World Languages
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Courses

English as a Second Language

ESL-100   English Writing and Composition (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) The focus of this course is gaining fluency and confidence in written communication and becoming comfortable as writers. The process of writing multiple drafts through revision will be applied to weekly one-page reaction papers and three longer essays.

ESL-101   Listening and Speaking (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) The focus of this course is developing English for academic and social situations. Students will improve their speaking and listening abilities in the classroom through group and pair activities, pronunciation practice, and project work. Opportunities to interact with native English speakers outside of the classroom are presented and encouraged through surveys, interviews, a listening log and informal conversation. Students will also be required to participate in the Conversation Partner Program.

ESL-102   Reading and Study Skills (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) The focus of this course is building reading skills and strategies needed to understand and discuss short articles as well as longer reading assignments. These skills include improving reading rate, building comprehension, and expanding student's vocabulary. This course also focuses on developing the skills required for success in the classroom: managing time effectively, adjusting learning styles, producing spoken and written summaries, note-taking, etc.

ESL-103   Grammar in Use-Level 1 (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) The focus of this course is using acceptable and appropriate grammar with speaking and listening. Students will review grammatical structures of the English language through dialogues, interviews and short presentations. Grammar will be presented as a system to help students understand the patterns of the language.

ESL-150   Academic Writing (Either Semester; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) The focus of this course is developing writing fluency, as well as helping students find their own writing styles. Students will explore and apply the writing process, including brainstorming, organizing, writing drafts, proofreading, and revising. In and out of class activities will include reviewing and analyzing their own writing as well as that of their classmates, organizing a portfolio, and writing three main essays exploring different academic writing forms.

ESL-151   Conversation and Discussion (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) The focus of this course is learning and strengthening the skills of conversation and discussion often used on the campuses of North American colleges and universities. Students will more fully develop awareness of different academic and social situations which will require different levels of politeness and personal attention. Activities will include a reflective listening journal, note taking, and in-class presentations/speeches.

ESL-152   Reading and Vocabulary Development (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) The focus of this course is developing specific strategies for improving reading comprehension and rate by using authentic materials: media and college-related texts. Vocabulary development will be an important component of the class, so that the students are better able to understand complex written information. Through on-campus interviews and discussion groups, students will understand the norms and expectations of the U.S. academic environment.

ESL-153   Grammar in Use-Level II (Either Semester; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) The focus of this course is improving knowledge and use of written grammar as it applies to North American colleges and universities. Through the student's writings various grammatical structures will be explicitly examined, practiced, and applied. Although the focus of the course is grammar in writing, spoken grammar will also be covered through class discussions.

ESL-155   Clear Speech (Either Semester; Yearly; 1.00 Credit) The focus of this course is improving English pronunciation with an introduction to U.S. accent variations and other factors influencing cross-cultural communication. Students will identify individual pronunciation features such as specific sounds, stress, intonation, rhythm, etc. Students will work to achieve greater comfort and clarity with spoken English.

ESL-170   Academic Writing II (Fall & Spring; All Years; 3.00 Credits) The focus of this course is on improving academic writing skills needed to write more structured and complex essays in English. This course will guide students from more formulaic writing to more comprehensive writing by developing skills to express arguments clearly and with strong support. Timed-writings and peer-evaluations are strong components of the course as well.

ESL-199   Special Topics (Either Semester; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) The IEP can offer special courses based on student and program needs.

ESL-200   America: Nation of Immigrants (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) The focus of this content-based course is exploring American values and the changing influences of different immigrant groups to America. The language focus is applying reading and writing skills, developing group interaction skills, and improving listening and speaking skills. Students also broaden their understanding of American culture by participating in a weekly volunteer project and by working with American reading partners.

ESL-201   Egg to Ancestor: a Study of Culture (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) The focus of this content-based course is exploring life stages beginning with birth and ending with death as these ideas relate to the student's own and other cultures. Through the content, students will study and practice a wide variety of English language learning topics. American reading partners enrich the student's cultural understanding.

ESL-211   Advanced Listening and Speaking Seminar (Either Semester; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; CS) The focus of this course is developing high-level listening and speaking skills which are important to participating in North American college classrooms. This course is linked with a course in another academic department and students earn credits for both courses by completing all assignments for both courses. In ESL211, students will focus on improving group discussion, oral presentation, and pronunciation skills drawing on vocabulary and content of the linked course. Students will register for both courses and earn three credits for each course. Corequisite: One course in another academic department to be announced each semester.

ESL-212   Advanced College Reading: Mockingbirds Abound (Either Semester; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; CW) The focus of this course is exploring racism and discrimination in the deep south of the US from slavery to the 1960s. Students refine and practice reading skills and strategies necessary to understand authentic texts of increasing complexity. These skills include improving reading rate, applying new vocabulary in short weekly essay quizzes, and analyzing materials critically. Students read one novel and submit weekly written critical analyses on related articles, films, and lectures. They also participate in a book club with native English speakers which they regularly reflect upon in a written journal.

