Correlation Between Lake Chemistry and Macrophyte Growth
Raystown Lake is the largest man-made lake in Pennsylvania and the recreational use of the lake economically benefits the area. The lake is known to be infected with two invasive plant species, Eurasian Milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), which may impact the recreational value of the lake. Milfoil is dominant at the south end of the reservoir, while Hydrilla is dominant at the north end. Water was sampled at three different locations along the length of the reservoir to determine if there was a correlation between water chemistry and invasive plant growth. There was no significant difference between pH, alkalinity, hardness, and total suspended solids between the three sites. However, the south end of the lake had significantly lower water clarity (Secchi disk depth) and higher conductivity. This suggests that alkalinity and pH have not impacted the distribution of invasive plants in Raystown Lake, but water clarity and conductivity may be influential.


Clarissa Diniz (Recife, PB - Brazil) [Dr. Jill Keeney]
Loss of Epithelial IKKβ Alters the Esophageal Microenvironment
Diseases of the esophagus are among the most common ailments in the United States and throughout the world, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures. The emergence of new models has exemplified that the esophageal microenvironment plays a critical role in the development and progression of esophageal diseases. Deregulation of the IKKβ/NFκB pathway is associated with various inflammatory diseases and cancer, including esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Previous research done in our laboratory identified important changes in the epithelia and surrounding stroma of mice with tissue-specific ablation of IKKβ (L2/Cre;IKKβL/L). L2/Cre;IKKβL/L mice have increased epithelial proliferation at one month of age, demonstrate blood vessel abnormalities at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of age, have an increase numbers of myofibroblasts in the esophageal stroma starting at 6 months of age, and have an increase of collagen fibers beneath the epithelium. The aim of this research is to 1) assess the functional integrity of the L2/Cre;IKKβL/L mice blood vessels, 2) evaluate if changes in vascular architecture causes tissue hypoxia, and 3) establish an in vitro model to eventually delineate the molecular mechanism responsible for the changes observed in L2/Cre;IKKβL/L mice. To assess blood vessel leakiness, we will use CD31 and Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran). Tissue hypoxia will be evaluated using Hydroxyprobe-1 Pimonidazole hydrochloride. In order to identify the secreted factors responsible for changes in the blood vessels, we will employ organotypic 3D cell culture. In total, these experiments will define the roles of inflammation and epithelial-stromal signaling in esophageal diseases.


Alex Dintruff (Lake Bluff , Illinois) [Dr. Jackson Barlow]
Lincoln and Reverence for the Law
Abraham Lincoln gave a speech to the Springfield Young Men's Lyceum in January 1838 on the perpetuation of American political institutions. He proposes a political religion focused on reverence for the laws and the Constitution as a solution to the increasing use of mob violence related to the slavery issue. Contemporary scholarly thought on this speech incorporates later pieces written by Lincoln in order to interpret his thought in 1838. This has lead to a faulty understanding of Lincoln's earlier political thought. Harry Jaffa a scholar on the subject uses Lincoln's later works to paint a picture of Lincoln as a prophet on a moral mission centered around a dedication to the proposition that all men are created equal. The argument about to be made is that this was not Lincoln's thought at the time of Lyceum, and that he was proposing a secular solution to extreme, direct use of popular sovereignty.


Corinne Dorais (Santa Barbara, CA) [Dr. Mark Pearson]
Studying the pupillary and accommodative responses of human eyes at various wavelengths of light
The Edinger-Westphal (E-W) nucleus is one of the regions of the brain that controls parasympathetic pupil constriction and lens accommodation of the human eye. The E-W nucleus causes the pupils to constrict when light is applied to the eye or when the eye is focusing on a near point. Somebody who struggles with these functions may have impaired E-W nucleus functioning. Previous studies targeting the functions of the E-W nucleus have shown that the pupillary and accommodative responses may be affected for eyes with a chromatic aberration. Evidence suggests that short-wavelength sensitive cones may produce a different parasympathetic response than long- and medium-wavelength sensitive cones.

This study explores the pupillary and accommodative responses under various narrow bandwidth light conditions. In an effort to target each cone type, the room was successively lit using red, blue, green, black, and white bulbs. After a 3-minute period of acclimation, an LED of similar wavelength was applied to each eye and the pupillary response was observed and video recorded. Under the same light conditions, the accommodative response was observed by video recording pupil constriction and dilation when focusing on near and far objects.

This study aims to perform these measurements on a person with suspected damage to the E-W nucleus and compare the responses to the responses of subjects who have no reported vision abnormalities.


John Dubensky (Pittsburgh, PA) [Hannah Bellwoar]
Things I Don't Remember
My presentation will involve a reading of my essay "Things I Don't Remember," which was written for my Essay Writing class in Fall 2012. This essay will be presented along with several other essays from that class. My essay discusses some random things in life that we thought we would never forget, but for some reason, we do.


Mitchell Dunklebarger (Port Matilda, Pennsylvania) [Regina Lamendella]
Shifts in the gut microbiota of inflammatory bowel disease patients in a longitudinal study
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes the subtypes, Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), both of which are characterized by gastrointestinal bleeding, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. Dysregulated immune response to the commensal gut microbiota has been implicated in IBD pathogenesis, but it remains unknown whether this dysbiosis causes or results from this aberrant immune response. The aim of this study is to track the microbial community dynamics of IBD patients over multiple time points to better correlate disease condition with the status of the gut microbiota. This is the first longitudinal study of dysbiosis in IBD patients, with a total of 690 samples taken from a cohort of IBD patients and healthy controls. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared and sequenced on the Illumina Hiseq platform. A total of 216 million 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed using the QIIME pipeline, where sequences were clustered with UCLUST against the Greengenes reference database. Diversity and multivariate statistics were also performed in QIIME. Principal Coordinates Analysis showed fecal microbial communities clustered by type of IBD, as has previously been observed. Significant shifts were noted in gut microbial composition over the various time points. Many commensal members of the gut microbiota, including known butyrate producers were markedly reduced in IBD samples versus healthy controls. Additionally, increased abundance of Gram-negative bacteria were seen in many IBD samples. Overall, these results suggest a relationship among the distinct bacterial signatures within a patient and over IBD progression. In due course, a more holistic characterization of the gastrointestinal microflora will allow us to discern the possible constituents of its pathology and pinpoint potential biomarkers for the disease.


Harris Dunlap (Kirkland, Washington) [Dr. Celia Cook-Huffman]
A Catalyst for Peace: The Efficacy of photography in conflict transformation
From the backdrop of intense and protracted conflicts of the late 20th century, the field of conflict transformation has emerged in an attempt to improve upon the peace building potential of negotiated agreements and increasing the capacity of communities to seek constructive ends to violent conflicts. As an emergent field, literature on the topic is sparse but nonetheless compelling in its creativity and multidisciplinary methods. In particular, the value of the arts in waging conflict, changing the dynamics of conflict in a community and reconciliation has been acknowledged in several texts.
The arts have been addressed broadly in this field, which makes it all the more striking to note the exclusion of photography and its role in these social processes. It cannot be denied that the advent of photography radically changed the way that we understand, remember, and communicate about our world, particularly as illustrated by the changes in journalism precipitated by quick, visually accurate, and transmittable photographs.
This paper will look at the fields of conflict transformation, peacebuilding, and photography. Using John Paul Lederach's moral imagination framework, the literature on peacebuilding and the arts, and the literature on documentary photography, we will derive a synthesis of ideas that will place photography soundly in the toolbox of the conflict resolution practitioner. This paper will utilize several examples from the history of conflict and photography that illustrate effective and ineffective uses of the photographic medium in regards to conflict transformation efforts. In addition, this paper will argue for greater responsibility when it comes to photography on the part of photographer, editor, and viewer


Brian Eakin (Silver Spring, MD) [Peter Baran]
Synthesis and complexation of 1-hydroxy pyrazole
A previously studied synthesis of 1-hydroxy pyrazole was carried out to obtain sufficient amount of the compound. The ligand was then reacted with Cupric salts to create an array of new copper pyrazole monoxide complexes.


Brian Eakin (Silver Spring, MD) [Peter Baran]
Chemical Synthesis of White Quantum Dots
Single color CdSe and ZnSe quantum dots have been prepared at low temperatures from perchlorates and hydroselenide using capping acids. Syntheses of alloyed CdZnSe quantum dots were performed with 3-mercaptopropionic acid to obtain dual-band white light emitting quantum dots.


Elizabeth Ebbets (Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania) [Anne Gilman]
Measuring musical expertise: Experience vs. ability



Haruka Endo (Sendai, Japan) [Claire Holzner]
Food Education
I would like to introduce food education in Japan and describe the good aspects of the Japanese style and apply them to the American style. In Japan, school lunch menus and meal sizes are determined by nutritionists.
The Japanese government passed the Food Education Fundamentals Act in 2005 and has been promoting a change to healthy school lunches.
Many campaigns are designed to raise children's interest in traditional Japanese food. Some positive benefits in Japanese education have been seen: for example, after changing the school lunch system, children's grades went up and school violence went down.


Amanda Epstein (Glen Head, New York) [Dr Buonaccorsi]
Analysis of positive selection of olfactory related to class A (Ora) genes of the flag rockfish (Sebastes rubrivinctus) and tiger rockfish (Sebastes nigrocinctus)
The Sebastes rockfishes are of particular interest to evolutionary biologists due to their high species density, and ecological as well as morphological diversity. The genetic factors underlying the diversification of the Sebastes flock are currently unknown. The remarkable speciation of the rockfishes may be due to their capacity for pheromone reception, which is thought to be of importance in mate recognition for several species of rockfishes. However, genes related to olfaction in Sebastes are not well-studied. The family of ora genes is a group of olfactory receptors linked to pheromone detection in teleosts. Only one of these genes has been previously characterized in rockfishes. Draft annotations of two novel rockfish genomes (Sebastes nigrocinctus and Sebastes rubrivinctus) have recently been produced. I identified six candidate genes in these annotations that were related to the ora1, ora2, ora3, ora4, ora5, and ora6 genes from six model fishes. Analysis of dN/dS values predicted that the rockfish genes are under heavy purifying selection, which is consistent with other teleosts. Due to the highly conserved nature of these genes in teleosts, it is unlikely that they are involved in species-specific interactions in rockfishes, though they may still play a role in mate recognition.


Ethan Farrell (Damascus, MD) [William Thomas]
Social Engineering
Social Engineering is the simplest, most basic form of hacking, and can be done by anyone. In essence, it relies on lying and exploiting someone in a position of power. While defending against these attacks is fundamentally simple, it can often be hard to distinguish if an interaction is a legitimate request, or an attack with malicious intent. Additionally, those who practice this can, and do target everyone from large corporations, to the average person checking their email.

When considering the security of one's business or oneself from an attack like this, there are a few major points to take into account: what it is, what it looks like, and how one can successfully shore up the vulnerable defenses.


Katie Ferguson (Greensburg , PA) |Jordan Hileman -, [Marlene Burkhardt]
ABE Senior Assessment
This research analyzes the attitudes and beliefs of ABE seniors regarding their experience and education in the ABE department of Juniata College. The results of this survey will be analyzed to evaluate the curriculum in the department so that future improvements can be made. In addition, research regarding the social networks of ABE seniors will be analyzed to determine the extent to which attitudes and behaviors correlate with interaction patterns. This will advance the literature on curriculum assessment to determine whether social interactions influence in part the formation of attitudes and behaviors towards the program.


Frank Filkosky (Altoona, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Weimer]
#YesHeDid: A Content Analysis of President Obama's Social Media Strategy on Twitter During the 2012 Election
November 4, 2012 was the culmination of politics as unusual with the President implementing a social media strategy that the world of political campaigning has never witnessed. This advantage helped Obama in taking the young voter demographic (18-24) as well as spreading his campaign agenda through a free form of promotion that allowed money to be committed elsewhere. The most glaring example of the Obama campaign's dominance in the domains of social media was on the website Twitter, where account holders micro-blog anything one can imagine within the confines of 140 characters. This research analyzes the text and tone of tweets, as they are called on the website, following Obama's first debate with challenger Mitt Romney on October 3, 2012. The second of three debates was held on October 16, 2012 and in that time period President Obama utilized strategies never before employed, even by his inaugural campaign in 2008. Content analysis is used to observe common trending topics, or hashtags, and how these reflected the public's view of the President and his opponent in this 13 day period that seemingly turned the election for Obama. The Obama campaign was able to reach the public on a personal level, both through tweets sponsored by the President himself, or through general debate discussion. This connection translated into votes and the sweeping of battleground states that made election night far less exciting, solidifying a win for the incumbent. Specific trending topics and events conveyed through Twitter allowed President Obama to dominate this area of social media; providing the outlet most effective in mobilizing the youth vote as well as middle aged voters as a way of turning what was a close race into a decisive victory.


Frank Filkosky (Altoona, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Barlow]
A Comparative Analysis of the International Responses to Conflicts in Rwanda and Darfur
In 1943 lawyer Raphael Lemkin coined the term genocide by combining the Greek word "genos" (race or tribe) and the Latin word "cide" (kill). Since that point the United Nations and the international community as a whole have tried to modify responses to genocides in a way that is efficient and effective. The Rwandan genocide only lasted a few months in 1994, but served as a building block for how the world has responded in the following years. Many failures have been documented in both the lack of prompt international action and the reluctance by countries to commit soldiers for the peacekeeping effort. Violence in the Darfur region of Sudan is an area where international response strategies by the United States and the United Nations can be put to the test of time. This genocide occurred nearly one decade following the atrocities in Rwanda and the advancements in combating genocide globally, from the development of the International Criminal Court to an application of the word genocide itself, are observable. Analyzing the Clinton administration during the Rwandan crisis and the Bush administration during Darfur can show how the United States is willing to intervene in conflicts within African nations. Much of the rhetoric had changed after the United States provided little to no assistance in Rwanda, but not much was done to alter strategy. Even with this strategic evolution, however, much remains to be changed in order to accomplish the goals set out in the United Nations Genocide Convention following the Holocaust. Looking at these two benchmarks for international intervention, it will be interesting to observe how the dynamics of assistance have changed along with how the rest of the world will approach internal African conflicts in the years to come.


Matthew Flaugh (Bellwood, Pennsylvania) |Christopher Arnold-Altoona, Pennsylvania|Jonathan Bogue-East Berlin, Pennsylvania [Dr. Matthew Beaky]
Determining the Rotational Period of an Asteroid Through Differential Photometry
Minor planets, or asteroids, were formed during the solar system's earliest stages of development. As a result, they are composed of some of the oldest matter in the solar system. A more complete database of asteroid orbital and rotational data may give astronomers insight into the collisional history of our solar system. An asteroid's rotation period can be found by measuring the sunlight it reflects back to Earth, which varies due to its irregular shape, and constructing a light curve. We observed two main belt asteroids using the SBIG ST-8ME CCD camera and Juniata's 16-inch Meade telescope, as well as the 31-inch National Undergraduate Research Observatory telescope equipped with a Loral CCD camera at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. Results for asteroids 4119 Miles and 1698 Christophe will be discussed.


Matthew Flaugh (Bellwood, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Mark Pearson]
Investigating Forced Radioactive Decay Through Laser Resonance
The process of radioactive decay is when an unstable atom loses energy in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays. This results in the loss of energy in the nucleus, and the average amount of time that it takes an atom to lose its extra energy, is called the mean lifetime. This experiment aims to change the mean lifetime of Cesium-137 through the use of laser resonance, which occurs when the energy being emitted from a laser is directly proportional to the energy lost in decay. This experiment aims to study the beta decay of Cesium-137, which releases an electron and an antineutrino, resulting in an energy loss of 0.21 MeV and Barium-135. This forcing can either decrease or increase the rate of nuclear decay, thereby changing the mean lifetime of an atom. This investigation uses a nuclear generator to produce Cesium-137 for study using a 632.8 nm HeNe laser and a Geiger- Mueller radioactivity detector to determine the change in mean lifetime.


Avery Fordham (Clarks Summit, PA) [Dr. Baran]
Trials and Tribulations in Chemistry: "Functionalized Adamantane Tectons Used in the Design of Mixed- Ligand Copper(II) 1,2,4-Triazolyl/Carboxylate Metal -Organic Frameworks"
Chemistry is not for the faint of heart. There is a large amount of unpredictability inherent in any research project and there are always other difficulties that arise. The task was to reproduce synthesis of functionalized adamantane tectons as published in one of the top peer reviewed chemistry journals. This project was a perfect example of peculiarities that may be encountered during the repetition of results published by top research groups. The preparatory stages included difficulties during the literature search. Specifically, it was more challenging to find details of the synthetic experimental procedures than it should be taking into account the accepted standards of peer reviewed journals. The reactions involved extensive organic syntheses using harsh chemicals and advanced techniques requiring specialized equipment. These aspects may be quite challenging not only to undergraduate students. Working on an independent research project starting with a literature search and moving to the lab is a great learning experience offering a chemist the chance to learn how to deal with undesired outcomes and figure out the techniques needed to be successful. Outcomes of the effort to synthesize the title compound will be presented.


Avery Fordham (Clarks Summit, PA) [Peter Baran]
Investigations of influence of various cupric salts on formation of pyridine N-oxide Schiff bases
Attempts to synthesize a tetradentate Schiff-base (L) via condensation of two equivalents of 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde N-oxide (poxal) with o-phenylenediamine resembling Salen-type ligands yielded a bidentate ligand 2-(2-benzimidazolyl)pyridine N-oxide (poxbim) in a low yield. When the reaction is performed in the presence of a base, a tridentate Schiff base (L'), the product of 1:1 (aldehyde:amine) condensation, was isolated. The subsequent condensation of L' with additional equivalent of poxal yields the desired tetradentate Schiff base L. A Cu(II) complex with L was obtained via a templated synthesis of poxal and o-phenalenediamine with Cu(NO3)2. However, Cu(NO3)2 causes L' to be catalytically converted to poxbim. Results of complexation studies of L' and templated syntheses of L using different cupric salts (chloride, sulfate, and acetate) will be presented together with characterization of isolated complexes.


