Communication

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Research

Students work closely with faculty on research projects. Recent examples include:

Bachinski, Megan (Lowell, IN) [Donna Weimer]
A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION (1994): THE ACHIEVEMENT OF MORAL COMPLEXITY
Even though adaptation films like The Shawshank Redemption closely follow the plot of their original novel, books are consistently praised for achieving moral complexity, an area where films typically fall short. Yet, The Shawshank Redemption does address moral complexity through the exploration of institutionalization, corruption, abuse of power, and murder. This paper concentrates on how elements of adaptation affect the transformation of novella to film through shared themes of hope, friendship, and moral ambiguity. Film characters continue to walk the fine, ambiguous line of good and evil that was first established in the novella, resisting and defying categorization into a simplifying binary, and instead thrive in the moral complexity of the gray area. However, the moral complexity of characterization is compromised for a Hollywood happy ending.

Baer, Dave (Shade Gap, PA) [Donna Weimer]
THE WESTERN GENRE AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE EASTWOOD COWBOY

This research examines the genre of Westerns and their images of masculinity and violence. The research examines what is a genre and why genres are important. Specifically, I perform a comparative analysis of two classic Westerns, both films starring and directed by Clint Eastwood, and compare them with both typical Westerns ideology and with each other. With 1985's Pale Rider and 1992's Unforgiven, Eastwood offers us two of the more interesting roles of Western hero. Pale Rider falls into the "typical" Western and its counterpart, Unforgiven does anything but fall into the category of "typical." These two films offer a unique chance to view the evolution of Eastwood's characters as well as an evolution of Eastwood's directing. We will see a change in the genre both in how the story is told and how the hero portrayed.

Borade, Hiryan (Pune, India) [Donna Weimer]
GUIDE, A JOURNEY FROM JAIL TO SAINTHOOD
I analyze the Hindi Film, "Guide" (1965) directed by Chetan Anand. Guide is an entertainment film and below the layers it has the religious message of "Nishkam‐Yoga" (Selfless service), "Darshan" (vision) and "Maya" (the concept that this world is real but also an illusion). As the title suggests, Guide, the protagonist, is a tour guide. When the film does end, the true meaning of the films title is revealed. Guide is not just a tourist guide, but a spiritual guide, who leads us on to higher spiritual pursuits. Guide, is the story of Raju (Dev Anand) who rises to sainthood, through his journey from jail to a village, where he attains sainthood. The paper helps western audience understand how Raju the Guide, became Raju the saint.

Borade, Hiryan (Pune, India) [Donna Weimer]
INDIVIDUAL@CYBERTERROR.COM
Cyber World or Metaverse is being increasingly used for criminal and terrorist activities. The primary purpose of the cyber‐terrorist is to gain power, by carrying out attacks, getting support from individuals and communities and through ideological propaganda. In this paper, I explore how the dynamics of cyber terrorism and online identity theft affect the nature of group formation, exertion of power, flexibilities of identity and fluidity of ideas/data. Cyber terrorism and identity‐theft are extensions of the literate and oral cultures' need to control and exert influence on their environment, no matter how right or wrong they may be. The underlying aim of this paper is to bring connections between cyber crimes and the effects on the individual and his environment.

Campbell, Michelle (Annville, PA) [Donna Weimer]
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION DURING FIELD HOCKEY COMPETITIONS

I conducted research to observe the nonverbal behaviors between two field hockey teams, the one which scored a goal and the other which was scored upon. I sought to answer the following question: What are the similarities and differences in touch and body movement among competing athletic teams? By sending various messages through these nonverbal behaviors, I expect to find that these behaviors affect team motivation. I conducted my own research by observing videotapes of Division III college field hockey teams. Having examined this data, I described differences in nonverbal communication between a team which has just scored a goal and a team which has just been scored upon.

Couillard, Jean‐Denis (Milton, VT) [Grace Fala]
KATE BORNSTEIN'S "DANGEROUS DREAMS, DAMNED DESIRES": A NEO‐ARISTOTILIAN ANALYSIS

With the rise of the Queer Rights Movement, 'traditional' ideas of sexuality and gender have been challenged more and more. Kate Bornstein, an author, artist and political figure, is a self‐described genderqueer transsexual, anarchist, and BDSM pornographer, among other labels. In this presentation, Bornstein's speech "Dangerous Dreams, Damned Desires" will be analyzed in a neo‐Aristotelian fashion. A core characteristic of Aristotelian rhetoric is that of audience persuasion. In this case, much of that persuasive discourse is based around persuading people to do whatever they need to (save for 'being mean') to live another day. The forms of discourse, proofs and appeals, and canons of rhetoric Bornstein uses to achieve this goal in her speech will be presented.

DeCoursey, Catherine (Cherry Hill, NJ) [Donna Weimer]
WHAT HAPPENED TO THE LOST GIRLS OF SUDAN?

Sudan has been plagued with almost constant strife since it received its independence from Britain in 1956. One of the most well known conflicts in Sudan involved the Muslim north Sudan and predominantly black Christian/Animist south; the most famous refugees being The Lost Boys and Girls of Sudan. This research answers the question: How can the UN Peace Keepers ensure that human rights of all refugees are being met without infringing on traditional cultural ways? The subject looks at the cultural, political, and social reasons why the Lost Girls did not travel to the US as often as the males

Dickey, Carlee (Tioga, PA) [Grace Fala]
A LOOK INSIDE PHARMACEUTICAL ADVERTISEMENTS

I will be presenting a scrapbook that portrays twelve different advertisements with an analysis of each. Each ad targets a type of drug or medication. Throughout the scrapbook, one will be able to see the actual advertisement and with a flip of a page, they will be able to see the analysis. The analysis will explain the advertisement and then point out different types of appeals with a brief description of why the appeals are relevant. Finally the scrapbook will end with a summary of what I learned while completing this project.