ESL-250   College Writing (Either Semester; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; CW) The focus of this course is to enable students to write proficiently and confidently at a high level equal to American college students. Students will complete four essays which represent those most frequently written by college students. They will learn specific organizational strategies and elements of style which match North American academic expectations. Multiple revisions will be complemented by conferences with the instructor, Writing Center tutors, and peer-editing.

ESL-299   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) The IEP can offer special courses based on student and program needs.

French

FR-109   Lille Immersion Program (Summer; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; I,H) This program provides four weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers in Lille, France. All levels of French are available, from beginner to advanced. In addition, all students take mini-courses in Flemish Art, European history and cross-cultural communications. Students also choose two cultural modules in Politics, Economic Cinema or Literature.

FR-110   French I (Fall; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; H,I) Emphasizes the four communicative skills (speaking, reading, writing, and listening) focusing on the context of everyday life. Note: " Students may receive H or I credit provided that they have not taken more than two years of the language at the secondary-school level.

FR-120   French II (Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; H,I,CS) A follow-up to French I emphasizing the four communicative skills. Note: Placement to French II is by departmental discretion. Prerequisite: FR110 or placement.

FR-203   French Culture & Society (Summer; Yearly; 2.00 Credits; F,I) This program provides four weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers in Lille, France. All levels of French are available, from beginner to advanced. In addition, all students take mini-courses in Flemish Art, European history and cross-cultural communications. Students also choose two cultural modules in Politics, Economic Cinema or Literature. Corequisite: FR109 or FR209 or FR309.

FR-203A   Lille Cinema (Summer; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; F,I) This program provides four weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers in Lille, France. All levels of French are available, from beginner to advanced. In addition, all students take mini-courses in Flemish Art, European history and cross-cultural communications. Students also choose two cultural modules in Politics, Economic Cinema or Literature.

FR-203B   Lille Literature (Summer; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; I,H) This program provides four weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers in Lille, France. All levels of French are available, from beginner to advanced. In addition, all students take mini-courses in Flemish Art, European history and cross-cultural communications. Students also choose two cultural modules in Politics, Economic Cinema or Literature.

FR-203C   Lille Politics (Summer; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; I,S) This program provides four weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers in Lille, France. All levels of French are available, from beginner to advanced. In addition, all students take mini-courses in Flemish Art, European history and cross-cultural communications. Students also choose two cultural modules in Politics, Economic Cinema or Literature.

FR-203D   Lille Economics (Summer; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; I,S) This program provides four weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers in Lille, France. All levels of French are available, from beginner to advanced. In addition, all students take mini-courses in Flemish Art, European history and cross-cultural communications. Students also choose two cultural modules in Politics, Economic Cinema or Literature.

FR-208   French in Quebec (Variable; Yearly; 6.00 Credits; I,H) A five week immersion program at the University of Laval in Quebec City, Canada. Courses are available for all levels of French, beginner to advanced. Placement will be determined by the University of Laval. Students will take courses in oral and written French, phonetics, and conversation. In addition, the program includes cultural activities, lectures, films, and guided tours of the Quebec region. Lodging will be provided off campus in a francophone household. Course starts the 1st week of July and ends the 1st week of August. Note: A special course fee will be applied plus air fare..

FR-209   Lille Immersion Program (Summer; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; I,H) This program provides four weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers in Lille, France. All levels of French are available, from beginner to advanced. In addition, all students take mini-courses in Flemish Art, European history and cross-cultural communications. Students also choose two cultural modules in Politics, Economic Cinema or Literature. Note: A special course fee will be applied.

FR-210   French III (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) Covers more complex sentences and grammatical problems completing the basic program. Development of the four language skills is continued with emphasis on creating strong conversational abilities. Note: advanced placement in Intermediate French is by departmental discretion. Prerequisites: FR120 or equivalent.

FR-230   Conversation (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) Intensive oral review that permits the intermediate level speaker to increase proficiency and communicative ability in practical and topical contexts. Prerequisite: FR210 or placement exam or instructor approval.

FR-260   French Civilization and Culture (Either Semester; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) An overview of the French culture and civilization in language, art, literature, history, and ideas. Prerequisites: FR210 or equivalent.

FR-270   Francophone Civilization and Culture II (Either Semester; Odd Years; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) An in-depth introduction to the history and influence of French culture outside Europe. Students will gain a general knowledge of contemporary Francophone cultures that exist throughout the world. Prerequisite: FR210 or equivalent.

FR-279   Sexuality and Literature (Variable; Variable; 3.00 Credits; CA,I,H,CW) A critical analysis of the relationship between sexuality and cinema. The course examines sexuality as a discourse that informs cultural, political, and social structures or institutions. The course focuses on texts that use sexuality as a form of social critic, or even as a revolutionary device. Taught in English.

FR-299   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-3.00 Credits) Allows departments to offer subjects not normally taught. Prerequisites and fees vary by topic.

FR-308   French in Quebec (Summer; Yearly; 6.00 Credits; I,H) A five week immersion program at the University of Laval in Quebec City, Canada. Courses are available for all levels of French, beginner to advanced. Placement will be determined by the University of Laval. Students will take courses in oral and written French, phonetics, and conversation. In addition, the program includes cultural activities, lectures, films, and guided tours of the Quebec region. Lodging will be provided off campus in a francophone household. Course starts the 1st week of July and ends the 1st week of August. Note: A special course fee will be applied plus air fare.