Kerri Fritz (Walkersville, Maryland) [Amy Frazier-Yoder]
La metaficcion en la cultura
I would like to explore elements of metafiction not only in literature, but in today's popular culture as well. Metafiction exists in TV shows, movies, children's book, artwork, and many other sources. It is a greatly overlooked, important characteristic of creative works that draws the viewer or reader into the work itself. My presentation will be made in Spanish and include a slide show.


Theresa Ginley (Gaithersburg, Maryland) [Matthew Beaky]
Automation of the Juniata Observatory to Support Remote Operation
The Juniata College observatory uses a telescope that can be set to follow a specified star throughout the night, allowing for reliable data collection over a period of hours in prime weather conditions. At present, the observatory dome must be manually rotated throughout the night to ensure that the telescope remains pointing through the dome opening, requiring a student to be on hand through the whole data collection period. The goal of this project is to automate the movement of the dome using Arduinos - low cost electronic prototyping platforms -communicating wirelessly using XBee radio transducers. An electronic compass attached to the dome will measure the azimuthal angle of the opening and send it to the controlling computer. The computer will then compare this angle to the azimuth of the telescope and turn on the dome rotation motor for a calculated amount of time to align the opening with the telescope position. This automation will allow long data collection runs to be conducted without researchers having to stay up all night simply to periodically flip a switch.


Anthony Glossner (Centre Hall, Pennsylvania) [William Thomas]
"Biometrics: The Search for a Safer, More Secure Cyber-World"
Perhaps one of the most rapidly increasing fields of study related to technology in the past few years has been that of cyber-security. As a society, we are becoming more and more exposed to both the pros and cons of technology with every passing year. From the birth of the Internet, to social networking sites and access to personal accounts via the World Wide Web, global society has drastically increased its reliance upon technology. With this heavy reliance on technology to complete everyday tasks such as banking, shopping, taxes, etc. has come a rapid increase in the need for security. While technology offers many helpful services to the public, it also brings about an opportunity for others to obtain personal, private information. Cyber criminals are getting better at stealing passwords and hacking accounts than ever before. Recently, the question has arisen as to whether or not regular, text-based passwords are going to be a sufficient enough means of personal security when it comes to technology in the near future. This is where biometrics comes in. Biometrics is the process of identifying an individual based upon their unique physiological characteristics. Although used in many other scientific fields of study, biometrics will hopefully be a plausible solution to password and information theft as it relates to cyber-security in the near future. The purpose of this presentation is to define biometrics, touch on some instrumental developments in the history of biometrics, explain the current types and qualities of effective biometrics as they relate to cyber-security, and lastly, discuss the pros and cons of biometrics. Ultimately, this presentation will attempt to show that biometrics may possibly be an effective alternative to text-based passwords as it will provide a more reliable form of cyber-security to users.


Leandra Glumac (Pittsburgh , PA) [Chuck Yohn]
The Effects of Macrophyte Beds on Water Quality Near Raystown Field Station
The effect of aquatic macrophytes upon water quality in Raystown Lake, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania were tested. We compared Nitrate, pH and Alkalinity in macrophyte beds between sunrise and sunset and between macrophyte beds and openwater sites. , within the mesotrophic region of the reservoir were calculated. pH for macrophyte beds and nonmacrophytes sunrise (8.54 ± 0.021) was compared to sunset values (8.57± 0.021). Alkalinity macrophyte beds varied from sunrise (5.37± 5.75 mg/L CaCO3) to sunset (1.37 ± 2.90 mg/L CaCO3). Nonmacrophyte alkalinity sites varied from sunrise (2.84 ± 4.19 mg/L CaCO3) to sunset (1.81 ± 3.34 mg/L CaCO3), neither sets of sites showed significant alkalinity results. Nitrate concentrations varied in macrophyte beds from sunrise (0.003 ± 0.19 mg/L NO3) to sunset (0.001 ± 0.2 mg/L NO3). Nonmacrophyte sites varied in nitrate concentrations from sunset (0.004 ± 0.21 mg/L NO3) to sunset (0.002 ± 0.21 mg/L NO3) nitrate concentrations showed significant results. The pH, alkalinity, and nitrate values all are within the ranges of concentrations and points from previous data collection upon Raystown Lake. Macrophyte pH values concluded to be significant during night diurnal cycle, alkalinity values concluded to not be significantly different, and nitrate concluded to be significant during the night cycle. Macrophyte beds when compared to open water nonmacrophyte areas are more basic and receive higher nitrate concentrations.


Samantha Goebel (Luray, VA) |Adam Duh-Elizabethtown, PA|Jeremy Howard-Columbia, MD|-, [Thorpe Halloran]
A seasonal comparison of the ichthyofauna community in south-central Pennsylvania
We examined the seasonal (fall vs. spring) distribution of fishes in shallow, nearshore microhabitats in a large mesotrophic reservoir (Raystown Lake). Sample sites were selected based on the presence/absence of an invasive macrophyte, Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), depth (range 2.5-5 m), water quality, and distance between fixed sampling locations. To establish the composition of fishes, an experimental gillnet was deployed in 24-hr increments in areas suspected to be important habitats for a variety of taxa. Our analysis also contrasted multiple physicochemical parameters (dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH) to potentially identify the structuring effects of certain environmental phenomena on fishes that reside or migrate to these areas.


Joshua Graybeal (Willow Street, Pennsylvania) [Dennis Johnson]
Analyzing potential impacts of Dissolved Oxygen on Smallmouth Bass Mortality
Wide-scale disease-related mortality of young-of-year Smallmouth bass has been documented in the West-Branch Susquehanna, Susquehanna, and Juniata rivers dating back to 2005. Infections caused by bacteria have been documented dating back to 2010. To study what may be causing this issue, continuous in-stream monitoring assessments were conducted in each of the three rivers. After data collection, temporal analysis of dissolved oxygen, temperature and flow was conducted. Although no overwhelming oddities were found, strong patterns and correlations were found with the use of various graphing and imaging software. Large dissolved oxygen fluctuations were found in the Juniata River which often correlate with temperature changes. For the larger picture this may mean that dissolved oxygen is not necessarily the driving factor causing the mortality of Smallmouth bass, but perhaps the temperature which impacts the dissolved oxygen levels is also impacting the fish.


Ashley Greenawalt (Clarion, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Jill Keeney]
Fluorescence microscopy for determining retromobility and colocalization of Rtt105 with Gag in Ty1 retromobility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Ty1 is a retroelement of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is comparable biochemically to the HIV retrovirus. Originally isolated as an endogenous inhibitor to transposition, Rtt105 is a cytoplasmic yeast host protein that was characterized as having a gene of unknown function in Ty1 mobility. Recent studies in a 2µ library transposition assay using a his3AI promotor have shown that rtt105 is a promoter for transposition in the high-copy plasmid assay, manifesting a dual phenotype. In endogenous studies of Rtt105 and the Ty1 Gag, colocalization or adjacent foci occur approximately 72% of the time (n=109), Fluorescence-in-situ-Hybridization Immuno-Fluorescence (FISH-IF) studies have indicated that mRNA may colocalize with Rtt105, indicating that Rtt105 has a role in Ty1 mobility or more specifically VLP formation.


Ashley Greenawalt (Clarion, Pennsylvania) [Lori Price]
ASL interpretation
This session will involved an ASL interpretation of the song 'Born to Die' by Lana del Rey.


Alyssa Grube (Lititz, PENNSYLVANIA) [Dr. Amy Frazier-Yoder]
La metaficción en la cultura popular: Resonancias de Don Quijote en La oficina
Ejemplos de la metaficción se encuentran en la cultura popular frecuentemente. Aquí, hago un análisis de las técnicas metaficticias en el programa popular La oficina. Hay tres características principales que le da metaficción al programa: el empleo de personajes quijotescos, el uso de ironía dramática, y la presencia de brechas definitivas entre el mundo del documental y el mundo supuestamente real en que se base la historia. Por la personalidad de Michael Scott y las aventuras absurdas que él tiene con su asistente Dwight Schrutte, no es difícil hacer comparaciones entre la pareja famosa de Quijote y Sancho Panza en cuanto a situaciones irónicas. El modo en que se narra la historia, cinéma vérite, crea aún más metaficción, y la disolución de los marcos narrativos durante esta temporada última significa que este mundo ficticio, humoroso, y querido que hemos conocido durante nueve temporadas ya no puede existir. De todos modos, la persistencia de obras de metaficción en la cultura popular es prueba de la efectividad de la técnica, su probabilidad de desarrollar aún más en los siglos que vienen.


Alyssa Grube (Lititz, PENNSYLVANIA) [Dr. Regina Lamendella]
The Impact of Cultivation on Bacterial Community Structure in the Great Prairie Microbiome
The Great Prairie spans 1.4 million miles of fertile land in North America, representing 35% of the soil carbon in the continental United States. However, little is known about the effects of land management on the microbial diversity of this region, where the functional potential of the soil may be integral in biofuel production, food security, and carbon sequestration. Recently, the Joint Genome Institute sought to elucidate the relationship between prairie soil functional potential and land use practices by probing the metagenome of soil bacteria across matched crop monoculture and native prairie sites in Iowa, Kansas, and Wisconsin. More than 580,000 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrotag sequences were retrieved from 62 DNA-extracted soil samples. Environmental metadata and lipid profiles were correlated to sequence data to show statistically significant distributions in the bacterial diversity among the treatment types. Notably, some specific bacterial communities were consistently higher among treatment type and could potentially be used as biomarkers. Specifically, nitrogen-fixing species were more abundant in native prairies than in crop monocultures. Together these results suggest the existence of a core native prairie microbiome.


Alexis Hadden (Franklin, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Hannah Bellwoar]
Working in Retail: When the Customer is Actually Wrong
My presentation will consist of a brief reading of a creative non-fiction essay that I wrote in the fall semester of my sophomore year. The piece is about the hardships of working in retail as I am expected to live under the principle that "the customer is always right." The essay discusses specific examples of incidents with rude customers at the Franklin Kmart and how I have grown from them. The mood of the piece is sarcastic, humorous, and informative all at the same time.


Jeannine Haizlip (Huntingdon, PA) [Dr. Donna Weimer]
The Family Unit and the Effect Future Technologies Have On It
Technology is progressing at an astonishing rate. It is frequently argued that the advances made in technology are to blame for the perceived decline of the traditional family unity. History has provided many examples of how the fear of new technology has led to the prediction of the disintegration of the family unit. These predictions started with the written word and continue into the digital world we inhabit today. In actuality, what has been proven is that our family unit and communities evolve with the introduction of new technology. Relationships become more diverse, productive and interactive as our social, business and education networks expand globally. The introduction of new technology causes the family unit to evolve. The family unit will be enhanced; because while the wants and desires new technology creates always change, the basic needs of humans remains unchanged.


Emily Harakal (Schnecksville, Pennsylvania) |Stephanie Finamore-Altoona, Pennsylvania [Chuck Yohn]
Finding the Cure for a Forest Epidemic
The American Chestnut tree (Castanea dentata) is an ecologically valuable species that was decimated by the blight introduced in 1904. In attempts to reintroduce the tree to the environment, The American Chestnut Foundation is leading efforts to create backcrosses between American and Chinese chestnuts that are
blight-resistant but contain the highest possible percentage of American genes. The backcrosses respond differently to stress and have differing degrees of genetic variability, which is
expressed in their height and survivorship. Our goal was to determine the effects of backcrossing on the height and survivorship of chestnut trees. We conducted our research in Army Corps of Engineers Raystown Lake chestnut orchards in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania during the fall of 2012. Backcrossed trees had significantly higher median heights: 13, 15, 16, and 31 inches compared to 100% American and 100% Chinese tree median heights: 10 and 11 inches (K = 57.7, df = 5, p < 0.001). Trees with a higher proportion of American trees had higher survivorship (29 to 40%) compared to the lower survivorship of 100% Chinese trees (7%). Conclusions drawn from the data collected have implications for the cultivation of trees in chestnut restoration projects.


Toni Harr (Johnstown, PA) [Dr. Kathleen Jones]
The Common Core in Public Education
Public education in the United States has transformed significantly over the last twenty years, with the most dramatic changes stemming from the Bush and Obama administrations. In 2009, however, a push from the National Governor's Association established the Common Core State Standards Initiative, (CCSSI) a state-led movement to create rigorous, internationally benchmarked standards that want to enable students in Maine to receive the same publicly funded education as those in Nebraska. While these standards claim to be rigorous, many critics argue that it will result in a mediocre education system for the United States.


David Hatem (Bel Air, Maryland) Chelsea Wilson-Baltimore, Maryland|Quadir Christian-Johnstown, Pennsylvania [Dr. Daniel Welliver]
Juniata Students Behind Bars: Service Learning in a Prison Setting
Incorporating service-learning into their sociology senior seminar capstone course, three students partnered with the PA Prison Society and inmates, including members of the PA Lifers Association, to take part in a National Issues Forum at the Huntingdon State Correctional Institution. The students, Pennsylvania Prison Society members, and "Lifers" worked together for over eight hours over a two-day period to learn the National Issues Forum process for deliberation. The two deliberation topics selected for this experience included mass shootings and end of life decisions.

Adopting the service learning principle of working with and not for community partners (Ward & Wolf-Wendel, 2000), students had an opportunity to integrate and apply knowledge and skills developed in their undergraduate sociology careers at Juniata College. A small portion of this presentation will involve audience participation in a brief modeling of the National Issues Forum process that the students experienced.


Jessica Hatter (Staunton, Virginia) [Sarah May Clarkson]
Genetically Modified Foods and their Effects on Public Health
In this day and age, technology has taken over virtually every aspect of an average citizen's daily life. What many people do not realize is that while technology is changing the world's school systems, office spaces, and networking methods, technology is also vastly changing what the world eats. In recent years, genetically modified foods have become commonplace in supermarkets, and they can be found listed on the nutritional label of almost every product on grocery store shelves. It is important that the informed citizen have a general understanding of what genetically modified foods really are and what types of effects genetically modified foods can have on public health.


Sarah Hayes (West Chester, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Kathleen Jones]
Increasing Funding for Early Intervention in Foster Care Children
Almost half a million children were in foster care system in 2010; most of them faced a traumatic event in their life. Childhood trauma has been linked to life long negative effects. Early psychological intervention has been shown to help children improve after a traumatic. This presentation explains one model of early intervention presented by the state of Oklahoma, the Pinnacle Plan, and how it can be applied to the nation as a whole. It also touches upon the psychological, economic, societal, and political implications that goes along with increased funding.


Sarah Hayes (West Chester, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Kathleen Jones]
Increasing Funding for Early Intervention in Foster Care Children
Almost half a million children were in the foster care system in 2010; most of them faced a traumatic event in their life. Childhood trauma has been linked to life-long negative effects. Early psychological intervention has been shown to help children improve after a traumatic event. This presentation explains one model of early intervention presented by the state of Oklahoma, the Pinnacle Plan, and how it can be applied to the nation as a whole. It also touches upon the psychological, economic, societal, and political implications that go along with increased funding.


Keegan Healy (Glastonbury, CT) [Dr Mark Pearson]
Hydrated Plasma Emissions from Aqueous Electrical Discharge
An apparatus for generating plasma jets in humid air is constructed and semistable plasmoids are observed. Behavior of these plasmoids is characterized using High-Speed Photography and other analysis, and the theory of such plasmoids is explored.


Nathan Higgins (St. Marys, PA) [Dr. Mark Pearson]
Arduino based controlled system for monitoring environmental conditions and optimizing storage of energy
A solar tracker can increase the efficiency of a solar panel by up to 100 percent, since solar panels are most effective when perpendicular to the incoming rays of sunlight. The aim of this study is to explore a system to track the position of the sun in order to create the most efficient solar collection system possible. An Arduino uno board was used to track the position of the sun using a two-axis servo solar tracker and a triangulated array of three photo resistors. The tracker consists of three light sensitive photo resistors that will account for where the largest amount of light is coming from. The tracker then moves in the direction of the largest incoming light until all three-photo resistors are collecting the same amount of light. The ultimate goal of this study is to implement it at the observatory to power a weather system on the telescope.


Briahnna Hoover (McConnellsburg, Pennsylvania) [Donald Braxton]
Heart rate variability as a window to the mind: Pilot data



Megan Hourigan (Memphis, New York) [Dennis Johnson]
Invasibility Response to Planted Diversity in Biofuel Cropping Systems
As a source for bioenergy, Panicum virgatum monocultures and prairie mixes containing P. virgatum are recommended as a more sustainable alternative to corn, but there remains discord in scientific research about whether monocultures or high-diversity grassland crops are more productive or more efficient. In Hickory Corners, Michigan, USA, a study was conducted to examine the relationship between diversity and invasibility in biofuel cropping systems. Biomass was collected from meter-square plots from diversity treatments ranging from a monoculture of P. virgatum to a 30-species mix. After drying and weighing biomass on a species, sown-versus-invading, and functional group basis, it was determined that no statistically significant relationship exists between invasibility and diversity. However, it was found that P. virgatum is significantly more productive in the monoculture, 2-species mix, and 9-species mix than in the 30-species mix, suggesting that some factor present in the 30-species mix is stunting P. virgatum productivity.


Janelle Howard (Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania) |Kelsey Fuller-York, Pennsylvania|Courtney Lydick-Erie, Pennsylvania|Taylor Vidal-Brooklyn , New York [Lynn Cockett]
Decoding Facial Reactions: "Stop the Bullets, Kill the Gun"
"Stop the Bullets, Kill the Gun" is a video advertisement presented by IANSA, which is an international organization advocating gun violence. Our group performed an experiment to record people's facial expressions during the climax of the video. We recorded the facial expressions of 52 subjects, 27 female and 25 male. 18 of our subjects expressed no reaction, 17 expressed one reaction, and 17 expressed a double reaction. As a group, we analyzed each reaction on its own to determine a common facial expression. The first expression in the double reaction consisted of furrowed eyebrows, widened eyes, and a tense, closed mouth. The second expression included relaxed eyebrows, cheeks raised into a smile, and a closed mouth. The one reaction facial expression contained raised eyebrows and a closed mouth turned into a frown. No reaction was a neutral facial expression consistent throughout all 18 subjects. Throughout this project, we came across a few variables that could create implications if we took this experiment to a larger scale. We realized we had to use familiar subjects, seeing as recording strangers made the environment awkward and unfortunately kept the subjects from reacting to the video. We also found that half of the subjects who recorded no reaction had their hand near their face, covering up or hiding a reaction. We could not conclude any quantitative data from our research because we had an even distribution of numbers between the three reactions and therefore have no conclusive results. However, we learned how to decode facial expressions and how they can vary between subjects.