Hileman, Ashley (Roaring Spring, PA) [Donna Weimer]
CONTENT ANALYSIS OF FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS BASED ON "REAL WORLD" SYMBOLISM

This is a pilot study investigating how young adults use language to frame their understanding of the unknown. This research argues that today's young adults have adopted negative ideas about and feelings toward the "real world" as a result of how this concept has been framed by the generation before them, causing them to reflect this in their own language. The content for this analysis will be derived from focus group interviews consisting of college‐aged adults as well as members of the "Baby Boomers" generation.

Malcolm, Jill (Newtown, PA) [Donna Weimer]
SEEKING THE GODDESS IN CYBERSPACE: NEO‐PAGANISM AND THE INTERNET

By virtue of its design, the internet has become a major support for the practice of non‐traditional religions. More so than any other religion, Neo‐pagans are enhancing their spirituality on the internet. My research argues that the internet reasserts Pagan identity, defines new realms of pagan spirituality through ritual and supports Pagan communities online and offline. Through websites, forums and virtual pilgrimages, pagans recreate their individual identity in a private haven safe from criticism. This new "virtual" religious experience differs from real world religious experience and thus creates a new vision of spirituality and how religion is effectively practiced.

Mansell, Pamela (Centre Hall, PA) [Donna Weimer]
CURRENT ATTITUDES IN EDUCATION TOWARD CHANGING TECHNOLOGIES

Shifting from a literate society to a digital society is affecting the way the world functions, particularly in the education system. This research argues that while technology creates new opportunities for the education system, these changes will only occur if the attitude towards technology changes. Technology could be a strong compliment to the material being taught in the classroom, if educators can see the benefits of it. This paper explores how the school building is changing and the effect it is having on student learning. Some technology, such as laptops and hand‐held devices, are already being used in schools, but it is having mixed results. This research explores the possibilities for technology in the education system as well as the resistance it is meeting.

Milheim, Jessica (Hughesville, PA) [Grace Fala]
CHILDREN'S TOY ADVERTISEMENTS

This project was a scrapbook focused on analyzing magazine advertisements. As an Early Childhood and Elementary Education POE, I chose to focus my scrapbook on children's toy advertisements. Using tenets and theories outlined in the course, I analyzed the advertisements to find the rhetorical appeals that were embedded in the clippings. I focused on similarities and differences based on the target audience of the advertisements while trying to find what techniques the company was using to sell their product. I found the results very intriguing and somewhat surprising. The experience has taught me to read between the lines in advertisements, and I find myself now viewing them in a different way.

Orr, Andrew (Knoxville, PA) [Grace Fala]
ANALYSIS OF ADVERTISEMENTS: A JOURNEY INTO THE MOTIVATIONAL APPEALS OF OUTDOOR
EQUIPMENT

A detailed analysis of the motivational appeals of outdoor advertisements. A scrapbook collection of advertisements and a breakdown of the strategies used by the ads. This was an assignment done for Grace Fala's Message Analysis class.

Scacco, Joshua (Lebanon, PA) [Donna Weimer]
ROAD TO THE MAJORITY: HOW NEGATIVE POLITICAL ADVERTISING IMPACTED THE 2006 CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS IN PENNSYLVANIA

President George W. Bush called it "a thumping." After 12 years of political dominance in the United States Congress, the Democratic Party ended the Republican Revolution on November 7, 2006. The electoral road to a new Democratic congressional majority passed through Pennsylvania. Losing four members of the House of Representatives and one in the Senate, no other state lost more incumbent Republican members of Congress. Important questions were raised after the Pennsylvania Democratic victories as to the role of negative advertising in the electoral outcomes. This research isolates the effect of negative political television advertising on three of these House races decided by six percentage points or less. Using the Neo‐Aristotelian rhetorical approach, this research utilizes Aristotle's five canons of rhetoric to study the effectiveness of negative political ads in the races of new congressmen Jason Altmire, Patrick Murphy, and Christopher Carney. As negative advertising becomes more pervasive in campaign discourse, studying the effectiveness of negative constructions can have important ramifications for future electoral contests

Stanley, Adam (Huntingtown, MD) [Donna Weimer]
POLITICAL CORRECTNESS AND RACE: AN EXPLORATION

Reflecting on the lectures and writings of Tim Wise, I would like to further explore the state of racism in the United States, and how, through framing, political correctness can silence discourse on the subject. This thesis is a literature review of framing theory, the use of political correctness, and the language of racism. By exploring these three subjects individually and in relation to each other, I hope to explore the issue of race and discourse.

White, Megan (Glen Rock, NJ) [Donna Weimer]
A FEMINIST CRITIQUE OF THE JUICY COUTURE AD IN TEEN VOGUE, FEBRUARY, 2007

In a world where advertisements are essential to the way in which Americans receive messages, the Feminist Critique is used to explore the shared messages that Juicy Couture provides for its onlookers. The three main components of the feminist critique are: women are oppressed by patriarchy, women's experiences are different from men's, and women's perspectives are not incorporated into our culture. Using these components, this paper argues that Juicy Couture affirms the male gaze of patriarchy by showing what women need to do and what their values need to be in order to be accepted in society.