FR-309   Lille Immersion Program (Summer; Yearly; 5.00 Credits; I,H) This program provides four weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers in Lille, France. All levels of French are available, from beginner to advanced. In addition, all students take mini-courses in Flemish Art, European history and cross-cultural communications. Students also choose two cultural modules in Politics, Economic Cinema or Literature.

FR-315   French Images of America (Variable; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) American media and some politicians have been disseminating negative images of France in recent times with little discussion of what the French actually think of America. This course examines images of America in French art, literature, film and social theory. It also analyzes images of America in French popular music, comics, and television. Prerequisites: Two French courses beyond FR210, or instructor's approval.

FR-326   French Cinema (Either Semester; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; F,I,H,CW) An overview of the history of French Cinema and various schools of film analysis. Participants in this course view and analyze major examples of French cinema from its origins to today. Discussions are in English. Papers may be written in English or French.

FR-331   The Craft of Translation (Variable; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CW) This course introduces high-intermediate and advanced students of French to the formal technics and art of written translation. Students must have completed two 200 level courses taught in French or have instructor permission prior to enrollement.

FR-345   Women in French Culture (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; CA,I,H,CW) An introduction to the major currents of contemporary French feminism. All readings are in the translation and discussions are in English.

FR-399   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Provides courses not covered by the regular offerings. These are developed to meet the needs of students of advanced standing and included themes in Medieval & Renaissance Literature and French Women Writers.

FR-450   Research Project in French (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) An independent research project or thesis which will be designed by the student with the assistance of the instructor. Throughout the semester, the student will research his/her topic and submit a final paper or thesis to be defended at the end of the semester Prerequisites: three 300 level French courses and permission, or a year of study abroad and permission.

FR-490   French Internship (Variable; Variable; 2.00-9.00 Credits) See catalog. Corequisite: FR495

FR-495   FR Internship Seminar (Variable; Variable; 2.00-6.00 Credits) See catalog. Corequisite: FR490

FR-TUT   French Teaching Assistant (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits; H,I) See catalog for description.

German

GR-108B   Vienna Intensive German (Summer; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; I,H) This BCA-operated course provides four weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers at the Internationale Kulturinstitut Wien (iki) language school in Vienna, Austria. No prior knowledge of German is required. All levels of German are available, from beginning to advanced. Corequisite: Participants must concurrently enroll in GR208A, " Vienna: Crossroads of Europe, " a cultural studies course taught in German and English.

GR-109   Intensive German Program I (Summer; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; I,H) This program provides four or five weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers at the KAPITO language school in Muenster, Germany. All levels of German are available, from beginning to advanced. In addition, all students participate in three to four extra-curricular activities with a cultural focus per week. Note: A special course fee is applied.

GR-110   Introductory German I (Fall; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; H,I) Emphasizes the four communicative skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing) in the context of everyday life. Note: *Students receive H or I credit provided that they have not taken more than two years of the language at the secondary-school level

GR-120   Introductory German II (Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; H,I,CS) A follow-up to German I emphasizing the four communicative skills in the context of everyday life. Note: placement in German 120 is by placement test or departmental discretion. Prerequisite: GR110.

GR-199   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Allows department to offer courses not normally taught. Prerequisites and fees vary by course.

GR-199A   German Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Allows department to offer courses not normally taught. Prerequisites and fees vary by course.

GR-199B   German Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Allows department to offer courses not normally taught. Prerequisites and fees vary by course.

GR-208A   Vienna: Crossroads of Europe (Summer; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; I,H) This course will introduce students to the history and culture of Vienna, Austria. It focuses on the city as a geographical, political, cultural, and artistic crossroads at the heart of Europe. The course will help students understand how Vienna has been and remains a perpetually emerging and evolving modernity in politics, culture and the arts since the late 19th century. Corequisite: Participants must concurrently enroll in either GR108B, GR208B, or GR308B (based on their German proficiency level).

GR-208B   Vienna Intensive German (Summer; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; I,H) This BCA-operated course provides four weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers at the Internationale Kulturinstitut Wien (iki) language school in Vienna, Austria. No prior knowledge of German is required. All levels of German are available, from beginning to advanced. Corequisite: Participants must concurrently enroll in GR208A, " Vienna: Crossroads of Europe, " a cultural studies course taught in German and English.

GR-209   Intensive German Program II (Summer; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; I,H) This program provides four or five weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers at the KAPITO language school in Munster, Germany. All levels of German are available, from beginning to advanced. In addition, all students participate in three to four extra-curricular activities with a cultural focus per week. Note: A special course fee is applied.

GR-210   Intermediate German (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) Covers more complex language structures and grammatical problems completing the basic program. Continues with the development of the four communicative skills placing emphasis on strong conversational abilities in a wide variety of cultural contexts and social situations. Note: Placement in GR210 is by placement test or departmental discretion. Prerequisite: GR120.