Huiqing Hu (Zhengzhou, Henan) [Mark McKellop]
Expressive Writing and Empathy in Individuals who have Experienced Gender, Ethnic, or Religious-Based Discrimination
Past research has found successful empathy-inducing methods (e.g. perspective-taking) that reduced prejudice levels and discriminatory behaviors against out-group members. Most of these studies have included a writing intervention. Similarly, numerous researchers have documented the association between Pennebaker's expressive writing task ?" writing about deep emotions and thoughts surrounding an emotionally charged subject or traumatic events ?" and a variety of beneficial outcomes. However, little research has examined the possible therapeutic effect of specific writing interventions for individuals who have directly experienced discrimination. The objectives of this study are to experimentally examine the association between expressive writing and empathy levels in individuals who have reported past personal experience(s) of being a victim of discrimination due to their gender, ethnic, or religious background. This experiment randomly assigned participants in either the experimental (writing about discrimination) or control group (writing about trivial topic). Participants completed three 15-minute writing sessions (with 5-minute breaks in between), the McFarland (2010) Empathy Scale, and a question regarding past personal experiences of discrimination based on gender, ethnic, or religious background. We predict that participants possessing a past personal experience of being a victim of discrimination and also expressively writing about discrimination in general would be more likely than the other conditions to express higher empathy levels.


Huiqing Hu (Zhengzhou, Henan) |Aric Koestler-Palmyra , PA|Samantha Stroup-Bedford, PA [Anne Gilman]
Comparing Text Characteristics of Expressive and Values Writing
Expressive writing was compared with values writing from 55 undergraduates on several dimensions using the LIWC text analysis tool. Although they wrote for three times as long as in the typical values-writing protocol, writers in the important and unimportant values groups produced fewer filler words and used significantly more positive emotion terms compared to the expressive writing group. The writing conditions elicited causal terms?"-produced more by important-value writers-?"for differing reasons.


Joshua Jessell (Hillsborough, North Carolina) |Justin Bookhammer-, |Derrike Bellows-, [Donna Weimer]
Holography
This is an extension of the Metaverse project we did for Professor Donna Weimer. We each take a different aspect of how holography is affecting the world around us.


Sara Johnson (Easton, Connecticut) [Dr. Catherine Stenson]
A Mathematical Analysis of Chopsticks
This research takes a look at the children's game chopsticks, also known as finger chess, where two players start with one finger on each hand and take turns adding fingers to their opponent's hands. This game is won when the other player has lost both hands by getting the maximum number of fingers, usually five, on each hand. We examine games with different amounts of fingers under two variants of the rules; we find the optimal moves for both players in those games. We also analyze patterns in the winning player's finger configurations, and we describe a nice connection between the one-handed variation of the game and the Fibonacci numbers.


Carrington Jones (Frederick , Maryland) [Jack Barlow]
Solutions to Global Climate Change
Global climate change is the biggest problem facing our future generation of Americans and a solution to counter the problem can be found in an agglomeration of things, from policy to even fusion energy. This problem is seen to be even bigger than the copious spending problem in Washington or even nuclear growth in North Korea. It is a known belief that with the enormous amounts of carbon dioxide and other green houses gases being trapped in the earths atmosphere, that the life we are currently living is unsustainable and threatening to the future of not only the United States, but the world. Science has proven that with the introduction of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) that summers will now be hotter and winters will be colder, and natural disasters will be more prevalent and stronger than ever. There are many who don't believe in global warming or global climate change. These people argue on the same premise that science can never be 100% sure, but I would agree with climate scientist that the Earth is heating up, and the climates are getting more dramatic every season due to Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW). How to handle this problem is what i'm interested in, there are many answer that simply say tax, but with the economy in the condition it is in that could be a bigger problem.


Thomas Jordan (Derwood, Maryland) [Peter Baran]
Synthesis of Metal Complexes with the Unique Ligand 1,10-Phenanthroline N,N' Dioxide
1,10-Phenanthroline N,N' Dioxide has been a highly desirable and elusive ligand for coordination chemistry, and only recently has it been successfully synthesized. Since then, no transition metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized that include this ligand. The purpose of this research is to be the first to synthesize and characterize transition metal coordination complexes that utilize this unique ligand. One complex may have already been synthesized with current efforts being to grow single crystals large enough for single crystal x-ray diffraction to conclusively determine the structure. Infrared spectra and melting points provide additional clues into the structure of the possible complex.


Lauren Kelleher (Media, PA) [Dr. Henry Thurston-Griswold]
El Islam en la España de Hoy
El Islam tuvo una presencia profunda en la España medieval, pero ¿cómo es su presencia en la España de hoy? Esta presentación discutirá el papel del Islam en la España de hoy. Explorará las vidas de los musulmanes en la España actual y el efecto que su religión tiene en sus identidades como españoles. Se examinará en particular a las mujeres con doble identidad como musulmanas y como españolas. También se comentará la relación que España tiene con los países musulmanes.


Melissa King (Newtown, Connecticut) |Melissa King-Newtown, Connecticut [David Sowell]
Buckminster Fuller's World Game
Buckminster Fuller--physicist, inventor, and futurologist--left behind a legacy of creations geared toward making the Whole Earth a better place. Fuller believed that design shaped behavior, creating the simulation "Worldgame" so that people could learn how to manage our Spaceship Earth. Worldgame is a tool of design science which utilizes the "Dymaxion map" to give average users the ability to experiment with the decisions of the elite. With all the world's capital at the players' disposal, they must decide how to manage Earth's resources. While some may choose paths of destruction, Fuller's hope is to empower learners with the mission of wholeness. Fuller's creation is based on the notion that the universe is a scenario, and through metaphor we may adequately plan the script, and "make the world work." Our world has moved much further toward globalization than Fuller's, but are we thinking globally. My research into the game and game theory will reveal how Fuller's creation can lead to real world solutions. Through design science we may be allowed to do more with less, and create a legacy of using "games" to solve social problems.


Heidi Kleber (Morrisdale, PA) |Kyle Clemmer-Hellertown, PA|Erica Nagle-Westwood, MA|Ethan Farrell-Damascus, MD|Zane Kelton-Jersey City, NJ [Marlene Burkhardt]
Online Learning and Social Network Assessment
This research analyzes the attitudes and beliefs of Juniata College Theatre students regarding their attitudes and behaviors as they relate to on-line learning. The results of this survey will be analyzed to determine ways to improve the appeal and accessibility of on-line learning so that future improvements can be made. In addition, research regarding the social networks of Theatre students will be analyzed to determine the extent to which attitudes and behaviors correlate with interaction patterns. This will advance the literature in on-line learning assessment to determine whether social interactions influence in part the formation of attitudes and behaviors towards this method of course delivery.


Annalise Knies (Wantage, New Jersey) [James Roney]
Bound to Oil: Russia's Dilemma
This paper examines Russia and its relationship with oil and natural gas. Russia's reliance upon these resources has resulted in its transformation into an oil state. Oil states are those that derive a large percentage of their income from fossil fuels, experience large divides between the wealthy and poor, have large oil and natural gas monopolies controlled by the bureaucracy, experience economic instability due to dependence on oil and gas, and have a stunted private sector. This paper draws upon research by Marshall Goldman, Gulnaz Sharafutdinova, and Vladmir Gel'man. Russia's increasing dependence on oil and natural gas has produced very negative effects for the country, including high corruption and poor infrastructure. Two states with large fossil fuel reserves, Nigeria and Norway will also be examined in order to explore whether proper management of these industries and economic diversification can allow countries to avoid becoming oil states.


Alexander Koval (Mountaintop, PA) [Dr. Baran]
A New Approach to Pyridine N-Oxides
Schiff bases containing a pyridine N-oxide moiety attract much less attention from coordination chemists than their pyridine analogues or Schiff bases derived from salicylaldehyde. The main reason is commercial inaccessibility of 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde N-oxide (poxal) and its peculiar synthesis requiring oxidation of α-picoline N-oxide by selenium dioxide. Several alternative synthetic routes for poxal have been suggested recently, but with little success, to increase popularity of N-oxide coordination chemistry due to their complicated procedures. We are presenting a simple and efficient two-step synthesis of poxal by employing oxidation of protected 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde. The details of the synthetic procedure of poxal will be presented.


Rachel Krantz (Bradford, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Henry Thurston-Griswold]
Dance Styles From Southern Spain
For many countries, dance is an important and intriguing part of the cultural fabric. Dance is a form of artistic expression with a variety of purposes: it may serve to tell a story or historical event, attract a partner, or simply bring a family closer together. In Southern Spain, there are several popular styles of dance. The most prominent of these, which will be featured in this presentation, include the flamenco, the bolero, and the fandango. They each exhibit a distinct set of moves and postures that make each of them quite recognizable from one another. These dances, which vary in rhythm, emotion, and intimacy, speak volumes about the vibrant and sensual nature of Spanish people, who have so masterfully and skillfully turned them into forms of art.


Erin Kreischer (Harrisburg, PA) [Jackson Barlow]
Ecuador's Environmental Revolution: real regulations or a convining ruse?
Our current economic system is based on turning natural resources into manmade goods. The world's supply of natural resources is often extracted from countries and communities with low per capita income and limited availability of opportunities for employment. This is the type of situation found in Ecuador, a country known for its long history of biodiversity and indigenous communities. Ecuador risks the ruin of species, landscape, and indigenous communities, because it is a country that relies heavily on exporting its natural resources.

Ecuador's emphasis on people over profits began to change in1993, when an indigenous groups filed a lawsuit against Texaco's, now Chevron, dirty drilling practices. Years later, the Ecuadorian court ruled Chevron guilty of $18bn of damage within indigenous communities in the Amazon Rainforest. As Chevron has refuses to pay, the fight for Ecuadorian's rights continue.

During the last six years under President Rafael Correa, Ecuador has made many revolutionary steps to redefining these rights. The new 2008 constitution sets a precedent by awarding rights to nature, and rights to indigenous communities' existence. Alongside these legal changes, the country has been signing onto new initiatives like REDD+, RSPO, and the Yasuni-ITT.

As these initiatives continue to develop, there are concerns regarding their effectiveness in Ecuador's sectors that are largely run by small and remote businesses. Coupled with this concern, are the reported cases of grand and petty corruption throughout the country that could be allowing officials to monetarily benefit from increased regulation.

So, is Ecuador's commitment to an environmental revolution comprised of a real shift in ideals and enforceable regulations or are these changes meant to be a convincing ruse? Based on convincing evidence, this essay will show how the Ecuadorian government is limited on its concern for actual policy implementation and how it can economically benefit from limited reform.


Erik Krueger (Maple Glen, PA) [Ms. Carlee K. Ranalli]
"Culture Shock? - A Comparison of Retention Rates in the Juniata College Student Body of Students who come from Rural or Urban Environments"
This presentation will examine the retention rates among students who come from urban versus rural environments. The data encompasses cohorts from the years 1998-2012. I'm trying to see whether students from urban backgrounds have a harder time adjusting the nature-esque environment of Juniata College coming from a larger metropolitan city.


Erik Krueger (Maple Glen, PA) [Dr. Wei-Chung Wang]
The Economic Impact of Legalizing Marijuana
The Positive Effects of Amendment 64: This poster illustrates that Colorado's GDP will increase due to Amendment 64, a piece of legislation that legalized marijuana in small amounts in Colorado. I look at how consumption, education, and tax revenues are affected and will lead to economic growth in the short term and an increased GDP in the long term.


Kaitlin Krueger (Stevensville, Maryland) [John Matter]
A Tail of Two Squirrels: Differentiating Delmarva Fox Squirrels from Eastern Grey Squirrels using bone fluorescence
Distinguishing the difference between Fox and Gray squirrels can be difficult due to similarities in their morphology; overlap in size, color variation and practically identical skeletal structure pose challenges for monitoring of the Delmarva Fox Squirrel, an endangered species. Trying to identify any squirrel from bone fragments can be a daunting task, however, fluorescence of fox squirrel bones under ultraviolet light could provide an easy identification method. This investigation tested the use of fluorescence as a field identification technique by analyzing the effects of exposure, cleaning techniques and variation through a variety of experiments. An exposure experiment was conducted checking the fluorescence of the bones throughout a two month exposure to the elements. Three cleaning techniques were performed to test chemical reduction of fluorescence. A trip to the Smithsonian was taken to observe a larger variety of fox squirrel specimens to help determine if variation had a big impact on fluorescence levels. After all tests were analyzed it was determined that while fluorescence does fluctuate a bit it is consistently present and fluorescence can be used as a field identification technique. This technique will assist the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in monitoring the Delmarva Fox Squirrel.


David Lamberson (Alexandria, PENNSYLVANIA) [Dr. Mark Pearson]
Applications of Raspberry Pi for wireless control over Wifi networks
The Raspberry Pi (RPi) is an inexpensive, versatile, and capable, credit card sized computer. It is able to function solely as a standard PC or, as in this study, it can be fitted with different components and accessories that allow it to become a standalone unit. For this study the RPi runs on an operating system called Debian, a variety of Linux. The RPi also uses Python as the primary programming language, the General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) pins on the RPi board, a wireless adapter, and the Motion service. The RPi has 23 different GPIO pins that can allow for 3-5 volts to be sent to the connecting circuit. By bring all these components together a robot can be wirelessly controlled and viewed on the LAN. Motion was installed as a mini web server to host a real-time video stream through a designated port. This webpage was then set up with four different buttons that execute different commands that send a pulse of voltage through the GPIO pins to control the motors that drive the robot. By bringing together concepts and techniques from Computer Science, Electronics, Machining, and Physics a unique, wireless, standalone robot can be created to run off of a Raspberry Pi.


Tian Lan (Chengdu, China) |Ethan Nichols-Johnstown, PA|Abdullah Elgabrowny-Brooklyn, New York [Donna Weimer]
Nanomedicine and Nanowarfare
Nanotechnology will lead to revolutions in medicine and warfare, causing a shift in identity Our research first focuses on the definition, history, current uses and future possibilities of Nanomedicine. Then we we talk about nanowarfare. This includes offensive and defensive nanowarfare. Finally, we will talk about the nano implications. The nanotechnology may fundamentally reshape human identity with regard to biological, ethical and social issues.


Ariel Lawver (Baltimore, Maryland) [Donna Weimer]
KONY 2012: Examining Shared Rhetorical Visions
KONY 2012 was a viral YouTube video that spread via Facebook and Twitter with over 96 million views. Within this 30-minute video a problem, cause, and solution were provided addressing the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) or Joseph Kony's Child army. This video went viral asking for a United States military intervention. Weeks later it became ridiculed for the foundation's inaccuracy and unethical techniques used in and out of the video. Using the Neo-Aristotelian approach to understand the video's rhetorical situation, I conclude that while KONY 2012 was effective rhetorically as a catalyst for many political conversations involving Kony's child army-- shared consequence failed to occur over their call to action because the audience no longer shared the rhetorical vision, but it still created symbolic convergence. Conducting a sensitive textual analysis using Bormann's fantasy themes and fantasy types reveals that symbolic convergence. While the rhetorical situation should have dismantled the video to be nothing more than propaganda it enhanced its ability to be recognized. As a result, I argue that The Invisible Children Foundation created a shared rhetorical vision in Kony 2012 that initiated the creation of a new fantasy type of that name.


Marshall Leland (Washington , DC) [Dr. Thurston-Griswald]
El Arte Surrealismo de España
Presentation about the surrealistic movement during the early 1900s in Spain, especially concentrating on the paintings of Salvador Dalí and Joan Miró. This presentation will include background information, inspiration, and an analysis of 1 to 2 paintings per artist.


Lucas Lingenfelter (Martinsburg, PA) [Dr. Catherine Stenson]
An Analysis of Gray Codes Applied to Gene Sequences
A genome is a collection of chromosomes made from a set of genes. While a variety of classical operations have been used by biologists to simulate genome rearrangements, the double-cut-and-join operation has been found to model all of these genetic operations. Through the double cut and join operation, the relative distance between two different genomes can be measured. This measure provides insight into the evolutionary paths of the organisms. We represent our genomes as vertices in a graph and connect two genomes with an edge if they differ by a single double-cut-and-join operation. Our work focuses on the creation of a Hamiltonian path through the graph, which then gives a Gray code for genomes.


Gregory Logue (Seymour, TN) [Dr. Jack Barlow]
Rebranding Conservatism
The Republican Party is failing to appeal to the American people and are becoming more and more the exclusive party of old white men. The major political issues that were once dominated by the Republicans are now working in the Democrats favor. In order for the Republican Party to survive, they must choose their battles and pick the issues that are most important to the country as a whole. A good place for the Party to start is looking at the states. The Republican Party controls the majority of state legislatures and governors offices. Most have been successful and have high approval ratings as well.

State governments are often times labeled laboratories of democracy and the national GOP should look at the successful policies coming out of these laboratories. For example, Republican controlled states are lowering taxes while reforming excessive regulation policies and pension policies and as a result the majority of their economies are growing faster than those under Democratic control. Furthermore, the lower tax burden states have less wealth disparity and lower unemployment than the Democratic-controlled states.

