Faculty Research

I have long been interested in the legal history of Europe before 1100. I'm fascinated by how people solve their problems when they have limited access to law courts, procedure and precedent. I also like the history of the ordinary and everyday -- the things that are hard to find in primary sources, because they are too commonplace. Most recently I've begun research into medical questions as well as legal ones, and I'm working on a book-length study of breast diseases in history.


  • Feud, Violence and Practice: Essays in Medieval Studies in Honor of Stephen D. White. Editor, with Tracey L. Billado. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2010.

Articles and Book Chapters

  • “Correcting the ‘Unnatural’ Breast: Gynecomastia and Gender in Medieval Medicine,” in special edition of Medicina nei secoli (forthcoming 2018).
  • "The Necessitas naturae and Monastic Hygiene,” in Albrecht Classen, ed., Hygiene, Medicine, and Well-Being in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Periods (Berline: DeGruyter, 2017), 129-147.
  • “Age and Gender,” in the Middle Ages volume of the new 6-volume Bloomsbury series, A Cultural History of Death, ed. Ashby Kinch (forthcoming Bloomsbury 2019).
  • “Power and Trauma in the ‘Maid of Arras,’ Cantigas de Santa Maria 105,” in Wendy Turner and Christina Lee, eds., Trauma in Medieval Society (forthcoming Ashgate, 2018).
  • “Lactation and Breast Diseases in Antiquity: Medical Authorities on Breast Health and Treatment,” in special issue “Women and Womanhood in the Middle Ages,” ed. Piotr Górecki, Quaestiones Medii Aevi Novae 19 (2014): 103-38.
  • “Fashion and Benefaction in Twelfth-Century Western France,” in Emilia Jamroziak and Janet Burton, eds., Religious and Laity in Northern Europe 1000-1400: Interaction, Negotiation and Power. Turnhout, BE: Brepols, 2006, 41-62.
  • “Who was Lady Constance of Angers? Nuns as poets and correspondents at the monastery of Ronceray d’Angers in the early twelfth century,” Medieval Perspectives 19 (2004): 255-268.
  • “Women and Ordeals,” in Warren C. Brown and Piotr Górecki, eds., Conflict in Medieval Europe. London: Ashgate, 2003, 163-174.
  • "Politics, Holiness and Property in Angers, 1080-1130," French Historical Studies 24:4 (Fall 2001): 601-618.
  • "Convents," in The Feminist Encyclopedia of French Literature, ed. Eva Sartori. New York: Greenwood Press, 1999, 125-126.
  • "Disputing Corpses: Le Ronceray d'Angers versus Saint-Nicolas d'Angers, 1080-1145." Medieval Perspectives 10 (1995): 178-188.