GR-213   The Age of Goethe Lab (Variable; Variable; 1.00 Credit; I,H) One-credit discussion section to accompany IC213, The Age of Goethe, for students with advanced knowledge of German. Discussions, student presentations, and supplemental readings, etc. in German. Students must be concurrently enrolled in IC213 and must have completed GR260 or higher or have instructors permission prior to enrollment.

GR-232   German Conversation & Composition (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; I,H,CS,CW) This course will expand upon students' existing listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills and further their understanding of the contemporary culture of Germany and German-speaking countries. During the course of the semester, students will become acquainted with and practice various writing styles ranging from the descriptive to the critical and argumentative. Taught in German. Prerequisites: GR210. Alternatively, students may take the departmental placement exam or obtain the instructor's permission. Please note: This course replaces GR230 and GR235.

GR-260   German Civilization and Culture (Either Semester; Variable; 3.00 Credits; CS,H,I) A historic overview of German culture from the 18th century to the present day. Students study the dominant cultural trends and counter trends of the past three centuries in the context of critical, philosophical and literary writings. Placement in GR260 is by advanced placement or departmental discretion. Prerequisites: GR230 or GR232 or GR235.

GR-265   Postwar Germany (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; CA,I,H) The course examines through two major novels how 'common' people in Germany experienced the first six decades of the 20th Century, especially the years of the Third Reich and of World War II. It focuses on the literacy depiction of how Germans attempted (and still do) to come to terms with what took place during the--in the mind of many-- darkest years of German (modern) history. Prerequisites: Sophomore, Junior or Senior standing.

GR-275   German Literature After WW II (Either Semester; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) An introduction to German literature after WW II. Reviews representative works by authors such as Heinrich Bvll, Friedrich Durrenmatt, and Gunter Grass. Prerequisite: GR230, GR232 or GR235.

GR-299   Special Topics (Either Semester; Variable; 3.00-4.00 Credits) Provides courses not covered by the regular offerings. These are developed to meet the needs of students of advanced standing.

GR-299A   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Allows department to offer topics not normally taught. Fees and prerequisites vary by section.

GR-299B   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Allows departments to offer courses not normally taught. Fees and prerequisites vary by title.

GR-308B   Vienna Intensive German (Summer; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; I,H) This BCA-operated course provides four weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers at the Internationale Kulturinstitut Wien (iki) language school in Vienna, Austria. No prior knowledge of German is required. All levels of German are available, from beginning to advanced. Corequisite: Participants must concurrently enroll in GR208A, " Vienna: Crossroads of Europe, " a cultural studies course taught in German and English.

GR-309   Intensive German Program III (Summer; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; I,H) This program provides four or five weeks of intensive language instruction by native speakers at the KAPITO language school in Muenster, Germany. All levels of German are available, from beginning to advanced. In addition, all students participate in three to four extra-curricular activities with a cultural focus per week. Note: A special course fee is applied.

GR-310   19th to 20th Century German Drama (Variable; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CW,CS) Students read, discuss, and analyze works from such authors as Kleist, Buchner, Grillparzer, Schnizler, Durrenmatt, and Frisch within their historical context. Discussion focuses on the tragi-comic nature of human existence as portrayed in these works. Note: Conducted as a literary seminar. Placement in GR310 is by departmental discretion. Prerequisites: GR260 or higher.

GR-320   Early 20th Century German Literature (Either Semester; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) Examines readings from the works of such authors as B. Brecht, H. Hesse, H. von Hofmannsthal, F. Kafka, T. Mann, F. Wedekind and F. Werfel. Discussion focuses on the complex problems and issues facing modern man in an ever changing world.

GR-326   German Cinema (Spring; Variable; 4.00 Credits; F,I,CW) This course presents an overview of the history of German cinema. Participants in this course view and analyze representative examples of German cinema from the Weimar Republic through post-reunification Germany. Upon completion of this course, you will be able to identify various themes and issues specific to German cinema and to critically approach, discuss, and write about films. One stated goal of this course is to develop and implement a vocabulary that will enable you to articulate and critically discuss what a film is trying to communicate on both the visual and narrative level. Films will be viewed in class and outside of class as homework assignments. All films will be screened in the original German with English subtitles. Readings and discussions in English. One hour of class time per week will be dedicated to honing your writing skills. Students with advanced knowledge of German may choose to write their papers in German (instructor's permission required).

GR-399   Special Topics (Either Semester; Variable; 3.00 Credits) Provides courses not covered by the regular offerings. These are developed to meet the needs of students of advanced standing.

GR-399A   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Allows department to offer topics not normally taught. Fees and prerequisites vary by section.

GR-399B   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Allows departments to offer topics not normally taught. Fees and prerequisites vary by title.

GR-490   Internship-Need Paperwork (Variable; Variable; 2.00-9.00 Credits) See Catalog.

GR-495   Internship Seminar (Variable; Variable; 2.00-9.00 Credits) See catalog.

Russian

RU-110   Russian I (Fall; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; H,I) The basic introduction to the Russian program: correct speaking, reading and writing on the elementary level. Note:*Students receive H or I credit provided that they have not taken more than two years of the language at the secondary school level.

RU-120   Russian II (Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; H,I,CS) The continuation of the basic program with more intensive work in correct speaking, reading and writing. Note: advanced placement is by departmental discretion. Prerequisite: RU110.