Keeping tax rates low has always been a central focus of modern American conservatives. Barry Goldwater advocated for low taxes during the 60's, it was a huge part of the Reagan Administration, and it is still a major focus of present day conservatives. But, is keeping taxes low a truly a sustainable economic model that promotes growth? The answer is yes. Numerous studies have been conducted at the state and local level as well as among various countries and the evidence is overwhelming that lower taxes leads to economic growth. Instead of alienating Americans by supporting outdated social policies, the primary focus of the Republican Party should be achieving economic prosperity through lowering tax burdens.


John Lugg (Lock Haven, Pennsylvania) [Jackson Barlow]
Return on Transportation Infrastructure Investment
Determining what are the benefits of transportation infrastructure are is difficult and rest on the inference that one makes about the positive relationship between growth and infrastructure ?" was it the chicken or the egg that came first? There is no noticeable dissent about whether or not infrastructure is beneficial for a capital starved economy, all developing nations ought to strive for connecting their towns and cities for future economic growth. However, now that the United States is a developed nation, there appears to be few solid answers. Determining the options that are, and are not, available will be the goal of this paper.


Alexander Mace (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Matthew M. Beaky]
Time-Dependent Behavior of the O'Connell Effect in Eclipsing Binary Systems
An eclipsing binary star system consists of two stars orbiting around each other on a plane that lies along our line of sight. As a result of this orientation, we observe periodic eclipses of the stars in these systems. We are able to analyze an eclipsing binary system through the examination of photometric light curves of each orbital cycle, which have a characteristic shape consisting of two out-of-eclipse maxima and two mid-eclipse minima. Asymmetric mid-eclipse minima are to be expected, as they simply suggest a temperature difference between the two stars. However, for many eclipsing binary systems, the unexpected observation of disproportionate out-of-eclipse maxima are also seen, implying that the luminosity of the system when the stars are side by side is different when they switch positions halfway through the cycle. This phenomenon is known as the O'Connell effect. Starspots, clouds of circumstellar gas and dust, and hot spots caused by the impact of a mass-transferring gas stream have all been proposed as theories that may explain the O'Connell effect. Using photometric data from the Kepler Space Mission and programs written in the computer language Python, we are investigating the root cause of the O'Connell effect, periodic changes in the magnitude of the O'Connell effect, and timing variations in the period of eclipses, all which may provide further insight into our understanding of eclipsing binary systems.


Moira Mackay (Portland, Oregon) [Alison Fletcher]
"Lift up thy voice like a trumpet": Anne Knight and the Fight for Enfranchisement
The 18th and 19th centuries in England saw a move towards radicalism in reformist and philanthropic works. Anne Knight, a Quaker and a political and social activist, was deeply involved in the abolition movement and, in her later life, the women's rights' movement. Knight often figures in the scholarly literature of abolition and the women's rights movement of the early 19th century, however, there is no comprehensive history of her life and works that focuses singularly on her achievements and character. Therefore, this study concentrates on Knight's life and influence specifically while establishing her individuality in a comparison to other female reformists of the period. The study portrays her radicalism above that of the average female Victorian reformist in her politically and publically active support for causes such as the abolition of the slave trade, Chartism, and the women's rights' movement.


Sydney Masters (Bellefonte, Pennsylvania) [Ronald K. McLaughlin]
The Puzzle of Emotional Cheating
Sexual infidelity has been unambiguously defined through literature, however the concept of emotional cheating has not. The purpose of our investigative research is to determine if there are two components contributing to emotional cheating. The components are whether or not the romantic partner condemns the situation, and whether or not there is potential for a sexual relationship. The data collected indicated, though not statistically significant, that our means were leaning towards deception as being a main component of cheating. We believe with more participants we would have statistically significant data to show what components are present within emotional cheating.


Cory Mattas (York, Pennsylvania) |Will Young-Benton, Pennsylvania|Josh Green-Hagerstown, Maryland|Josh Graybeal-Willow Street, Pennsylvania|Leah Tester-Sperryville, Virginia|Zalina Smith-Baltimore, Maryland [Jeff Krause]
Raystown Lake Vegetation Forage Study
Specific areas surrounding Raystown Lake are managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for deer populations. The majority of the western side of the lake is managed while the eastern side is not. This study measured the browse available to deer on both the eastern and western side. A transect from each side of the lake was studied to measure numbers of species and amounts available. The two transects were then compared to each other and previous year's data, and it was found that in both 2010 and in 2013, the transect on the western side had more available browse than the transect on the eastern side. This is most likely because the western side is managed by the Army Corps for deer populations.


Andrew Maul (Portage, Pennsylvania) Chesney Richter-Pueblo, Colorado [Regina Lamendella, PhD]
You are what you eat - the stories poop tells
Over the past decade, obesity and its associated health problems have become an increasingly important issue. Understanding the composition of the gut microbiome as it relates to these chronic diseases may help develop novel treatments. The impact of dietary resistant starch on the gut microbiome and physiological conditions has yet to be thoroughly investigated. In order to determine these effects, fecal samples and physiological metadata were collected from 39 patients placed on a 56-day, two-phase, crossover dietary study. Patients were randomly assigned to a high carbohydrate or low carbohydrate branch, each of which consisted of two experimental diets containing either high or low amounts of resistant starch, separated by a baseline washout diet. DNA was collected from the fecal samples, PCR amplified, and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform, specifically targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial community analysis was performed using QIIME to generate the abundance of OTUs (operational taxonomic units) for each sample. Statistical analysis of the physiological metadata using non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) showed minimal correlation between high and low resistant starch diets and microbial composition. The Student's t-test identified significant correlations between the low carbohydrate high resistant starch diet and postprandial insulin levels. ANOVA and pair-wise comparisons of each diet treatment identified significant differences in the abundance of specific microbial OTUs. Beta diversity and principal component analysis (PCA) plots were used to determine if there was any clustering of participants based on similarities in microbial composition and physiological metadata. This suggests that the gut microbiome and physiological parameters related to insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia are affected by dietary resistant starch, but further analysis is needed. Future results may identify novel biomarkers and potential gut microbes that can be targeted for use in pre- and probiotic therapies for managing obesity-related health problems.


Andrew McCauley (Bensalem, Pennsylvania) [Prof. Barlow]
The Impact of Unfunded Pensions and Collective Bargaining on Local Governments
This presentation will show how unions and Act 111 have had negative effects on local government through pension funding and how types of government, specifically, mayor-council/manager-council also affects these liabilities.


Zachariah McCaulley (Bellwood, PA) [Jack Barlow]
The Use of Military Force Against Countries that Harbor Terrorism: 2006 Israeli Invasion of Lebanon
The most important question facing terrorism today is how it can be stopped. This is an important question that must be answered in order to protect innocent people from violence. One debated counterterrorism method is through military force. This research answers the question, "is military force against nations that harbor terrorism, in pursuit of terrorists, just?" To answer this question, the 2006 Israeli invasion of Lebanon was used as a case study. The counterterrorism action taken by Israel was assessed in the context of international laws and the context of other non-militant methods. The study argues that Israel's invasion was just because all other options were exhausted and certain measures were taken to protect innocent Lebanese civilians. Although this is only one case, this conclusion has the potential to be generalized. Because of this potential, the conclusion from the case is then applied to all cases in which the retaliatory attacks against terrorists are reasonable. Since military action is argued as being just, this provides a potentially effective method to counterterrorism.


Daniel McClung (Silver Spring, Maryland) |Daniel McClung-Chambersberg, Pennsylvania|Shayna Yeates-Allentown, Pennsylvania|Sarah Trescher-Hummelstown, PA|Collin Shay-Silver Spring, Maryland [Philip Dunwoody]
A cross-examination of two different measures of authoritarianism and threat
Research on authoritarianism involves examining how willingly people will submit to authority, and how that will affect their perception of threat and their personal prejudices and intolerance. Research on authoritarianism uses a variety of scales and there is no universal measure. Two of these scales are Child Rearing scale and the Social Conformity-Autonomy scale, used by Hetherington and Feldman, respectively. The child rearing scale is intended to measure how important a person believes it is to instill authoritarian ideals in their children. The Social Conformity-Autonomy scale is used to measure whether an individual values social conformity or autonomy more. Their research supports two different conclusions about authoritarianism and its relationship to different kinds of threat. Hetherington argues there is a negative interaction between authoritarianism, mortal threat, and restriction of civil liberties. Feldman argues there is a positive interaction between authoritarianism, threat to social norms, and prejudice and political tolerance. Using an online questionnaire, we collected data from Intro to Psych Students and available relatives using, both the child rearing and the SCA scales, a measure of mortal threat and threat to social cohesion. The dependent measures used included: anti-democratic policies, political tolerance, ethnocentrism, and prejudice. A regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between variables. Statistics will be presented that examine the effects of the different scales of authoritarianism and how different types of threat interact to predict the dependent measures used.


Erin McClure (Reading, PA) [Regina Lamendella]
Temporal dynamics of the gut microbial community in inflammatory bowel disease
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes the subtypes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gut, has been increasing in industrialized nations. Dysbiosis, or a shift, in the gut microbial community structure has been observed in IBD patients. A dysregulated immune response to the commensal gut microbiota has been implicated in IBD pathogenesis; however it remains unknown whether dysbiosis causes or is a result of the aberrant immune response. The aim of this study is to track the microbial community dynamics of IBD patients over multiple timepoints to better correlate disease condition with dysbiosis. To study dysbiosis over time, 600 fecal samples were taken from an IBD cohort, with 524 samples from patients sampled at four or more timepoints. The QIIME pipeline was used to analyze the 250 million 16S rRNA gene reads sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq platform. Sequences were clustered with UCLUST and annotated using the Greengenes 2011 database. Alpha and beta diversity, ANOVA, G-test of independence, and ANOSIM were also performed in QIIME. The stability of each gut microbiome was estimated by analyzing the microbial community structure changes between the timepoints. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominate the gut microbiota in healthy individuals. Blooms of Enterobacteriaceae were observed at some timepoints in CD patients. Overall instability of the microbiota is seen in CD patients compared to UC and healthy controls. IBD phenotypes clustered in principal coordinates analysis, with some IBD timepoints clustering near healthy controls, possibly representing inactive disease state. Overall, these results suggest a relationship among the distinct bacterial signatures within a patient and over IBD progression. In due course, a more holistic characterization of the gastrointestinal microflora will allow us to discern the possible constituents of its pathology and pinpoint potential biomarkers for the disease.


Monica McGrath (Warrington, PA) [Larry Mutti]
Elaborate growth history in secondary euhedral quartz as revealed by SEM-CL mapping, Mahantango Fm, PA.
SEM cathodoluminescence paired with fluid inclusion analysis can be used to explore crystal growth history. These techniques were applied to post diagenetic quartz from vertical veins crosscutting the Mahantango Fm. near Huntingdon, PA. All samples were hexagonal prisms. Systematic SEM-CL images were collected to create full CL maps to assess growth tied to fluid inclusion entrapment. Fluid inclusions demonstrated primary, pseudo-secondary and secondary entrapment of 1 and 2-phase fluids. No inclusions were petroliferous, unlike those in quartz collected from Brallier Fm veins a mile away (Curry 2012). Full characterization of the Mahantango inclusions is still underway. A variety of intriguing patterns were documented in the SEM-CL images. The geometry of differences in CL brightness demonstrated that crystallization was discontinuous, growth conditions highly variable, and that growth occurred directly from solution without a preliminary amorphous phase. Non-concentric growth, seen in inhomogeneous orientations of growth planes, indicated abrupt shifts in favored growth surface. Multiple instances of dissolution and truncation of growth bands were observed; some crystallographically controlled and others not. Dissolution followed two distinct patterns with some occurring along exposed crystal faces, followed by new growth on corroded surfaces, sometimes resuming in the same orientation and at other times occurring on different faces. Elsewhere, dissolution was vermicular, observed as solution channels. Some holes were in-filled, but others remained empty. Isolated annealed fractures were also present; some straight and crystallographically-controlled, others conchoidal. Fractures do not display crack-seal texture. Multi-stage growth and dissolution was observed throughout all samples examined, demonstrating that quartz growth in this setting was neither straightforward nor continuous. Microscopic growth and erosion features observable in single crystals strikingly resemble outcrop-scale sedimentary features such as scour and fill, disconformities, and dissolution channels. While interrupted growth might have offered favorable sites for entrapment of fluid inclusions, the inclusion distribution in these specimens does not correlate well with these gaps in growth.


William McGrew (Beavercreek, OH) [James White]
Giant Monopole Resonances in Unstable Nuclei
Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonances in Unstable Nuclei* W. F. McGrew, Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University (REU student from Juniata College) D. H. Youngblood, J. T. Button, Y.-W. Lui, Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University. An experiment is underway to measure the energy of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) in unstable nuclei. A beam of unstable nuclei is directed at a 6Li target, exciting the ISGMR. The ISGMR decays in ~10-21 s by proton and alpha emission. A scintillator detector has been built that utilizes vertically- and horizontally-oriented thin strips with a block scintillator behind. Data from the thin strips allow the scattering angle of the decay particles to be determined. The detector was tested using both protons and betas to determine the response and to measure signal attenuation as a function of distance from the fiber optic cable-scintillator connection. The beam and residual decay particles pass through a hole in the scintillator detector into the MDM spectrometer, where the residual particles will be separated according to the rigidity of their components. A moveable Faraday cup is being designed to catch the beam directly in front of a wire detector. The cup will consist of a removable plate attached to a driving mechanism. It will cover the height of the detector and stretch 6 millimeters horizontally. This will block the beam, while allowing other ions of interest to pass into the detector.

*Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program


Christopher McMahan (Raleigh, North Carolina) |Maximillian von Thaden-Flemington, New Jersey|Yu Xiong-Chengdu, China|Weihua Wang-Chengdu, China [William Thomas]
Innovations For Industry - Quinn Analytics
This is the final phase of a 3 semester project in the I4I class.

The Rocky Mountaineer project is a software package that is meant to help keep track of assets a small tourist train company has, as well as do some of the management automatically.

This semester, we are putting the finishing touches on the product itself, as well as creating a user manual for the software.


Amanda Mercado (Houston, Texas) [Henry Thurston Griswald]
Danzas del norte de España (Dances of Northern Spain)
"Danzas del norte de España"
Abstract:
While many people consider flamenco to be the traditional dance of Spain, there is a wide variety of traditional dances between the various regions of Spain that reflect the history and influences from other cultures. This presentation will focus on the traditional styles of dance from northern Spain, from the regions of Catalonia, Aragón, Asturias and Galicia. The Sardana is a type of traditional music and dance stemming from Catalonia, danced in a closed circle of many couples. From Aragón, there is the Jota, a fast paced dance featuring castanets with strong Moorish influences. And from Galicia and Asturias, the Muñiera, or Miller's Dance, is danced by couples to the music of bagpipes. Each region is proud of these traditional Spanish dances which can still be seen and danced today.


Hannah Miller (Hanover, PA) [Dennis Plane]
The Effect of Uncivil Negative Campaign Advertisements on Political Alienation
Pundits frequently lament the use of negative ads in political campaigns, yet existing research presents conflicting evidence of the effect of these ads on political attitudes. Past studies often conflate negativity with incivility, defined as breaking the social norm of respectful and emotionally controlled interaction with extreme rhetoric, name-calling, and impugning a person's integrity or honesty. The confusion of negativity with incivility could explain why the effects of negative advertising have been hard to pinpoint. This research examines how incivility affects political alienation, defined as attitudes reflecting disapproval or rejection of the political system, to advance our understanding of the influence of negative ads. Through a controlled experiment, groups of undergraduate students are exposed to either a negative but civil advertisement or a negative but uncivil ad embedded in a longer humorous video. The longer video and the advertisements were manipulated so that image, music, and informational content remained constant?"the only difference was the civility of the ad's audio message. In order to distract the subjects from the real purpose of the experiment, subjects were told that the focus of the study was the effect of humor on political attitudes. Before and after the experiment, subjects took a survey designed to measure attitudes about political humor (as a distractor), political alienation, partisanship, vote choice, and various demographic and political attitudes. Preliminary findings suggest that even limited exposure to uncivil negative advertising yields increased political alienation, while exposure to civil negative adverting does not. This raises important questions about the impact of negative campaign ads on political attitudes and citizens' evaluations of government.


Jessica Mills (Huntingdon , PA) [Hannah Bellwoar]
The Truth About Goats
The author reflects on her past experiences raising Nubian dairy goats.


Austin Moffa (Huntingdon, PA) [Loren Rhodes]
The COBOL Conundrum
COBOL is a language locked out of the natural progression of time. It is now so heavily integrated into major business and government functionality that there is a very real fear and reverence which stays the hands that might otherwise be pushing for modernization. With the cost of translating legacy code and the fear of introducing new bugs into systems which have operated, if not flawlessly, then at least predictable for years, one must wonder if there will ever be a need to migrate these practices to modern languages. Yet with the ever-declining population of COBOL and the ever diminishing population of COBOL programmers, the window for migration by experienced programmers may be closing rapidly and permanently. With an estimated 200 billion lines of code currently in use written in a language that the upcoming generation of programmers does not know (and has no real desire to know), what does the future hold for these COBOL applications?


Anwar Moledina Georges-Abeyie (Lakeland , Florida) |Emily Anne Moore-Winston-Salem, North Carolina|Alexandra Witter-Short Hills, New Jersey [Jeff Krause]
Deer Browsing Effects on the Seccesional Growth of the Raystown Area
The feeding habits of white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania can be very destructive to undergrowth and early successional vegetation, especially when deer are present in high densities. As a part of an ongoing effort to monitor the effects of white-tailed deer feeding on land owned by the Army Corps of Engineers, this project evaluates the growth of woody vegetation. Through a comparison of the growth of deer browse both inside and outside of a series of deer enclosures, this project aims to evaluate the extent of deer browse. By recording species densities and heights in both enclosures and open control areas, we will be able to gauge how deer populations are affecting the ecosystem makeup around the Raystown area.


