is all of the land and streams that drain into a designated body of
a natural water. The Spruce Creek Watershed, therefore, is all of the
land that surrounds and drains into Spruce Creek and its tributaries.
The Spruce Creek Watershed encompasses 107 square miles (277 square
km) of farmland, upland woods, fields, and small towns in the Ridge
and Valley province of the Appalachian Mountains of southcentral Pennsylvania.
The economy of the watershed centers around agriculture, outdoors sports
and other tourism, and--recently--providing scenic, affordable housing
for commuters to State College, PA, one of the fastest growing portions
of the State.
Warriors Mark Run is
a tributary of Spruce Creek, and Warriors Mark Run's watershed is a
portion of the Spruce Creek Watershed. (See
the map of sub-watersheds.) Likewise, the Spruce Creek Watershed,
is part of a larger watershed (the Little Juniata River Watershed).
It is also a part of a still larger watershed, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.
preliminary assessment of the Spruce Creek Watershed, completed
in 2004 by The Center for Watershed Stewardship, Pennsylvania State
University, gives an excellent overview of the history, economy, and
challenges of this watershed.
Also links and
brief descriptions of bedrock geology and land use are listed below.
Geology The watershed is primarily underlain by 440- to 500 million
year old (Ordovician and Cambrian) limestone and dolostone. The perimeter
of the watershed also includes slightly younger shale and sandstone
bedrock. The limestone and dolostone bedrock host numerous springs and
help maintain alkaline groundwater. (The linked map is modified from
a published Pennsylvania Geologic Survey map.)
Use With mineral-rich soil developing over the limestone and dolostone
bedrock, the watershed includes prime agricultural land for crops and
livestock, as well as lush forests. (The linked map is modified from
a 1999 Pennsylvania GAP Land-Use/Land-Cover analysis.)