RU-195   Russian in Russia I (Summer; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; I,H) Summer language study at a site approved by Juniata. Students will be placed at a level appropriate for their knowledge of the language. Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor and CIE.

RU-199   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Provides individualized instruction in topics not covered by the regular offerings. These are developed to meet the needs of students.

RU-200   Survey of Slavic Lit. (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I) Examines the literatures of the Slavic peoples by comparing the works of Russian authors from different periods with those of other Slavic nations. Examples will be taken from the Renaissance, Romanticism, the realistic novel and the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Prerequisite: EN110.

RU-201   Women in Slavic Literature (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) Examines the depiction of women both as objects of male representation and as authors of their own text. The major emphasis will be on Russian literature. Readings will include Anna Karenina and works of various genres by women writers and social thinkers. Films by women directors will also be discussed.

RU-202   Science Fiction the Other Side Europe (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I) Examines the Central European tradition of science fiction as a genre of social commentary and utopian speculation. Writers will include Karel Capek (the inventor of the term " robot " ), Evgenii Zamiatin (the author of the model for 1984), Stanislaw Lem (once the best-selling science fiction author in the world), and the Strugatskii brothers. Films will also be discussed. Taught in English.

RU-203   East European Film (Fall; Variable; 4.00 Credits; CA,I,H,F,CW,CS) Examines the films and writings on film of some of the famous East European directors: Eisenstein and other early Soviets, Czech films in the 1960s, Georgian films of the eighties. Wajda and other Polish filmmakers, and current Russian films.

RU-209   Russian History (Fall; Even Years; 4.00 Credits; CA,CW,H,I) Studies the evolution of the Russian State and peoples from the earliest times. The examination continues through the Bolsheviks' seizure of power and the subsequent development of the USSR as a major world power.

RU-210   Intermediate Russian (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) The continuation of the basic program with a more intensive review of special grammatical problems. Speaking, writing, reading and the development of an appreciation of Russian culture is stressed through selected readings. Prerequisite: RU120.

RU-230   Russian Conversation (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) The intensive reading of literary and popular texts as a basis for composition and conversation. Prerequisite: RU210.

RU-235   Tolstoy (Spring; Variable; 4.00 Credits; CA,H,I,CW,CS) An examination of Tolstoy's development as a thinker about war an religion and his search for a literary form adequate for the expression of his ideas and moral sense. Readings will include writings on non-resistance to evil. Prerequisite: EN110 or another Russian literature course or permission.

RU-240   Dostoevsky (Spring; Variable; 3.00 Credits; CA,H,I,CS,CW) Examines the writings of Dostoevsky in light of the social problems of his day and his personal search for truth and God in a world increasingly dominated by scientific materialism. Particular emphasis will be placed on Bakhtin's thesis that Dostoevsky invented a new form of the novel as well as on the darker sides of Dostoevsky's messianism and possible anti-Semitism. Prerequisites: EN110 or EN109.

RU-245   Literature and Moral Imagination (Spring; Variable; 4.00 Credits; CA,CW,H,I) The last hundred years brought unprecedented Literature and Moral Imagination examines how Slavic authors have confronted the realities of devastation and the euphoria of social utopia and drawn hope from the truth-telling and the fundamental link between aesthetics and morality. The course includes work from the recent reentry of the Slavic peoples into the global economy. Prerequisites: RU245 requires EN110 or permission. RU345 requires RU230 or permission and Sophomore, Junior, or Senior standing.

RU-250   Russian Short Story (Spring; Variable; 4.00 Credits; CA,H,I,CW) The reading, discussion, and analysis of short stories by major Russian authors: Pushkin, Gogol, Turgenev, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy and Chekhov. Note: taught in English, although Russian language students receive assignments in original texts. Prerequisite: EN110 or another Russian literature course or permission.

RU-290   Culture in Russia (Summer; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; F,I,H) The study of the culture and history of the city where students are enrolled at a Juniata-approved exchange site. Students' course selections must be approved in advance. Students who want F-credit must take the Russian Art in Petersburg in history and culture options. Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor.

RU-295   Russian in Russia II (Summer; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; I,H) Summer language study at a site approved by Juniata. Students will be placed at a level appropriate for their knowledge of the language. Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor and CIE.

RU-299   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Provides individualized instruction in topics not covered by the regular offerings. These are developed to meet the needs of students.

RU-300   Survey of Slavic Literature (Fall; Variable; 4.00 Credits; H,I)

RU-301   Women in Slavic Literature (Fall; Variable; 4.00 Credits; H,I,CS) Examines the depiction of women both as objects of male representation and as authors of their own texts. The major emphasis will be on Russian literature. Readings will include Anna Karenia and works of various genres by women writers and social thinkers. Films by women directors will also be discussed.

RU-303   East European Film (Fall; Variable; 4.00 Credits; CA,I,H,F,CW,CS) See RU203.

RU-335   Tolstoy (Spring; Variable; 4.00 Credits; CA,I,H,CW,CS) See RU235. Meets with RU235. Additional work is assigned in Russian. Prerequisite: RU235.