Anwar Moledina Georges-Abeyie (Mulberry, Florida) [Dr. Wade Roberts]
Understanding Intervention in Mali Through International Political Theory



Olivia Moody (Covington, VA) |Sungouk Park-Seoul, South Korea|Meagan Floyd-New York, New York |Julia Sechrist-York, PA|Andrew Gill-Rochester, NY [Anne Gilman]
Refining Measures of Bilingual Lexicon Activation
Cognitive psychology research has suggested that monolingual and bilingual speakers may show differences in executive functioning and working memory. However, recent studies have called these differences into question. Some researchers even suggest that bilingual advantages amount to no more than experimental artifacts (Paap & Greenberg, 2013), but this critique glosses over age of acquisition, a critical factor in other studies (Carlson & Meltzoff, 2008). Past Juniata work on the bilingual lexicon defined bilingualism very broadly and did not take age of acquisition into account. We have chosen to combine the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q), a commonly used measure of language proficiency, with a visual search task. This visual search task involves using cross-lingual visual distractors between English and Spanish; those who are Spanish-English bilinguals should take longer to identify the correct image if a similar-sounding distractor image is present. For example, if the target word is "eagle," and a picture of a church (in Spanish, "iglesia") is present, the Spanish-English bilingual should take longer to respond than a monolingual English speaker. In the study we are developing, we expect to find a connection between the language proficiency of our bilingual speakers and their reaction times on the visual search task. We also plan to discuss the process of selecting stimuli for our task, and our difficulties in recruiting participants for this study.


Kelsey Morgan (Media, PA) [Paula Wagoner]
Three Decades of Dormancy: Completing the Analysis and Curation of the Heine Site
Archaeological testing was first conducted at the Heine Site in Huntingdon County in the early 1980's by Juniata College students as an adjunct to classroom instruction. Two sites were discovered on the privately owned property: 36HU89, on the floodplain of Standing Stone Creek, and 36HU90, on a low hilltop overlooking the creek. Despite the contextual limitations of the collection, differences in the distribution of artifacts between the upper and lower sites offer a valuable view of long-term land use in the local area and the region from the Early Archaic period through the Late Woodland period. This independent study was undertaken to complete the cataloging and inventory of the collection, and to summarize diagnostic tool types, lithic raw material use and possible subsistence practices at the adjoining sites through time.


Nicholas Morgan (Millburn, New Jersey) [Dr. Baran]
Synthesis and study of 3-hydroxy imidazole 1-oxide metal complexes
Single molecule magnets are of great interest in the current computing age as perspective materials for construction of quantum computers. Quantum computers can take advantage of quantum magnetic properties and give a far greater power and processing output than the computers of today. Suitably designed coordination compounds that are clusters of many metal centers connected together by bridging ligands exhibit properties of single molecule magnets. In an effort to synthesize such clusters, 3-hydroxy imidazole 1-oxide was coordinated with different copper(II) salts (chloride, nitrate, and acetate) under different stoichiometries (1:1 and 2:1) in methanol. Isolated solid products were characterized by elemental analysis, melting point measurements, and infrared spectroscopy.


Kayci Nelson (Morrisdale, PA) |Patrick Murray-Boothwyn, PA|Tessa Thomas-Coalport, PA|Kaitlin Spangler-Tyrone, PA [Bill Thomas]
Implementation of Course Management Software at IFC
Cory Sisto from IFC, Individual, Family, and Community Services, expressed interest in implementing a course management software on IFC's server. This interest stemmed from the inefficiency in completing governmental training through paper handouts. IFC has approximately 150-200 full time and part time employees. With a small administrative staff and many regular staff employees that must complete required training, it is difficult to maintain an efficient and usable system when using paper handouts and quizzes. Training due dates are employee specific, not company specific. For these previous reasons, using a web-based, course management system would be the easiest and most efficient way for the IFC staff to oversee employee training. Quizzes are immediately graded, due dates will be employee specific, and user reports are easily exported to an Excel spreadsheet.

The requirements of the course management system include: Windows compatibility, web-based, accommodation of 200 users with unique ID/passwords, unique employee deadlines, administrative capabilities, and the ability to produce user reports. Goal specifications that must be met with the implementation of the software include: a self-paced program with user specific deadlines, content that can be accessed and reviewed, record and report to an administrator, and reduce or eliminate paper records.

At the end of the course management software implementation project, the IFC team will leave Cory with a documentation manual describing all processes of uploading and editing content. It is our goal to have Cory able to work and manage the course and lesson content if changes need to be made to the material. By providing documentation and describing the step by step processes of how to maintain the courses and lessons, Cory will be able to edit content at his pleasing.


Ethan Nichols (Johnstown, PA) |Abdullah Elgabrowny-, |Tian Lan-, [Dr. Weimer]
Nanoweapons and Nanomedicine
Nanotechnology will revolutionize medicine and warfare causing massive societal shifts. Nanomedicine includes new drug delivery systems, increased body monitoring and automated medicine. Nanowarfare includes new materials, offensive and defensive technologies, and automated warfare. This will impact societies' institutions and alter the individuals' place in society.


Megan O'Connor (Fremont, California) [Karen Rosell]
Weapons on the Wall: Rebellion and Revolution in Contemporary Street Art
Downtrodden neighborhoods, decaying buildings, dark tunnels, and empty alleyways have been transformed into the canvases of urban street artists around the globe. The palpable use of the physical environment as an epicenter for artistic creation has revolutionized the art world. Inserting visual imagery into public spaces has altered the connotation of art, as it now possesses a greater intrinsic significance for its intended audience. While some critics argue that street art is nothing more than an exploitative defacement of private property, artists such as Banksy and Swoon, among others, contest this unjust stereotype. With great vision and talent, street artists have been able to address controversial political and social issues unlike artists of any other movement. Banksy, one of the leaders of the underground street art movement aptly stated: "A wall is a very big weapon. It's one of the nastiest things you can hit someone with." The direct relationship between artist and audience is attributed to the accessibility and relevance of these works, for art is no longer the property of the elite. Now it is made by the common man for the general public without the obstacle of museum walls. The mysterious allure of street art is accredited to the enigmatic renegade artists and their chosen anonymity, while controversial content and disregard for the laws of vandalism have heightened its popularity and demand. Denial of street art's validity as a legitimate art form by some, in contrast to critical and public acclaim is the basis of this thesis. By analyzing critical opinion in combination with various artists' personal manifestos, I anticipate being able to more effectively affirm the authenticity of street art as a credible, historic art movement.


Patrick Oelschlager (SELLERSVILLE, Pennsylvania) |Corey Houck-New Holland, PA [Dr. Uma Ramakrishnan]
Evaluation of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Population Estimate Techniques Using Automated Cameras
A 27-day survey of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in Huntingdon County, PA, used automated game cameras to compare differences in population estimates based on data from automated cameras with 1-minute and 10-minute trigger delay settings. We hypothesized that 1-minute delay settings would yield more complete records of deer activity. Additionally, different photo analysis techniques, defined by the authors as the "largest yield" and "herd visit" techniques, were compared with the hypothesis that a difference in duration of feeder visits would be observed between adult bucks and doe/fawn groups. The average estimated deer population between the four data analysis technique/camera setting combinations was 35 deer and the average adult doe:buck ratio was 4.8:1. Analysis failed to show statistically significant differences at the α = 0.05 level between number of unique bucks observed with 1 and 10-minute delay settings, but one additional unique buck was observed using a 1-minute delay. A difference in average number of trigger events between bucks (1.77) and doe/fawn groups (2.43) was observed, supporting our hypothesis. Site-specific differences in data seemed to lessen the significance of these trends. The population estimate technique used in this study relies on the identification of unique bucks and assumes the ratio of photos taken to number of individual deer is consistent between bucks and doe/fawn groups when using the largest yield technique; we believe the herd visit technique with 1-minute camera delay settings captures images of more unique bucks and eliminates the potentially incorrect assumption of a consistent ratio.


Patrick Oelschlager (Sellersville, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Christopher Grant]
Brook trout (Salvelinus fontanalis) age estimation and mercury levels in remote PA streams
Brook trout collected from 25 remote PA streams in summer 2012 are being aged as part of an ongoing analysis of the ecology of these aquatic ecosystems, and mercury's effects on them. In order to evaluate aging techniques for brook trout in this study, several techniques were applied and compared. Understanding relationships between mercury and age will provide better understanding of mercury accumulation in brook trout and its potential effects on physiology. 21 fish were aged using scales and whole otoliths. All fish were aged as either age class 1 or 2. Difference in mean length was 16.7 mm from age class 1-2; difference in median length was 32.0 mm from age 1-2. Age estimates of 11 fish using multiple scales from a single fish read by a single reader showed a 63.6% agreement. 73.7% of age estimates were in agreement between two readers examining the same scales. Percent agreement of 33 scale and whole-otolith age estimates was 48.5%. A t-test comparing mercury levels between age classes failed to show a statistically significant difference in average mercury concentrations at the α= 0.05 level (two-sample t (11) = 1.30, p=0.109). Analysis is ongoing to build our data set to include all brook trout specimens collected in 2012. Further comparisons will be made between these two techniques and age estimates using cross-sectioned otoliths, which will be made for all of the fish being analyzed in this study. We also hope to model brook trout growth for comparison with mercury levels once we have determined the most reliable and practical age estimation technique for this study.


Jacob Oster (Lusby, Maryland) [Dr. Christopher Grant]
Impact of the Biodiversity and Feeding Groups of Macroinvertebrates on bioaccumulation of Hg in Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout)
This study aimed to determine correlations between mercury levels in Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook Trout) and the biodiversity of aquatic insects (macroinvertebrates) within forested headwater ecosystems in Northwestern Pennsylvania. In the lab, trout organs, including liver, spleen, and muscle, were extracted and analyzed for total mercury using a Milestone Direct Mercury Analyzer 80 (DMA 80). Macroinvertebrates were identified to the genus or species level according to the classifications in Merritt and Cummins' Aquatic Insects of North America and separated into groups based on feeding strategy. Feeding groups were then homogenized and analyzed for total mercury in the DMA 80. Biodiversity and richness of macroinvertebrate populations were determined using Shannon's diversity index, counts of Ephemoptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera taxa, and comparison of the proportions of feeding groups within the streams. In addition, the feeding preference of the brook trout were studied by dissecting the stomachs, comparing the contents of the stomach to the macroinvertebrates collected from the same stream, and analyzing the stomach contents for total mercury using the DMA 80. The correlations between mercury levels in brook trout and biodiversity in macroinvertebrates were weak, with some correlation showing between the mercury concentrations in collector and omnivore feeding groups. This may have been due to the findings that macroinvertebrates (excluding crayfish) occurred in 16.2% of stomachs, 54.0% of species observed in the stomach were terrestrial insects, and crayfish were found were found in 27.0% of stomachs. Our results indicate that aquatic insects may not be an integral food source of brook trout and more long-term studies need to be done on brook trout feeding preferences to better understand the pathway of mercury biomagnification in forested streams.


Zachary Palchak (Bellefonte, Pennsylvania) [Dr. John Unger]
Copper-catalyzed asymmetric reductions of aryl 2H-azirines
The aziridine functional group is featured in several biologically-active natural products and has served as a powerful synthetic intermediate in countless total syntheses. Access to this valuable heterocycle can be gained among other ways, through the reduction of 2H-azirines. Our research aims to obtain enantioenriched aryl aziridines by way of an asymmetric reduction of aryl 2H-azrines using nonracemically-ligated copper hydride. The optimization of this method will include an investigation into several silicon-based hydride sources as well as chiral bidentate phosphorous ligand families.


Elise Panko (Erie, PA) [Dr. Barlow]
Linking Historical Anti-Semitism and Modern Islamophobia in France: An Analysis of Secularism
Discrimination in a religious context is relevant on the entire European continent, but France has its own unique history. This research will analyze anti-Semitism and Islamophobia in the French context. Utilizing a framework of the modern political left and right as they came to be after the Dreyfus Affair, this presentation will examine French ethnocentrism, principles of "assertive" French secularism, or laïcité, as well as the development of far right-wing politics to explain the prevalence of anti-Semitic and anti-Muslim sentiment in France. As religious and racial language framed anti-Semitism, this rhetoric shifted to cultural incompatibility when the modern Muslim question arose, in part because of the rise of secularism after the Dreyfus Affair. Analyzing this question on the basis of ethnocentrism, enduring Christianity, and politicization from the right creates a framework capable of comparing the experience of exclusion of Jews and Muslims. I conclude that a path to overcome this long history of discrimination must be grounded in universal respect and priority for human rights in order to transcend divisive differences.


Robert Parker (Lansdale, PA) [Dr. Richard Hark]
Synthesis and Mass Spectrometry of Differentially Deuterated tribenzylpyrogallol
The fragmentation of tribenzylpyrogallol in a sodium environment by electrospray mass spectrometry results in what is presumed to be the rapid loss of two of the adjacent benzyl groups to form a stable ortho-quinone structure. In order to confirm the putative mechanism we required differentially deuterated tribenzylpyrogallol derivatives. Addition of benzyl bromide to pyrogallol in the presence of K2CO3 in DMF at 100°C gave ~60% isolated yield of a mixture of pyrogallol benzylated at the 1- and 2-positions (1:8) that could be separated by chromatography. In order to understand the preference for substitution at the 2-position and optimize the yield of the corresponding 2-benzylated product the base, solvent and reaction temperature were varied. Addition of d2- and d7-benzyl bromide afforded the desired deuterated tribenzylpyrogallol compounds. Characterization of these compounds via GC-MS and 1H and 13C NMR and possible reasons for the regiochemical preference in the substitution reaction will be presented.


Jonathan Partsch (Salix, Pennsylvania) [Chris Grant and Norris Muth]
Eastern Hemlock Needle Drop and the Nitrogen Leached to Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems as a Result of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid and Hemlock Scale
The Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock), Pennsylvania's state tree, is an important foundation species which supports hundreds of organisms. Adelges tsugae (Hemlock Woolly Adelgid) has caused significant mortality of Hemlock in the eastern U. S. causing needle loss, which store large quantities of ammonia. An increase in nutrients to the environment, primarily nitrogen, could lead to eutrophication and higher growth rates. A previous study by an ecosystem quality class at Juniata College showed a positive correlation between Hemlock litterfall and concentrations of decomposed nitrogen (P = 0.014) in stream water. It is unknown how much nitrogen Hemlock needless release into the water and the relation between hemlock health and nitrogen soil concentration is poorly understood. This study examined the nitrogen leached from Hemlock needles as well as soil nitrogen concentrations. An immediate influx of nitrogen into the aquatic environment and a delayed increase in soil nitrogen is expected.


Elliott Perow (Huntingdon, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Chris Grant]
Morphological Changes in Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook Trout) Exposed to Mercury
Methyl-Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that bioaccumulates and biomagnifies throughout aquatic food webs. Fish accumulate the majority of methyl-mercury from dietary intake which can have detrimental impacts on the brain, liver, kidney, spleen and gonads. Salvelinus fontinalis is an indicator species; therefore, it can reveal the effects of rising environmental mercury concentrations due to anthropogenic activities. Here, we examine whether there is a correlation between Hg concentrations and (1)somatic indices of the liver, spleen and gonads and (2) the potential foraging behavior of the fish, which was derived using morphometric measurements of caudal peduncle depth and maximum caudal fin height. Mercury analysis of the muscle tissue and organs did not show any correlation to somatic indices. These preliminary results suggest that current levels of mercury in the environment are too low at this time to induce any morphological changes in organs and will provide the baseline for future years. While there was no correlation between mass of stomach contents and (1) caudal peduncle depth and (2) maximum caudal fin height, there was a negative correlation between mercury concentrations and caudal peduncle depth. Fish with smaller peduncle depth are more likely to inhabit high velocity waters and are potentially more aggressive feeders, therefore, accumulating more mercury from their diet than those that are more passive feeders.


Elena Popchock (Newport, PA) [Dr. James Tuten]
Burying the Dead, as well as a Memory: Media Coverage of the Augusta, Georgia Race Riot, May 1970
On May 11, 1970, seven days after the Kent State tragedy, racial tensions exploded in the city of Augusta, Georgia. Frustrated, downtrodden blacks, discouraged by the lack of substantive communication between the races and disheartened by unfair living situations, unleashed their anger on the unprepared city. Once the rioting had ceased, six black men lay dead. Despite the extent of violence and devastation, the Augusta, Georgia race riot has nearly been forgotten to history. With civil rights downgraded to a secondary issue after the 1960s, the Vietnam War took precedence in the national mindset. The mainstream media reflected this trend, both within Augusta and across the nation, perpetuating the city's race problem and focusing on the issues deemed more relevant. This story of racial unrest almost exclusively remained in the underground and African American press, gathering limited attention in the mainstream press. Thus, the Augusta, Georgia race riot failed to secure a place in history, shining a light on the media's powerful influence on the construction of historical memory.


Alexis Powell (Crofton, MD) [Jack Barlow]
The History and Reality of the Catalan Independence Movement
Catalan independence has been an issue since the War of Succession in 1714 when Catalonia lost its ability to self govern. The region has gone through periods of intense persecution of their culture and government, but also periods where they were given more freedoms. Much of the social reasons for independence spawn from the Romantic Movement, of the "Catalan Renaissance" which occurred in the 19th century. The movement has gained more momentum with the recent economic crisis because the Catalan people believe that the Spanish government is treating them unfairly and is the ultimate root of their economic woes. The Catalan government is taking extreme measures such as introducing a Declaration of Sovereignty and planning for a referendum on independence to show how serious it is about severing ties with the central government. Neither the Spanish government nor the European community are not responding to their actions very positively.
While Catalonia has an extremely rich history and culture separate from that of Spain, it is not feasible for them to become independent with the current global economic crisis. Without the economic support of Spain and the European Union, Catalonia will suffer immensely and be worse off in the long run.


Rachel Reimer (Altoona, PA) |Ian Darby-Blairs Mills, PA|Mingwei Song-Chengdu, P.R. China [Dr. Phil Dunwoody]
Measuring Discipline-Specific Critical Thinking in Psychology
Our study attempts to measure discipline-specific critical thinking abilities in psychology. Scores on our homegrown measure, the Psychological Critical Thinking Inventory, are correlated with those on the Collegiate Learning Assessment and the Psychology Area Concentration Achievement Test. Overall, the senior capstone scores were significantly greater than the scores of freshmen enrolled in Introduction to Psychology. In addition, students showed significant improvement from pre- to post-test in a Research Methods in Psychology course. In conclusion, our findings show that our new measure can detect differences between freshman and seniors, as well as pre-post differences within a course.


Brandon Reis (New York City, New York) |Monae Dewitt-, |Anastasia Pepelyaeva-, |Robert Parker-, [Lynn Cockett]
Gender in Intimate and Casual Touch
In this study, we wanted to study gender touch specific to how it relates to communication within interpersonal relationships. Specifically: who do we let touch us and where/how often? Using an online survey, survey-takers chose from a list of individuals who they would allow to touch them in a specific part of the body. Dividing the body into parts, we designated each area as intimate or nonintimate places to be touched. From our data run through multiple T-tests, our findings displayed that males allow opposite sex strangers and same sex friends to touch them in intimate areas more often rather than females. However, in relation to nonintimate areas of the body, there were no significant differences between males and females.


Joel Rhodes (Huntingdon, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Johnson]
Visual Representation of Salt and Freshwater Interfaces of an Irish Lagoon
Baseline data was collected for a coastal salt marsh lagoon in County Kerry, Ireland in order to examine the interactions of salt and freshwater interfaces at different tidal levels. The research took place at the Lauragh Lagoon in July of 2012 with the assistance of the School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Sciences at the University College Cork to aid the Irish EPA in response to the European Union Water Framework Directive. The EU Habitats Directive designated coastal lagoons as Special Areas of Conservation and under the Water Framework Directive; all bodies of water must achieve "good status" for water quality by 2015. Nearly no data had been collected for the Lauragh Lagoon prior to 2012. Salinity was sampled at 10 locations from end to end of the lagoon at 50 centimeter intervals in order to establish salt water extent throughout the lagoon at different tidal heights. The four salinity data sets proved that the salt water intruded the entire footprint of the lagoon during high tide. Flora and Fauna was also sampled to determine if the lagoon served as habitat for lagoon specialist species which would require further protection under the Habitats Directive, but the results did not confirm any specialist species.


Gabriella Ricciardi (Massapequa , New York) [Belle Tuten]
The History Room



Chesney Richter (Pueblo, CO) [Richard Hark]
The Analysis of Cumin Spice Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a straightforward atomic emission spectroscopic technique that provides a chemical fingerprint of a sample rapidly and with minimal sample preparation. It has increasingly been applied to the analysis and provenance verification of food. This is possible because the elemental composition of plant materials reflect the elemental composition of the soil in which the plant was grown. The purpose of this study was to analyze cumin spice grown in four different countries to determine if the geographic origin of cumin can be predicted from its elemental composition. Provenance verification is important because a spice's price is linked to its geographic origin. Calibration curves were built using five NIST standards to define the relationship between the LIBS line intensities and concentration of the elements of interest. A previous study of cumin obtained from the same four countries used wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) and identified eight elements (Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Na, Zn, Sr, and Mn) that were statistically different among the geographic regions. These were used to build a model with 87.5% accuracy in correctly predicting the cumin's origin. Using LIBS spectra, a similar predictive model based on these eight elements was built and compared to the accuracy of the WDXRF model. Two pattern recognition models?"principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares?"discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)?"were used to identify those elements that account for the greatest amount of variation among the geographic regions. Because of its in situ analysis capabilities, LIBS could provide an efficient means of provenance verification and prevent the adulteration or misidentification of spices, which would be both economically beneficial to spice companies and build consumer trust.


Sarah Rodgers (Johnstown, Pennsylvania) [James Roney]
Literary Visions of the Russian Folk
Russian literature of the nineteenth century written by the educated upper class often addressed the lives of the Russian peasants, who were still under what amounted to feudal rule until 1861. The newly socially conscious members of the Russian intelligentsia were inspired by a variety of factors that included the peasant soldiers' role in the Napoleonic Wars, a backlash against the European ideals brought into Russia by Peter the Great, and a desire to relocate the true Russian soul within the folk elements of the Russian populace, or the narod. Russian authors frequently looked to the peasants and the Cossacks for this pure vision of the Russian soul; however, this frequently dehumanized the portrayed groups by painting an idealized portrait of them. Authors also frequently engaged in social criticism of the conditions in which these people lived, which was accompanied by a general stylistic shift towards realism. In this presentation, I will discuss Nikolai Gogol's conservative, romantic portrayal of the Cossacks within his folktales, Ivan Turgenev's liberal realist portrayal of the peasantry, and Anton Chekhov's diagnostic social criticism and how they shaped the public's perception of the narod.


Travis Russell (Martinsburg, Pennsylvania) |Mikaela Sloan-State College, Pennsylvania [Roy D. Nagle]
Overwintering Ecology of Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina) at the Raystown Field Station
For the second consecutive year, we continued our study of the overwintering ecology of box turtles (Terrapene carolina) at Juniata's Raystown Field Station. We used radio telemetry to track the movements of three adult T. carolina in relation to overwintering sites. GIS was used to plot movements and overwintering locations on an aerial map. Temperature datalogger probes were placed against the plastron of each animal to monitor the thermal environments experienced by turtles. All turtles entered overwintering sites before 16 November 2012 and exited them after 1 April 2013. Cold temperatures and substantial snowfall characterized the past winter, yet turtle overwintering depths were intermediate compared to those observed during the previous mild winter. We report patterns of turtle body temperatures associated with spring emergence. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the natural history of T. carolina and may support conservation management plans.


Nathan Salamone (Easton, Pennsylvania) [Sarah DeHaas]
Does the Khan Academy Bloom? : A Critical Analysis of the Khan Academy.
Since 2008, the Khan Academy, an online educational database, has posted academic tutorials and interactive assignments in the hope students will learn through the website. Despite the best wishes and planning of the site's creator Salaman Khan, the site has not been formally assessed on any form of educational pedagogy or framework. Using Bloom's Taxonomy, a universally accepted model in educational learning objectives, I analyzed a stratified sample of Khan's tutorials.

My conclusion is that the resources posted by The Khan Academy vary in effective teaching methods based on Bloom's Taxonomy. While some videos meet some requirements, none fulfill all of Bloom's standards. To make matters worse, Khan commits serious educational and technological flaws with his tutorials that impact the education he is attempting to instill in his students.

In my presentation I will explain the basics of the Khan Academy along with Bloom's Taxonomy, share my analysis of Khan's tutorials according to best practice, and discuss the impact the videos could have on the educational world.


Jessica Scales (Westerly, Rhode Island) [Dr. Jill Keeney]
Identifying Host Regulators of Ty1 Transposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Ty1, a retrovirus-like retrotransposon, undergoes replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by relying on host proteins. The mobile element, similar to the HIV retrovirus, can be assayed by utilizing either an endogenous element or a galactose inducible promoter located on a plasmid (pGTy1). The host gene RTT105 has been identified to regulate Ty1 retrotransposition in S. cerevisiae, promoting Ty1 mobility in the galactose-induced assay, but inhibiting endogenous Ty1 mobility. Another host gene, ERE2,has been found to share a similar phenotype to that of RTT105. The novel WD40-domain protein is responsible for endosomal recycling within the retromer pathway. Prior studies suggest a link between Ere2 and Ty1 transposition. With the use of deconvolution fluorescent microscopy, examination of Ty1 Gag-foci in ere2 cells reveals that in the absence of Ere2, Ty1 Gag-foci form congregations towards the plasma membrane and linear patterns across the cell. Deletion of rtt105 negatively impacts the quantity of foci per cell, but not location. Fluorescently tagged TyA does not colocalize with Ere2. These results suggest a possible relationship between RTT105 and ERE2, prompting construction of a double gene deletion to assay for Ty1 mobility.


Khine Sein (Yangon, Myanmar) [Kathleen Jones]
Hidden Danger in the Water
Water is an essential molecule for almost all living organisms. It is impossible for people to live without fresh water for even a day, yet our water supply poses a threat because chemicals and germs in the water can enter the human body very easily. Our bodies are susceptible to all the chemicals that we are exposed to, and we always have reactions to these toxins, even when they are present in trace amounts. These chemicals affect human health after long-term exposure from washing/showering and consumption of drinking water. Drinking water quality has been backsliding and in February 2011, President Barack Obama announced that drinking water needs to be regulated more strictly due to several carcinogens and toxins present in the water, which pose a significant health risk. Despite the fact that the chemicals detected in our water are within the legal limit, most studies have shown that millions of Americans are becoming sick. It can now be proven that various contaminants in water are often associated with increased incidences of disease.


Benjamin Sexton (Richmond, IN) |Laetitia My-Lille, France|Rob Strauss-Verona, PA [Lynn Cockett]
Gender and Proxemics in Academic Environments
Our research question we expected to answer was whether or not gender affected human proximity in an academic environment. We hypothesized that women will sit closest in a women-women dyad, as opposed to another gender combination. To collect the data, we performed an observational study in various academic buildings on the campus of Juniata College. In the collection process, we first measured how far away pairs of people were from each other. We logged their sitting arrangement, relationship, and gender. Our results showed no significant correlation between any of the tested variables. We had small correlations between female-female pairs sitting closer to each other, but our tests did not generate enough subjects and differences to make a concrete correlation. From our study, we learned that fixed objects play a large role in proxemics. We also found that women-women pairs showed small signs of sitting closer, but we didn't produce enough evidence to say so definitely.


Angela Shaffer (Prospect, PA) [Dr. Grant and Dr.Muth]
Determination of abundance and ratio of hemlock woolly adelgid and elongate hemlock scale on decline of eastern hemlocks
Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is a very important tree species to eastern North American ecosystems. Hemlock forests create unique microcosms that provide many organisms, including brook and brown trout, with suitable habitat. Unfortunately hemlocks have recently been plagued by introduced insects such as Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (HWA) and Elongate Hemlock Scale (EHS). Though EHS does not appear to be very common in central PA, HWA has been found at every site we have visited in our region. Here we seek to examine the relationships between abundance of HWA and overall hemlock forest health. We accomplish this by estimating HWA abundance and a variety of previously measured hemlock forest health indicators including uncompacted live crown ratios and canopy densities. Through these methods, we hope to gain a better understanding of the effect of HWA on eastern hemlocks and their possible impacts on associated high-ecological value species and habitats.


Hannah Shultz (Baltimore, Maryland) [Hannah Bellwoar]
Intimately Inseparable
This essay is about the authors struggle to understand her relationship with her twin sister, as they learn to accept each other's differences no matter what comes between them.


Alexander Sickler (Edwardsville, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Buonaccorsi]
Genome Annotation of Two Pacific Rockfishes Differing in Longevity
The flag rockfish (Sebastes rubrivinctus) and the tiger rockfish (Sebastes nigrocinctus) are an example of sister species where one species expresses negligible senescence and the other does not. To assess the underlying conditions causing negligible senescence, both genomes were annotated using the Maker2 Annotation Pipeline. The Maker Annotation Pipeline combines the output of gene predictions from DNA sequence data and external evidence such as mRNA and protein sequences. The various programs that Maker combines to produce annotations were optimized for use on rockfish and were then used within the Maker pipeline to independently annotate each genome. After each genome was annotated, the quality of each annotation was determined intrinsically by determining the distance between each annotation and the evidence that was provided and extrinsically by comparing the annotations from each organism to the other. The genomes and the annotations were then compared with each other and the closest related model-organism the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).


Goran Skinder (New Holland, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Celia Cook-Huffman]
Intergenerational Inquiry into the place and identity of the displaced Yugoslav community
Each year families are torn apart by war and forced to leave their countries in an attempt to start a new life in new countries. Currently, there is extensive literature on trans-nationalism, immigrant identity, and forced immigration. However, none of the literature dives into the effects forced immigration has had on the displaced Yugoslav people who were forced out of their country in an attempt to avoid war. By looking at families from former Yugoslavia displaced by the 1992-95 war, this study will deepen an academic understanding of the effects of forced immigration on immediate and extended family members. Families attempt to integrate themselves into host cultures in many different ways. This study uses a qualitative research design to explore how participants understand the process of assimilating into Western culture and how this process may impact personal identities. Using in-depth interviews as a qualitative research tool, this study will help answer how Yugoslav immigrants who were forced to leave their home country navigate the process of living in a new culture, specifically the US. This study also explores the different strategies for integration among younger and older immigrants and how they differentiate from one another.
Ultimately, the study will provide new perspectives on immigrant identity by using family members from the former Yugoslavia as catalysts in this research.


Nathan Smith (York, PA) [Dr. Jill Keeney]
Studying Ty Elements in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto Genus
Yeast species belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto genus serve as important eukaryotic model organisms. They have simple, easily manipulated genomes and can be grown quickly with relative ease, making them ideal for genetics research. As whole genomes have been mapped for many of these species, they are also valuable tools for comparative and evolutionary genomics. Traditionally S. cerevisiae, commonly known as bakers' yeast, has been the focus of genetic studies. The retroelements of S. cerevisiae include the Ty group of retroelements, the most common being Ty1. Ty1 is of interest to scientific and biomedical researchers because its lifecycle has many similarities to those of retroviruses like HIV.

This project seeks to use a combination of standard genetics experimental approaches and bioinformatics techniques to analyze homologs of Ty1 in four yeast species closely related to S. cerevisiae: S. bayanus, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, and S. paradoxus. This research could lead to an increased understanding of the lifecycle of Ty1, which ultimately has the potential to reveal new insights about retroviruses like HIV.


Rachel Smith (Baltimore, MD) |Dane Azeles-, |Schuyler Beauvais-Nikl-, |Hannah Breen-, |Jacqueline Bryers-, |Patrick Cassidy-, |Michael Figart-, |Rudy Fusco-, |Corey Lacey-, |Katelynn Maley-, |Erika McKissick-, |Lewis Nash-, |Kayci Nelson-, |Sarah Rice-, |David Saintz-, |Catherine Scholl-, |Miranda Wales-, |Justin Wiand-, |Rachel C. Smith-Baltimore , MD [Dr. Judy Katz]
Studies in American Slave Narratives
To be submitted before due date.
Please note that the student sponsor is RACHEL C. SMITH, not to be confused with another student named Rachel Smith!


Vincent Smith (Mars, PA) |Wei-Chung Wang-, Taiwan [Wei-Chung Wang]
Marketing Strategies for Kdan Mobile
Our presentation investigates the price elasticity of demand for two mobile applications developed by Kdan Mobile, a mobile software development company based out of Taiwan. We analyze how changes in price effected the number of daily downloads for Animation Desk, a drawing/ animation app, and PDF Connoisseur, a business productivity app.

We will find out if the nature of the app (Animation Desk focusing more on entertainment while PDF Connoisseur is business oriented) has an effect on how elastic demand will be to changes in price. This will be determined by analyzing the average number of daily downloads for each app, at each price the apps cost, in 2011 and 2012.

We will also determine the effectiveness of all promotions run by Kdan Mobile during this time. Promotions will be defined as special events attended by Kdan such as trade shows, as well as temporary reductions in price where the price eventually returns to the original level. We will uncover what percent of total downloads occurred during each promotion, to find out which promotions lead to more downloads.


Caroline Solomon (Frederick, Maryland) [Regina Lamendella]
The Response of Freshwater Aquatic Microbial Communities to Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction
Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction has increased dramatically in Pennsylvania over the past six years. Due to accelerating exploration rates, the combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing may potentially lead to environmental pollution through a variety of pathways. Because microbial communities can shift dramatically in response to changes in environmental parameters, they can be used as biomarkers to assess ensuing environmental threats. The purpose of our study is to compare the microbial community structure of Marcellus Shale impacted and non-impacted headwater stream ecosystems. Water, sediment, bryophyte, and biofilm samples were collected from 26 forested headwater streams and genomic DNA was extracted from a total of 59 samples. In order to determine bacterial community structure, 16S rRNA gene libraries were created and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq Platform. Metadata including stream temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, total dissolved solids, and dissolved and particulate total and methyl mercury were collected from each site. Additionally, biodiversity information has been collected using macroinvertabrates and Salvelinus fontinalis brook trout. Approximately 4.5 million, 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed using the QIIME. Alpha and beta diversity statistics, and multivariate statistics showed significant changes in abiotic parameters, including pH and temperature in sites impacted by documented spills and contamination events. Pearson correlation of abiotic parameters to microbial community structure showed that pH was the most highly correlated factor to microbial community structure. Microbial community structure was statistically significantly different between impacted and non-impacted sites. For example, changes in Methanobacterium, Magnetospirillum, and Sterolibacterium spp. correlate with samples collected from watersheds potentially impacted by fracking activities. To our knowledge, the response of microbial communities to natural gas exploration in the Marcellus Shale formation has not yet been studied. Our data suggest that by studying bacterial shifts in response to natural gas extraction we can identify bacterial groups relevant to environmental remediation and long-term environmental stewardship.


Adam Steele (Huntingdon, PA) |Kathryn L Finkenbinder-, |Alexander J Heicher-, |Brandon J Felus-, [William Thomas]
HCVB - Digital Signage Opportunity
The purpose of the software needed by HCVB is to deliver user generate digital signage to designated screens using a PC and HDMI hook up. The software product needs to be free and a password protected web-based interface. Software needs to be able to deliver slick digital signage with a variety of content including live RSS feeds for weather and Twitter, YouTube videos, images including PDFs. The software needs a user-friendly interface where designating signage locations and presentations schedules are easily changeable.


Cameron Stevens (James Creek, PA) [John Unger]
Synthesizing vinyl azides through a transition metal-catalyzed coupling of vinyl triflates and metal azides
Organic azides are recognized for their use as reactive synthetic intermediates as well their function as energetic compounds. It is due to this second property perhaps that methods that afford organic azides have seen limited development and can suffer from lower yields. Our research aims to access vinyl azides through a mild transition metal-catalyzed coupling of easily accessed vinyl triflates with a metal azide. The optimization of this method will employ Palladium catalysis and include an investigation into several catalytic and stoichiometric metal azide sources.