RU-340   Dostoevsky (Spring; Variable; 4.00 Credits; CA,H,I,CS,CW) See RU240. Meets with RU240. Additional work is assigned in Russian. Prerequisites: EN110 or EN109.

RU-345   Literature and Moral Imagination (Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; CA,I,H,CS) See RU245. Meets with RU245 but additional work is assigned in Russian for RU345. Prerequisites: RU230 or permission and Sophomore, Junior or Senior standing.

RU-350   Russian Short Story (Spring; Variable; 4.00 Credits; CA,H,I,CW) See RU250. Meets with RU250. Additional work is assigned in Russian. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

RU-395   Russian in Russia III (Summer; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; I,H) Summer language study at a site approved by Juniata. Students will be placed at a level appropriate for their knowledge of the language. Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor and CIE.

RU-399   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Provides individualized instruction in topics not covered by the regular offerings. These are developed to meet the needs of students.

RU-450   Senior Research Project I (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) Involves two consecutive semesters of study. During the first semester the students will identify the topic of research, prepare a detailed abstract, gather the necessary materials and provide evidence that the bulk of the research has been completed. Students may undertake projects in teaching, literature, culture or linguistics. Other topics may also be possible. Projects may involve the participation of faculty in related disciplines. Prerequisite: One 300-level writing course and permission.

RU-451   Senior Research Project II (Spring; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) A continuation of RU450. During this semester students will complete their project by writing and defending an account of their work. The exact nature of this account will vary according to the nature of the project. However all accounts must be of significant length, reveal a sustained depth of thought, be fully documented, and be defended orally. Prerequisite: RU450.

Spanish

SP-110   Spanish I (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; H,I) Emphasizes fundamentals of grammar, pronunciation, and language production. The development of skills in oral comprehension, speaking, writing and reading are stressed. Note: Students receive H or I credit provided that they have not taken more than two years of the language at the secondary school level.

SP-110E   Spanish I Summer (Summer; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) This immersion course is offered for high school students (ages 16-18) in Granada, Spain, in conjunction with Global Works summer service programs. Students achieve a proficiency level in Spanish comparable to Spanish I (SP110).

SP-120   Spanish II (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; H,I,CS) The continued study of the fundamentals of grammar, pronunciation and composition stressing the development of skills in oral comprehension, speaking, writing and reading. Note: advanced placement to Spanish II is by departmental discretion. Prerequisite: SP110.

SP-120E   Spanish II Summer (Summer; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) This immersion course is offered for high school students (ages 16-18) in Granada, Spain, in conjunction with Global Works summer service programs. Students achieve a proficiency level in Spanish comparable to Spanish II (SP120).

SP-125   Sp.Immersion I (Orizaba) (Summer; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I) The continued study of the fundamentals of Spanish grammar, pronunciation, and language production, with particular focus on listening comprehension and speaking. Prerequisites: SP120. Note: A special course fee is assessed.

SP-130E   Spanish III Summer (Summer; Yearly; 3.00 Credits) This immersion course is offered for high school students (ages 16-18) in Granada, Spain, in conjunction with Global Works summer service programs. Students achieve a proficiency level in Spanish comparable to Spanish III (SP210).

SP-199   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Allows the department to offer special topics not normally offered. Departments may offer more than one special topic. Prerequisites vary by title.

SP-210   Spanish III (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) Covers more complex language structures completing the basic program. Development of the four skills is continued with an emphasis on integrating Hispanic culture into the language learning process. Note: Placement in Spanish III is by departmental discretion. Prerequisite: SP120.

SP-215   Mexican Culture (Summer; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; H,I) This course will introduce students to the origin, antecedents, and development of present-day Mexico and will expose them to the diversity of its inhabitants and of their cultural practices and production. Prerequisites: SP120. Corequisite: SP125 or SP225 or SP325.

SP-225   Sp.Immersion II (Orizaba) (Summer; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I) An intermediate Spanish language course which reviews the fundamentals of Spanish grammar, pronunciation, and language production, while providing intensive practice that will enable students to achieve mastery of these basic linguistic elements and to further develop their language proficiency. Special emphasis is placed on listening comprehension and speaking. Prerequisites: SP210.

SP-230   Spanish Conversation & Composition (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CW,CS) Stimulates the fluent and spontaneous use of practical spoken and written Spanish. Intensive readings of literature and topical subjects in government, business, public relations and tourism serve as a basis for conversation and writing. Note: oral participation in class activities and at the Spanish Table is mandatory. Prerequisite: SP210.

SP-235   Intensive Spanish Grammar (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I) This course serves to reinforce the fundamental grammar that students have studied previously and to delve more deeply into certain topics that often prove to be challenging for native English speakers of Spanish. Topics typically of this course include; identifying the building blocks of sentences; identifying verb classes and studying how that information determines the way we construct sentences; analyzing the Spanish pronominal system including, subject and object clitic pronouns; reviewing and expanding upon the use of subordinate clauses introduced in SP210. Prerequisites: SP210.

SP-245   Spanish Phonetics & Phonology (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) This course serves as an introduction to the phonetics and phonology of Spanish. The goals of the course include providing students with a theoretical and practical understanding of the system of Spanish sounds, including dialectal variations, as well as strengthening students' Spanish speech in the direction of more native like pronunciation. Prerequisite: SP210.