Darcy Stock (Kreamer, Pennsylvania) |Emily Rowley-, [Amy Frazier-Yoder]
Metaficción en español
Metafiction is a mode of opaque language in that only the surface value is available, while the inner structure is not viewable.


Hay que dar una definición básico de lo que es la metaficción y dar unos ejemplos de elementos comunes en este modo de ficción. Primero, hay momentos metaficticios como dice Patricia Waugh es cuando el lector se da cuenta de que lo que está leyendo es una ficción. Robert Alter tiene una definición muy similar de la de Waugh y dice que la novela autoconciente es una que "systematicallly flaunts its own condition of artifice and by so doing probes into the problematic relationship between real-seeming artifice and reality." Esto quiere decir que una novela autoconciente o metaficticio es una en que la ficción no esconde el hecho de que es ficción sino que llama atención a esto. También quiere decir que por eso este tipo de ficción examina la relación entre lo que es la realidad y una ficción que parece que es la realidad. Waugh también dice que una cosa que hace la metaficción es estudiar la construcción de la vida real. Estas cosas en mi opinión son las más esenciales para una obra de metaficción. Una obra no tiene que contener todas estas cosas pero por lo menos tiene que tener uno.


Cara Stough (Friendsville, Maryland) [Dr. Baran]
Metallic Complexes of Phenolics in Wine
The chemical composition of wine is complex and contains a vast array of metallic ions and complex phenolic compounds, which affect the organoleptic properties and overall perception of the wine. The study of the effects of complexation between metals and phenolics present in wine and analysis and speciation of these complexes was the main objective of the study as well as to understand the equilibrium conditions of these compounds found in the wine matrix. While it is known that metal complexes exist within wine, the exact species are unknown, Organic compounds which act as ligands bind to metallic ions present in the wine matrix. The ligands used in the research were the flavanone Naringenin and hesperidin methyl chalcone, both of which occur naturally in wine. Complexation reactions of Naringenin with different cupric salts were studied in different solvents (such as acetone and ethanol), and under different ratios (1:1 and 2:1 ligand to metal). Obtained solid products were isolated and analyzed. The results of the compositions of the formed complexes and their spectroscopic studies obtained using IR spectroscopy will be discussed.


Charles Strasser (Asbury, New Jersey) |Kelly Russo-San Luis Obispo, California|Devin Apple-Lancaster, Pennsylvania [Chuck Yohn]
Assessment of Raystown Lake for Migratory Waterfowl
We examined reported bird observations at Bald Eagle Lake and Raystown Lake in central Pennsylvania in January, February, and March of 2013 to assess Raystown's relative value as winter waterfowl habitat. We compared abundance of dabbling ducks, diving ducks, gulls, loons and grebes, geese and swans, kingfishers, and raptors between the two lakes by harvesting observation checklists from eBird as well as conducting 18 waterbird surveys on Raystown Lake. Species richness at Raystown (January: 5.6 ± 1.6; March: 6.8 ± 2.6) did not differ significantly from Bald Eagle Lake (January: 6.6 ± 3.1; March: 6.6 ± 5.1) during January and March. However, in February, richness at Bald Eagle (8.1 ± 4.1) was significantly greater that at Raystown (4.7 ± 2.7) (U=19, n1=21, n2=5, p=0.028). Species abundance at Raystown (65.6 ± 16.7) was significantly lower during all three months that that at Bald Eagle (208.2 ± 77.1) (U<0.001, n1=3, n2=3, p=0.05). Overall, both lakes showed high variability in both abundance and richness of all groups. Visitors will generally observe the same species at Raystown as at Bald Eagle but will observe greater numbers of those species at Bald Eagle.


Rebecca Strohm (Rochester, NY) [Dr. Neil Pelkey]
Livelihoods of Pondicherry, India Fishing Villages- A Comparative Study
The fishing sector in India employs 3.15 million individuals. Fisheries are a vulnerable sector for employment due to overexploitation of fish populations, competition from commercial, mechanized boats and social isolation. The lack of alternative occupations allows for little escape from poverty. Eleven Pondicherry fishing villages in southeast India were surveyed concerning boat and house ownership to determine an overall picture of wealth. Data was compared to a household survey completed in 2008 to one in 2012. It was found that a significant amount of fishermen were moving out of the fisheries sector to outside occupations, denoting a change in traditional livelihood strategies of fishing villages. Broader research should be done to understand the future of fisheries and the livelihoods of those in the fishing villages across India.


Rebecca Strohm (Penfield, NY) |Rachel Walman-Pittsburgh, PA|Matthew Lear-Altoona, PA|Christian Wilkins-China, ME|Raymond Starmack-New Castle, PA|George Schwaderer-Cresson, PA|Chuck Sedor-Cranbury, NJ|Dale Motley-Seltzer, PA [Dr. Dennis Johnson]
Senior Capstone A
The Kennedy and Miller Run watersheds lie in southern Huntingdon County. Impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD), the watersheds have undergone numerous remediation attempts via eight passive treatment systems constructed by the Shoup's Run Watershed Association. While ongoing data collection has yielded information concerning water quality improvement, geospatial analysis has not been previously completed. Using geographic information systems (GIS), the Kennedy and Miller watersheds were created using digital elevation models. These watersheds were then evaluated via the software program ArcGIS to gain a better understanding of the topography. Additionally, the Yellow Branch watershed, a small system where macroinvetebrates were collected and transferred to the AMD-impacted sites in Kennedy and Miller Run, was similarly mapped and evaluated. Analyses of the three watersheds was used in conjunction with a water-quality analysis of the streams and will be used in future remediation projects completed by Juniata College students.


Rebecca Strohm (Penfield, NY) |Rachel Walman-Pittsburgh, PA|Matthew Lear-Altoona , PA|Raymond Starmack-New Castle, PA|Chuck Sedor-Cranbury, NJ|Christian Wilkens-China, ME|George Schwaderer-Cresson, PA|Dale Motley-Seltzer, PA [Dr. Dennis Johnson]
Senior Capstone B



Nathan Strom (Ebensburg, PA) [Dr. Peter Baran]
On Synthesis of Single Molecule Magnets Using Aromatic Amine N-Oxide Ligands
Single molecule magnets (SMMs) are molecules that contain several transition metals and show a slow relaxation of magnetization at low temperatures, they also show magnetic hysteresis.1 Single molecule magnets also depend on the type of ligands that are used, they must be able to connect the metal ions and they must be able to make a finite molecule. This is going to be done by the creation of novel lignads, by oxidation of pyridazine and pyrazole. The complete oxidation of pyridazine and pyrazole has never been accomplished using usual oxidizing agents such as peroxides, permanganates, or chromates. Only mono N-oxides of unsubstituted pyridazine and pyrazole have been reported. The HOF??CH3CN complex, that demonstrated the ability to completely oxidize 1,10-phenantroline to 1,10-phenanthroline N,N?-dioxide2 was therefore chosen as the oxidizing agent. Pyridazine N,N?-dioxide and pyrazole N-hydroxide, N?-oxide were isolated when HOF??CH3CN was used as the oxidizing agent. The new organic compounds that are promising ligands in coordination chemistry were characterized using IR, GCMS, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography. The pyridazine dioxide was then complexed with CuCl2. IR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography were used to study the composition of the complex.

1. Gatteschi, D; J Alloys Compd 2001, 317-318, 8
2. S. Rozen, S. Dayan, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1999, 38, 3471.


Steven Strutt (Ellwood City, PA) [Gina Lamendella]
Metatranscriptomics of Beach Microbial Community Response to the Deepwater Horizon Spill
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was an environmental disaster. One of the major environmental concerns was the ecological impact of the oil that reached regions of the Gulf Coast. Here we aimed to determine the temporal response of microbial communities to the oil originating from the Deepwater Horizon spill on a heavily impacted beach in Grand Isle, Louisiana by pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. RNA was also extracted from the samples and sequenced to determine which microbial populations were active and which functional pathways were expressed. The combined sequence data revealed a rapid response of the beach microbial community to oil contaminants, including prevalence of bacteria endowed with the functional capacity to degrade oil. Functional analysis metatranscriptomic reads included mapping of annotated, assembled reads to hydrocarbon degradation pathways. Metatranscriptomic and 16S rRNA gene data reveals that members of the Proteobacteria responded heavily to oil influx in the environment and were active in oil degradation. Transcriptomes mapped best to Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, an organism with known hydrocarbon degradation potential. Further understanding of in situ hydrocarbon degradation will contribute to bioremediation approaches in costal communities impacted by offshore oil spills.


Elizabeth Sunde (Farmingdale, New York) [Karen Rosell]
Shifting Between Opposites: Fashion's Construction of Androgyny
Fashion is, and always has been, one of the most effective ways to visually express gender, and the techniques by which this is done have changed over time. Since the Italian Renaissance, people have been fascinated by masculinizing feminine bodies, and this continues even through contemporary high fashion, where fashion designers use certain elements, such as accessories and the silhouette, to construct the visual gender of their models. From Sofanisba Anguissola's construction of herself as masculine, yet simultaneously appropriately feminine, to Rosa Bonheur who created a masculine image for herself to be more comfortable in her work, to Claude Cahun who assumed various gender roles but always seemed most comfortable in gender neutrality, androgyny can be constructed in many different ways.

This thesis will explore the progression of different techniques of androgyny construction through fashion in Europe and the United States, beginning with Sofanisba Anguissola in the Italian Renaissance and ending with contemporary high fashion designers and their runway shows. Androgynous female bodies, such as the way Rosa Bonheur painted herself, were often dressed in clothes designed specifically for men. Claude Cahun capitalized on the ambiguity of her face and masculine clothing to create a gender neutral image, whereas contemporary high fashion designers combine traditionally masculine and feminine elements to create an image that transcends conventional gender expectations.


Meghan Swavely (Hummelstown, PA) [Henry Thurston-Griswald]
El Trabajo Social en España



Eleri Syverson (Silver Spring, Maryland) [Donna Weimer]
LOL: An Examination of Humor, Gender, and Computer-Mediated Communication
This study presents an examination of the available literature on humor in computer-mediated communication and a unique investigation of humor as it occurs in CMC. Using data collected from Twitter messages of the three most followed female comedians, this study examines how humor is communicated in CMC and how the presented identity of the sender affects the attempted message. Specifically, this study seeks to provide an examination of the unique aspects of studying humor specifically in CMC, such as the absence of nonverbal cues which normally occur in face-to-face communication and the frequent appearance of substitutes for these cues, both in initial communication and indications of mis- or nonunderstanding. Secondarily, it looks at gender differences in how humor is communicated.


Eleri Syverson (Silver Spring, MD) [Donna Weimer]
An Examination of Humor, Gender, and Computer-Mediated Communication
This study presents an examination of the available literature on humor in computer-mediated communication and a unique investigation of humor as it occurs in CMC. Using data collected from Twitter messages of the three most followed female comedians, this study examines how humor is communicated in CMC and how the presented identity of the sender affects the attempted message. Specifically, this study seeks to provide an examination of the unique aspects of studying humor specifically in CMC, such as the absence of nonverbal cues which normally occur in face-to-face communication and the frequent appearance of substitutes for these cues, both in initial communication and indications of mis- or nonunderstanding. Secondarily, it looks at gender differences in how humor is communicated.


Katherine Tallman (Westminster, Maryland) [Henry Thurston-Griswold]
ETA y el terrorismo español
Esta presentación discute el origen, las metas y los efectos políticos y culturales de la organización terrorista ETA desde los últimos años de la dictadura de Francisco Franco en España. ETA, que significa <> en la lengua de los vascos, desea la independencia completa de España para la comunidad vasca y ha utilizado medios violentos en los intentos de lograr la independencia. A lo largo de su historia, ha sido responsable de la muerte de más de ochocientas personas. Ha sido descrito como un grupo terrorista por los gobiernos de varios países debido a sus ataques violentos. La opinión pública de los españoles ha cambiado desde su fundación en 1959 y continúa cambiando hasta el día de hoy. *Toda esta presentación es en español.


Benjamin Tansi (Wrentham, Massachusetts) [Dr. Baran]
Synthesis and Characterization of a Pyrophosphato-Bridged Cobalt(II) Complex
The synthesis of a pyrophosphato-bridged cobalt complex was attempted according to the method outlined by R.P.Doyle et al. in 2008. Sodium pyrophosphate and 1,10 phenanthroline were added to an aqueous solution of cobalt (II) sulfate heptahydrate and resulted in a peach precipitate. A diffusion crystallization yielded red-block crystals that were then analyzed by IR-spectroscopy.


Lauren Taylor (Marlton, New Jersey) |Jonathan Bogue-East Berlin, Pennsylvania [Dr. Pearson]
Applications of Transducers in Ultrasonic Imaging II



Kenyatta Thompson (Brooklyn, NY) [Hannah Bellwoar]
The Con
Fourteen chapters what it really means to break down and get back up again.


Kenyatta Thompson (Brooklyn, NY) [J. Mark McKellop]
Death Anxiety in Relation to Religiosity
Death anxiety refers to an unpleasant feeling or physiological reaction to the idea of death. Research in this area often inconsistent, as some state that those with religious affiliation often have less death anxiety than those without while others find that those without religious affiliation often have less anxiety than those with a religious affiliation. Much of this inconsistency could be directed to the lack of clear distinction between anxiety towards the state of death and anxiety towards the process of dying. Studies in this area have also yet to delve into the idea of death anxiety being a factor for an individual transitioning into a new religion. One purpose of this investigation is to deduce whether those with religious beliefs have lower death anxiety than those without or whether those without religious affiliation has less death anxiety than those with a religious affiliation. A second purpose is to decide whether individuals transitioning to a new religion have higher amounts of death anxiety than those with religious affiliation and those without religious affiliation. To test this, a questionnaire covering death anxiety with relation to religiosity is to be completed by 50 participants and due to our personal beliefs; we believe that death anxiety would be high among those without religious affiliations, but those transitioning to a new religion would have the highest amount of death anxiety.


Liza Thorson (Germantown, Wisconsin) [Dr. Jack Barlow]
Food Comes First
Food might not be the first thing that comes to mind when discussing the hottest political topics, but it is one of the most importants issues facing humans today. As Americans, we are no longer dying from starvation and the related diseases, instead we are on the opposite end of the spectrum, dying from obesity and those related diseases. The factors that contributed to this shift are social, economic, and political in nature. The decision to eat is biological, but the decision of what to eat is more complex. In order for someone to make the best nutritional choices, they need to have accurate information, and the information provided by the federal government might not only be inaccurate, but intentionally misleading.


Jessica Toot (New Oxford, Pennsylvania) |Elias Murphy-Poland, Maine [Dr. Ron McLaughlin]
Gender Bias in Prosecutorial Decision Making
Previous research on gender bias in crime prosecutions has found that men tend to be prosecuted more often and more harshly than women when being charged with the same offenses. The goal of our study was to determine whether college students would reveal bias against male offenders in statutory rape cases, and whether their level of religious commitment would correlate with how they felt a statutory rape case should be prosecuted. We administered four different types of surveys detailing a statutory rape incident, with the sex of the offender and the victim varying, and asked the participants how they would choose to prosecute the case. The participants then completed the RCI-10, an index of religious commitment. Our results showed that the participants showed no bias towards or against male perpetrators, nor was their level of religious commitment correlated with their choice of how harshly to prosecute the offender. When the victim was female, however, participants tended to prosecute the offender more harshly than if the victim were male or unknown, choosing to charge the perpetrator with a felony rather than a misdemeanor. This would seem to suggest that the participants feel more sympathy for female victims of statutory rape than male victims.


Sarah Trescher (Hummelstown, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Dunwoody]
Negative Attitudes Toward Hispanic Immigrants: Testing a Dual-Process Perspective
Hispanic immigration to the United States has become a salient topic over the last several decades because of the enormous influx of immigrants arriving to this country. Hispanics are the fastest growing minority in the United States and will likely become the majority in a few decades. Despite the large number of Hispanics living in the United States, they still face a large amount of prejudice and discrimination and subpar living situations. Research has shown that prejudice toward immigrants may be different for different people: people who are high in social dominance orientation (SDO) have been shown to have negative attitudes toward immigrants who do assimilate whereas people high in authoritarianism have been shown to have negative attitudes towards immigrants who do not assimilate into their new host culture. The current study attempts to replicate and extend previous research by applying it to Hispanic immigrants and testing mediating variables. The main hypothesis for the current study is that people high on SDO will be prejudice toward Hispanic immigrants because of a zero-sum belief but not because of assimilation or cultural threats. On the other hand, people high in authoritarianism will be prejudice toward immigrants because they do not assimilate into the host culture but not because of zero-sum beliefs. Initial data analysis shows a correlation between SDO and authoritarianism on prejudice. Statistics will be presented summarizing the relationship between zero-sum beliefs and SDO, and assimilation threat and authoritarianism as they apply toward policies relevant to Hispanic immigrants.


Ryan Trexler (Altoona, PA) [Dr. Regina Lamendella]
Potential effects of unconventional natural gas extraction on headwater stream microbial communities of Pennsylvania
Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction has increased dramatically in Pennsylvania over the past six years. Due to the alacrity of exploration and delay in regulation and monitoring, the combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing may lead to environmental pollution through a variety of pathways. Because microbial communities can shift dramatically in response to changes in environmental parameters, they can be used as biomarkers to assess ensuing environmental threats. The purpose of our study is to determine the potential shift in microbial community structure of headwater stream ecosystems found within Marcellus Shale impacted watersheds. In order to determine the members of the microbial community and their response to hydraulic fracturing inputs, we used high throughput Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene on the MiSeq platform. The QIIME pipeline has allowed us to analyze millions of sequences to assess the microbial changes associated with Marcellus Shale impacts. To date, we have identified significant changes in abiotic parameters, namely pH, in Marcellus impacted streams in comparison to non-impacted watersheds. We find that microbial community composition is matrix specific and that the sediment microbial community structures are different between impacted and non-impacted sites. With additional analysis, we expect to see a relationship between microbial community structures and abiotic perturbations. These findings suggest that Marcellus shale exploration may have an impact on aquatic microbial communities; however, additional research assessing community shifts over a temporal scale and metagenomic studies will be necessary. To our knowledge, the response of microbial communities to unconventional natural gas exploration in the Marcellus Shale Formation has not been studied. Thus, by identifying shifts in the microbial community structure in response to natural gas extraction, we can potentially highlight target organisms for the degradation of spills and pollution.