SP-250   Introduction to Hispanic Literature (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) Emphasizes the development of skill in reading Spanish and in literary analysis of selected stories, plays, poems, and essays from Spain and Latin America. Prerequisite: SP210.

SP-255   Contemporary Hispanic Short Fiction (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) An intensive introduction to reading and analyzing twentieth-century Spanish and Spanish American short narrative. Study of the literary tests enables students to develop a better understanding of and appreciation for Hispanic cultures while continuing to build their Spanish language proficiency. Prerequisite: SP210.

SP-260   Spanish Civilization (Either Semester; Variable; 3.00 Credits; CS,H,I) An introduction to the many facets of Spanish civilization: art, music, history, literature, philosophy and everyday life. Prerequisite: SP210.

SP-265   Contemporary Spain (Spring; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) An intensive introduction to twentieth and twenty- first century Spain. Topics to be studied include: Spain's peaceful transition from dictatorship to democracy, economic development, and social change. Spain's role in the European Union, mass and elite cultural movements and the challenges facing Spain's younger generation. Prerequisites: SP210.

SP-275   Art and Activism in Latin America (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; I,H,CS) Studies art --literature, film, music, plastic arts, etc.--that denounces social injustice and seeks to trigger fundamental reforms in Latin American societies. Known as arte comprometido or committed art in Latin America, selected violence, economic exploitation, racism, and machismo. The course is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisites: SP250 or SP255 or by permission of the instructor.

SP-285   Introduction to Latin America (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) This course offers students an overview of Latin American cultures through the study of their history, geography, literature, and art from the pre-Columbian period to present. The course is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SP210.

SP-299   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Allows the department to offer special topics not normally offered. Departments may offer more than one special topic. Prerequisites vary by title.

SP-300   Myth and Magic Realism (Spring; Variable; 3.00 Credits; CA,I,H) Explores the richness and diversity of Hispanic cultures through the study of texts that range from pre-Columbian myths to recent Latin American films. Emphasis will be placed on the analysis of the mytho-magical elements which are used to represent and often times critique aspects of various socio-cultural realities. The course is taught in English, and all course materials will be available in English. Prerequisites: Sophomore, Junior, or Senior standing.

SP-301   Latin American Testimonio (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; CA,I,H) Latin American testimonio developed during the 1960s to offer a narrative voice for the voiceless--oftentimes illiterate women, workers, revolutionaries, and indigenous people--to bear witness to the world of the disenfranchised and oppressed. A representative sample of testimonial narratives will be read to examine processes of mediation and textual production, the testimonial pact established with readers, the social realities represented, and the myriad narrative forms appropriated and created by this hybrid genre. NOTE: This is a cultural analysis course. Text will be read in English translation and the class will be conducted in English.

SP-305   Advanced Spanish Conversation and Comp. (YYearly; 3.00 Credits; I,CW,CS) This course is designed to give students opportunities to develop and practice their Spanish at the intermediate-high and advanced levels of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines available at www.actfl.org. At the advanced level, speakers can: (a) narrate and describe in all major time frames (present, past and future), (b) handle a situation with a complication, (c) use connective devices and a variety of subordinate clauses, (d) use circumlocution, and (e) address topics of personal and general interest. At the advanced level, one may also demonstrate conceptual awareness or even partial control of superior level functions from the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines (e.g., support opinion, hypothesize, discuss topics concretely and abstractly, and handle a linguistically unfamiliar situation). Prerequisite: SP 230 or equivalent.

SP-325   Spanish Immersion III (Summer; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; H,I) A second intermediate Spanish language course which reviews the fundamentals of Spanish grammar, pronunciation, and language production, exploring the subtleties of features such as preterit- imperfect aspect and the subjunctive mood. Intensive immersion practice will enable students to achieve greater mastery of these elements and to further develop their language proficiency. Prerequisite: At least one course taught in Spanish beyond SP210.

SP-345   Spanish Phonetics & Phonology (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) This course serves as an introduction to the phonetics and phonology of Spanish. The goals of the course include providing students with a theoretical and practical understanding of the system of Spanish sounds, including dialectal variations, as well as strengthening students' Spanish speech in the direction of more native like pronunciation. Prerequisite: Study abroad experience or permission of the instructor.

SP-355   Contemporary Hispanic Short Fiction (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) Note: Meets with SP255. Additional work is assigned. Prerequisites: SP250 or equivalent and study abroad experience or approval of the instructor.

SP-365   Contemporary Spain (Spring; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) Note: Meets with SP265. Additional work is assigned. Prerequisites: SP250 or SP260 or approval of the instructor.

SP-375   Art and Activism in Latin America (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; I,H,CS) Studies art --literature, film, music, plastic arts, etc.--that denounces social injustice and seeks to trigger fundamental reforms in Latin American societies. Known as arte comprometido or committed art in Latin America, selected artistic texts treat topics such as political violence, economic exploitation, racism, and machismo. The course is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisites: SP250 or SP255 or by permission of the instructor.

SP-399   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Provides courses not covered by the regular offerings. These are developed to meet the needs of students of advanced standing.

SP-400   Contemporary Spanish American Novel (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CW,CS) Students continue to develop advanced Spanish language and Hispanic cultural proficiency as well as critical thinking skills through the study of contemporary Spanish American novels. Prerequisite: SP250 or SP255/355 or permission of the instructor.

SP-405   Spanish Novel (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS,CW) Students continue to develop advanced Spanish language and Hispanic cultural proficiency as well as critical thinking skills through study of contemporary Spanish novels. Prerequisites: SP250 or SP255/355 or approval of the instructor.

SP-420   Generation of 1898 (Spring; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) In this course. students analyze selected essays, fiction, drama, and poetry of this key group of writers who accomplish a major renovation of Spanish thought and literary forms during the early decades of the twentieth century. Prerequisite: SP250 or SP255/355 or permission of the instructor.

SP-430   Advanced Spanish Grammar (Spring; Variable; 3.00 Credits; H,I,CS) This course serves to help advanced students gain a better understanding of the meaning of certain grammatical constructions in Spanish by systematically observing and analyzing their use in a variety of communicative contexts. Prerequisite: SP235.

World Languages

WL-201   Language in Motion (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; H,I,CS) Section 01. The course provides service-learning opportunities for international students, study-abroad returnees, heritage speakers, and upper-level language students to expand their knowledge of language and culture and to enrich local public school classrooms. After attending workshops on topic identification and development and on presentation techniques, students will conference with the instructor and host teachers to develop individual projects for presentation in school classrooms. The course is graded pass-fail. Section 02. The course provides service-learning opportunities for international students, study-abroad returnees, heritage speakers, and upper-level language students to expand their knowledge of language and culture and to enrich local public school classrooms. After attending workshops on topic identification and development and on presentation techniques, students will conference with the instructor and host teachers to develop individual projects for presentation in school classrooms. Students receive letter grades. Prerequisite: Permission.

WL-202   Language in Motion (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; H,I,CS) See WL201 The course provides service-learning opportunities for international students, study-abroad returnees, heritage speakers, and upper-level language students to expand their knowledge of language and culture and to enrich local public school classrooms. After meeting with teachers and attending a Special Topics workshop, students will conference with the instructor and host teachers to develop individual projects for presentation in school classrooms. The course is graded pass-fail. Section 02. The course provides service-learning opportunities for international students, study-abroad returnees, heritage speakers, and upper-level language students to expand their knowledge of language and culture and to enrich local public school classrooms. After meeting with teachers and attending a Special Topics workshop, students will conference with the instructor and host teachers to develop individual projects for presentation in school classrooms. Students receive letter grades. Prerequisite: Permission.

WL-203   Language in Motion (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; H,I,CS) See Wl201. The course provides opportunities for international students, study-abroad returnees, heritage speakers, and upper-level language students to expand their knowledge of language and culture and to enrich local public school classrooms. After meeting with teachers, students will conference with the instructor and two host teachers to develop individual projects for presentation in school classrooms. The course is graded pass-fail. Section 02. The course provides opportunities for international students, study-abroad returnees, heritage speakers, and upper-level language students to expand their knowledge of language and culture and to enrich local public school classrooms. After meeting with teachers, students will conference with the instructor and two host teachers to develop individual projects for presentation in school classrooms. Students receive letter grades. Prerequisite: Permission.

WL-204   Language in Motion (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; H,I,CS) See WL201. The pass-fail course provides opportunities for international students, study-abroad returnees, heritage speakers, and upper-level language students to expand their knowledge of language and culture and to enrich local public school classrooms. After meeting with teachers, students will conference with the instructor and the selected host teacher to develop individual projects for presentation in school classrooms. The course is graded pass-fail. Section 02. The course provides opportunities for international students, study-abroad returnees, heritage speakers, and upper-level language students to expand their knowledge of language and culture and to enrich local public school classrooms. After meeting with teachers, students will conference with the instructor and the selected host teacher to develop individual projects for presentation in school classrooms. Students receive letter grades. Prerequisite: Permission.

WL-303   Sociolinguistics (Spring; Odd Years; 3.00 Credits; CA,H,I) This undergraduate course is meant to encourage you to reflect on how language functions in society. We will consider a subset of topics relevant to sociolinguistics, among them dialect variation (e.g., regional, social, ethnic); language ideology and language prejudice; and linguistic debates in education. We will consider linguistic communities across the United States. Prerequisite: EN110 and Junior or Senior standing.

WL-398   Methods for Foreign Language Education (Fall; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; S,CS) This course is for students interested in teaching foreign languages or English as a foreign language or second language (ESL). This course provides a thorough introduction to contemporary theories and methods of language pedagogy. Students seeking K-12 certification in foreign languages may take this course instead of ED420 after studying abroad. It may also be taken by those students who have an interest in teaching English abroad. International students who are here a semester or a year should also consider taking this course. Prerequisites: ED110 and ED111 and ED130 and ED240

WL-490   World Language Internship (Variable; Variable; 2.00-9.00 Credits; H,I) See " Internships " in the catalog.

WL-495   Internship Seminar (Variable; Variable; 2.00-6.00 Credits; H,I) See " Internships " in catalog.