Zhonghong Tu (Chengdu, Sichuan China) |Jordan A Cheslock-Altoona, PA|Ethan D Nichols-Johnstown, PA|Amy E Miller-Chesapeake, VA [Thomas, William H]
I4I - MBG project poster
This project was to help a local business, Mutual Benefit Group, find a new solution for data recovery in the event of a disaster. The solution needs to provide server support for virtual, physical, and tape drives. In the event of a disaster (flood, fire, railroad collision), the servers and their data need to be available to MBG customers and agents even if the business is unreachable. Through research our team was able to create a scorecard and questionnaire to help aid in the decision making process. Categories such as pricing, licensing agreements, recovery point objective, and recovery time objective were extremely important in the scoring process. Conference calls with vendors allowed our team to give our recommendation to the client.


Zeljana Varga (Montpelier, Vermont) [Celia Cook-Huffman]
Exploring Concepts of Justice within the Bosnian Diaspora Community in the United States
Qualitative research exploring the concepts of justice within the Bosnian diaspora community in the United States.


Michela Vawter (Newton, MA) [Henry Thurston- Griswold]
España: el punto de entrada a Europa para la inmigración, el tráfico de drogas y el crimen organizado
Mi presentación se explore el uso histórico de España como una entrada a Europa para la inmigración y el comercio de narcóticos y sus efectos en la sociedad española. El aumento de la globalización en los últimos cien años ha causado una ola nueva del transporte ilegal de personas y mercancías. El país de España reside en la península más baja de Europa, directamente encima de la costa del norte de ?frica. Esta posición global hace de España un destino principal para acceder al resto de Europa para los que desean inmigrar ilegalmente o traficar drogas ilegales. Desde hace treinta años, España ha experimentado un aumento significativo en estas dos recreaciones y ha tenido un gran efecto sobre la economía, la cultura y la sociedad española en su conjunto. Este acontecimiento lleva muchas implicaciones sociales y políticas para España especialmente en términos de los cuestiones de la economía, la globalización y los asuntos internacionales.


Chelsea Veranis (Durham, Connecticut) [Alison Fletcher]
A New Home & New Identity: the Irish Migrant Experience in 19th Century New Zealand
Between the years 1860 and 1890, Irish migrants formed a new identity under New Zealand skies. The choice to migrate to New Zealand may have been difficult, but this thesis argues that Irish migrants easily transitioned into a new life and new identity. Assisted and nominated passages allowed Irish migrants, regardless of class or religion, to escape from the restrictive class system, poverty, lack of employment, and British control of Irish land. New Zealand proved to be a rewarding choice?"generous lots of land, employment opportunities, and access to political positions provided a chance for Irish migrants to participate in and influence the economic and political life in their new home. Their new, hybrid identity contained a strong sense of Irish nationalism?"which influenced their approach to New Zealand politics?"and shaped their response to their new surroundings. During the New Zealand Land Wars, Irish migrants, who had previously suffered oppression at the hands of the British, identified with the M?ori, viewing them as a "kind of Celt" to be respected through Irish nationalist eyes.


Nancy Vooys (Mt. Holly Springs, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Kathy Westcott]
Attendance at Cultural Events: Exploring the relationship to social identity
Student involvement in extra-curricular activities at higher education institutions has been shown to be an important factor in determining student adjustment to the college campus and new learning environment (Tieu et al., 2009). Higher levels of participation in educationally purposeful campus activities have provided students with higher perceived sense of campus community in terms of teaching and learning, history and tradition, and diversity and acceptance (Elkins, Forrester, & Noel-Elkins, 2011). To build a strong sense of community, Elkins et al. (2011) found that a connection between academic activities and extra-curricular activities must exist. The current study has examined the association between student participation and attendance at cultural events, like fine arts performances and public lectures, on measures of social identification with the higher education institution. Participants were first-year students enrolled in the College Writing Seminar in the Fall 2010 semester. For this course, students participated in orientation lab groups that were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) no required cultural event attendance, 2) five required cultural event, and 3) five required cultural events from an abbreviated list including only fine arts performances and art exhibits. Data were collected through emailed computer survey questionnaires sent in the Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Spring 2012 semesters which asked for demographic information regarding gender, athletic participation, and declared major of study. Additionally, the survey asked for information regarding social identity and cultural event attendance, and information regarding retention status and first year GPA. The current study analyzed survey questionnaire information from 46 student participants. Although the results of this research have yet to be analyzed, based on the background research, we hypothesized that the students who participated in and attended more cultural events would report stronger sense of community and higher scores on measures of social identity.


Andrea Waksmunski (Northern Cambria, Pennsylvania) [Kathleen Jones]
No Ailment Should Be Left Behind...or Ignored
A child without parents is deemed an orphan. A disease or disorder that is rare and under-researched is also an orphan. These rare diseases can be life-altering and even fatal, but no one is aware of them. Orphan illnesses may not affect many people, but they can drastically affect the lives of those who have an orphan illness and their families. I personally know individuals who have incurable orphan disorders, like phenylketonuria and Angelman syndrome, and how much it has affected their families. While there have been improvements in overall public awareness of rare diseases, governments should increase funding for research in orphan diseases and disorders because no ailment should be left behind or ignored.


Michael Walker (Homer City, PA) [Jack Barlow]
Does democracy facilitate better education? The case of sub-Saharan Africa
This research examines the relationship between democracies, or governments with democratic institutions, and public education expenditure in sub-Saharan Africa. If a relationship is proven, then the question becomes whether or not increased education expenditure contributes to a higher quality of education.

The results show that there is a positive relationship between democratic governance and increased education expenditure, but no conclusive evidence exists that shows increased expenditure leads to higher qualities of education.


Noah Walstrom (Altoona, Pennsylvania) [Jack Barlow]
US Military Court vs. US Civil Court
Is the United States military court system biased in protecting military persons tried for war crimes, or does the system meet the same standards as US civil law and/or other nation's court systems? A hypothetical case is taken through the military system and the civil court system step by step to compare the processes of each. The rulings of actual cases of war crimes in the Middle East are examined and compared to sentences of the same crimes in civil cases. There are significant advantages to the accused through the Uniform Code of Military Justice that systematically gives those accused lesser punishments than they would have received in civil courts. Defendants have access to a better defense, and through the procedures of the military system soldiers are protected more so than civilians.


Karen Warpinski (Annapolis, MD) |Shannon Adams-McVeytown , PA|Travis Russell-Martinsburg, Pennsylvania|Joel Rhodes-Huntingdon, PA [Chuck Yohn]
Establishing Long Term Monitoring of Bird Communities in Constructed Wetlands
We compared wintering bird communities between two riparian sites on the Juniata River in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania in the early months of 2013 in order to establish a baseline dataset prior to a wetland construction. The Ardenheim site will be converted into wetlands in the summer of 2013, and the Branch Camp site will be used for comparison purposes for the duration of a multi-year project. We compared total abundance and richness of wintering birds, abundance in four habitat guilds, and site conservation scores between the two locales by harvesting observation checklists from E-Bird, as well as conducting four winter bird surveys. We found no significant differences in most of the parameters listed above; however, richness at Ardenheim (16.2 ± 3.7) was significantly greater than that at Branch Camp (12.0 ± 2.9) (t=1.78 df=5 p=0.07). The site slated for wetland construction is not of unusual conservation value, and is very similar in bird composition to the site intended to serve as a control. Both sites will serve well in determining the effect of wetland construction on wintering bird communities.


Claire Wayman (Ontario, NY) [Jennifer Streb]
Leaving their Marks: Artists' Views from the Overland Trail
This project creates an exhibition for the Juniata College Museum of Art's Shoemaker Gallery that will display photographs and paintings of the Overland trail during the 19th and 20th centuries. During the great western migration, pioneers described in their diaries the striking change of scenery as they traveled from East to West. As their journey progressed, the pioneers wrote their names and the date they passed by on the three main registries along the trail as a form of communication for family and friends that would later travel west. Artists painted and photographed the registries at Chimney Rock, Register Cliff, and Independence Rock; the sublime characteristics of these sites combined with the Romanticism of the time also compelled pioneers to chisel their names onto these registries for posterity. This exhibit will feature artwork, historical information, and diarists' quotes about the three registries while focusing on the concepts of Romanticism and the sublime.


Alexander Weimer (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania) [Dr. Vincent Buonaccorsi]
Heritability of fruit mass in giant Cucurbits using single parent-offspring regression
In their quest to produce ideal consumer crops, farmers subject their plant stocks to intense artificial selection which often results in genetically homogenous populations. Of special interest in this regard are the giant squash and Atlantic Giant pumpkin varieties (Cucurbita maxima), two cultivars noted for fruits that have been bred to attain extremely large size. Since its introduction to the market in the mid-1980s, the Atlantic Giant pumpkin variety has become the staple stock used in competitive pumpkin growing, during which time it has been subject to intense selective breeding for fruits with ever increasing masses. Despite the fact that cucurbits exhibit a striking amount of intrinsic variability in physical characteristics, recurrent selection and widespread inbreeding may have resulted in a net loss of genetic variability. The aim of the present study was to use single parent-offspring linear regression on fruit masses as a means to obtain yearly narrow-sense heritability estimates (a metric for genetic variability) of fruit size in Atlantic Giant pumpkins from 2000-11. Additionally, a narrow-sense heritability estimate was obtained for each cultivar over all years to assess levels of variability over the study period. Finally, heritabilities were estimated within the most prolific growers in order to assess any skew imparted by genotype-environment covariance on the overall heritability estimates. No significant change in yearly heritability estimates was detected during this timeframe (b=0.01, SE=0.01, p=0.368), and the overall heritability remains quite high within giant squash (h2=0.53, b=0.27, SE=0.06, p<0.001) and Atlantic Giant pumpkins (h2=0.61, b=0.30, SE=0.02, p<0.001). A significant interaction between environment and maternal effects was observed (p=0.024); however, significant skew was imparted by one individual, without whom the interaction was not significant (p=0.319). Based on this analysis, there remains enough genetic variability within this stock to enable growers to further push the bounds of giant fruit growing.


Rachelle Wiegand (Manheim, PA) [Lynn Cockett]
Discursive Formations: A Theoretical Model Of Gender Roles
The purpose of this presentation is to look through a social construction lens of communication to gain a better understanding of how discursive formations, also known as discursive structures is an ideology that perpetuates gender roles and ultimately leads to the bondage and oppression of women in the home and workplace. The three words, "women", "work" and "identity" are interconnected in a complex web called society. It is through their interconnected, interdependent relationship that that one can come to understand how these discursive formations cause gender roles. To further help this cause a diagram will be used in the presentation as the visual guide of how "women", "work" and "identity" are constructed and connected.


Outer layer: Communication
The outermost layer of the diagram is communication because according to communication scholar, James Carey, "reality is brought into existence, is produced by communication"(25). Human interaction and behavior is only possible because of communication.

Second layer: Society
Although communication is outer layer on the diagram it is shown as being equal partners to society. The way in which communication is shared is created by and sustained in society. Society is a set of shared discursive formations, a structure of ideology by which we live and interact.

The duo of communication and society work together to create life as we know it; it is only within their constraints that the three words, "women", "work" and "identity" find meaning.

Within the outer layers of communication and society are the three words, "women", "work" and "identity". Starting from the left of the diagram, women and identity are shown as being equal partners because they both influence and shape each other. The outer layers of language and society creates a discursive structure by which women have specific communicative practices and roles based on gender. The discursive structure rests on the truth that men are different from women; therefore assigning gender roles is a must.

The last part of the diagram is the word "work". This word when associated with professionalism comes with a host of expectations and obligations that are again formed under the discourse of gender. Threthewey (1990) argues that professionalism is a gendered word because women discipline their bodies to look and act a certain way to fit the expectation and obligation that come from what our society has called professionalism

A comprehensive understanding of the diagram has proven that a discursive formation is an ideology that perpetuates gender roles, which ultimately leads to bondage and the oppression of women at home and in the workplace. The three words, "women", "work" and "identity" will continue to function under this discursive formation until women transcend their gender and look beyond what people tell them who they should be.


Elyse Williams (Allentown, PA) [Karen Rosell]
My Eyes Are Up Here: Female Artists and the Male Gaze
My Eyes Are Up Here: Female Artists and the Male Gaze
Elyse L. Williams (Dr. Karen J. Rosell), Department of Art and Art History, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA 16652 From depictions of Venus basking in her shell, to the Grande Odalisque reclining on her chaise, the bodies of women have existed for the possessive male gaze. Traditionally, male artists have depicted females as passive objects. Pulled and prodded, they are positioned in a manner that maximizes their visual appeal, while sporting expressions of eternal blankness. They have one purpose; to appeal to the virile appetites of their male viewers who consume them through their gazes. Their thoughts and opinions have no value; it is only the beauty of their physiques that has any worth. This custom of patriarchal custody has existed for centuries, but artists of the fairer sex have risen up to challenge their portrayal.
With the advent of the feminist movement in the 1960s, women artists have been working to reclaim depictions of their sex. Artists such as Cindy Sherman, Ghada Amer, Marina Abramovi�? and Kiki Smith looked to the female body as the primary source for subject matter in their pieces. Whether wielding a needle to create works of supreme irony, or crafting unsettling sculptures of suffering, their depictions of the female form no longer exist solely for pleasure. By analyzing the use of mockery, sensuality, and gender neutrality to negate ownership in the works of these women, I will determine that they have successfully subverted masculine control back into their own womanly hands.


Chelsea Wilson (Baltimore, Maryland) |David Hatem -Bel Air, Maryland|Quadir Christian-Johnstown, PA [Professor Welliver]
Juniata Students Behind Bars: Service Learning in a Prison Setting
Incorporating service-learning into their sociology senior seminar capstone course, three students partnered with the PA Prison Society and inmates, including members of the PA Lifers Association, to take part in a National Issues Forum at the Huntingdon State Correctional Institution. The students, Pennsylvania Prison Society members, and "Lifers" worked together for over eight hours over a two-day period to learn the National Issues Forum process for deliberation. The two deliberation topics selected for this experience included mass shootings and end of life decisions.

Adopting the service learning principle of working with and not for community partners (Ward & Wolf-Wendel, 2000), students had an opportunity to integrate and apply knowledge and skills developed in their undergraduate sociology careers at Juniata College. A small portion of this presentation will involve audience participation in a brief modeling of the National Issues Forum process that the students experienced.


Nathan Wilson (Altoona, Pennsylvania) [Jill Keeney]
Characterization of Rtt105p
Baker's/Brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a valuable model organism in the field of molecular biology, especially when looking at genetics and gene interactions. A gene has been found, RTT105, that has been implicated as a regulator of the Ty1 retrotransposon. Retrotransposons share a very similar "life cycle" as retroviruses, such as HIV. This relationship may have multiple implications. RTT105 has been determined as a negative regulator of endogenous Ty1 transposition. The gene itself codes for a relatively short protein of 209 amino acids that have no regular motifs to implicate possible function by comparison to known proteins. The goal of this study was to find functional domains of the protein, Rtt105p. This was attempted by assessing the changes in Ty1 mobility that result from protein manipulation via random mutagenesis, site-directed mutagenesis, and stop codon insertion.


Aaron Womer (Shermans Dale, Pennsylvania) |Nathan Wilson-Altoona, PA [Dr. Jill Keeney]
The Characterization of RTT105: Identifying Functional Domains
Ty1, a common retrotransposable element in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, replicates via reverse transcription and insertion of a cDNA. Ty1 retrotransposons are of scientific interest due to their similarity to retroviruses, the evolutionary (dis)advantage to having transposable elements in the genome, their effects on expression of host genes, and the study of host regulation of transposition frequency and target location. RTT105 was isolated as a negative regulator of transposition in a genome-wide screen for host genes that regulated Ty1 mobility; RTT105 encodes for a relatively small, uncharacterized protein of 209 amino acids. The goal of this project is to characterize the functional domains of RTT105 using two strategies. The first is assay Ty1 mobility with a panel of mutants, both randomly selected and site-directed. The second is cloning homologous genes from other yeast species, transforming them into S. cerevisiae, and assaying Ty1 mobility to compare regulation of transposition. If homologous genes have similar regulatory ability, conserved regions may indicate functional domains. Successful identification of functional domains may lead to finding interacting proteins or specific amino acid sequences that regulate Ty1 mobility.


Jade Wronowski (Barto, PA) [Dr. Grace Fala]
The Definition of Happiness Across Cultures



Feiyang Xu (Beijing, China) [Brandt Kronholm]
Combinatorial and Analytic Studies of Integer Partitions
This presentation will consider divisibility properties of the sequence of restricted partitions of the number n into exactly 4 parts modulo 3. The methods of proof will be focused on generating functions.


Gina Zigerelli (Freedom, Pennsylvania) [Kathy Jones]
What Everybody is Missing in the Attachment Parenting Debate
Disagreement over parenting practices can cause a great divide between even the closest of people. How you decide to parent speaks to your individual worldview and morals. Lately, a lot of criticism has been given to the practice of attachment parenting, which has sparked an ongoing, heated debate after an explicit photograph of a young mother breastfeeding her three-year-old son appeared on the cover of TIME magazine. Many people misinterpret a lot of the basic tenants of this practice, though, in actuality, true attachment parenting has a long history of psychological evidence to support it. What the media tends to sensationalize is the extremist approach to this parenting style, which is not wholly consistent with the theory of attachment. If people understood attachment parenting in terms of its underlying philosophy, they would be less concerned about family beds and breastfeeding toddlers and more concerned with forming a strong mother-infant bond ?" something that is so essential for the healthy development of a child.