This POE accurately reflects the requirements for a full Biology degree and also fulfills the requirements of the PA Department of Education for Secondary Certification in Biology.


BIOLOGY CORE

Take the following courses:

BI-101 General Biology I

General Biology I is the first course in the Biology POE core curriculum. This course will be structured around four primary case studies on the opioid crisis, climate change, environmental toxicology and the evolution of speed in animals. The cases will outline foundational concepts in molecular biology and evolution.

4 Credits

BI-102 General Biology II

General Biology II is the second course in the Biology POE core curriculum. In the first four weeks of this course, each lab section will work through basic lab skill development. After that, students will deploy those skills to answer a specific open-ended research question that is part of their instructor's area of expertise.

4 CreditsPrerequisite: BI-101 or BI-105

BI-289 Frontiers of Biology

Seminar series, required in all Biology POE's in the Sophomore year, consisting of research seminars given by invited speakers and members of the department, both faculty and students. Descriptions of independent research, internship and study abroad opportunities as well as reports by students and faculty on experiences in these programs will be presented.

1 Credit  


CHEMISTRY CORE

Take the following courses:

CH-142 Integrated Chemistry Principles I

An introduction to the principles of chemistry, this course begins a two semester sequence that integrates information from all aspects of chemistry while focusing on the core principles of the relationships between energy, the structure of atoms and molecules, and atomic and molecular properties and reactivity. Topics include energy, reactions, atomic structure, elemental properties, bonding, and molecular properties.

3 CreditsNCorequisite CH143

CH-143 Integrated Chem Principles I Lab

This semester will focus on learning good laboratory practices, primarily through the quantitative analysis of compounds. The quantitative analysis of materials and an understanding of reproducibility and bias are relevant to many fields, including medical analysis or the analysis of contaminants in the environment. This course will also teach you how to keep an excellent laboratory notebook, identify safety hazards in the lab, and complete data analysis and graphing in Excel. All of these tools will serve you well in a variety of careers.

1 CreditsN, QSCH142 is a corequisite of this course. A lab fee is associated with this course.

CH-144 Integrated Chemistry Principles II

An introduction to the principles of chemistry, this course completes a two semester sequence that integrates information from all aspects of chemistry while focusing on the core principles of the relationships between energy, the structure of atoms and molecules, and atomic and molecular properties and reactivity. Topics include thermodynamics, equilibrium reactions, acid/base and redox reactions, kinetics and nuclear reactions.

3 CreditsNPrerequisite: CH-142

CH-145 Integrated Chemistry Principles II Lab

This semester will focus on learning good laboratory practices, primarily through the quantitative analysis of compounds. The quantitative analysis of materials and an understanding of reproducibility and bias are relevant to many fields, including medical analysis or the analysis of contaminants in the environment. This course will also teach you how to keep an excellent laboratory notebook, identify safety hazards in the lab, and complete data analysis and graphing in Excel. All of these tools will serve you well in a variety of careers.

1 CreditN, QSPrerequisite: CH-143. A lab fee is associated with this course.

CH-232 Organic Chemistry I

Students enrolled in CH-242 will become familiar with the fundamental concepts and nomenclature needed to understand and communicate organic chemistry. The course is furtherdesigned to teach the structure-function relationships that exist across many classes of organic and bio-organic systems, and therefore provide a foundation for further study in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, and medicine.

3 CreditsNPrerequisite: CH-144; Corequisite: CH-233.

CH-233 Organic Chemistry I Lab

This course will utilize techniques learned in CH-145 and carry out experiments illustrative of concepts learned in CH-232. The course will focus on spectroscopy, organic laboratory techniques and reactions, and compound characterization. This course will also reinforce good record-keeping skills continue to stress safe lab practices. A lab fee is associated with this course.

1 CreditsNPrerequisite: CH-145. Corequisite: CH-232.


STATISTICS CORE

Take one of the following courses:

MA-130 Calculus I

An introduction to calculus including differentiation and integration of elementary functions of a single variable, limits, tangents, rates of change, maxima and minima, area, volume, and other applications. Integrates the use of computer algebra systems, and graphical, algebraic and numerical thinking.

4 CreditsN, QM

BI-305 Biostatistics

This course deals centrally with quantitative and statistical methodology in the biological sciences. It includes experimental design and the conventions of generating, analyzing, interpreting and presenting biological data. Counts as a math course for graduate and professional school requirements.

4 CreditsN, QS, CTGESPrerequisites: BI106 or ESS100

BI-305CW Biostatistics

This course deals centrally with quantitative and statistical methodology in the biological sciences. It includes experimental design and the conventions of generating, analyzing, interpreting and presenting biological data. Counts as a math course for graduate and professional school requirements. This writing intensive section requires the writing of an individual research report and one additional hour of class time to discuss writing in biology.

5 CreditsN, QS, CW, CTGESPrerequisites: BI106 or ESS100


PHYSICS CORE

Complete one of the following options below (8 credits):

OPTION 1:

PC-200 General Physics I

An algebra-based introduction to the basic principles of mechanics (including periodic motion, fluid static's and dynamics), heat and thermodynamics, molecular theory and wave motion (including acoustics). Note: a working knowledge of algebra and trigonometry is required. 

3 CreditsN, QMCorequisite: PC200L.

PC-200L  General Physics Lab I

An introductory algebra-based laboratory experience designed to accompany PC200. The individual experiments will involve topics in mechanics, energy, sound, and waves. Labs Involve computer acquisition of data for some experiments. Note: A special fee is assessed. 

1 CreditNCorequisites: PC200.

PC-201 General Physics II

An algebra-based introduction to basic principles of electricity, magnetism, electromagnetic waves, and optics. Additional topics may include atoms and molecules, nuclear physics, relativity and solid state physics. Note: a working knowledge of algebra and trigonometry is required. 

3 CreditsN, QMCorequisite: PC201L. Prerequisite: PC200.

PC-201L  General Physics Lab II

An algebra-based introductory laboratory experience designed to accompany PC201. The individual experiments will involve topics in circuits, light and optics, and nuclear physics. Involves computer acquisition of data for some experiments. Note: A special fee is assessed. 

1 CreditNCorequisite: PC201.


OPTION 2:

PC-202 Intro Physics I

A calculus-based introduction to the basic principles of mechanics (including periodic motion and dynamics), heat and thermodynamics, and special relativity. 

3 CreditsN, QMCorequisite: PC-202L and Corequisite or Prerequisite: MA130.

PC-202L Intro Physics Lab I

This lab is a calculus-based introductory laboratory experience that is designed to accompany PC202. Individual experiments will correlate with the course, including kinematics, Newton's Laws, energy, and momentum. Note: A special fee is assessed. 

1 CreditNCorequisite: PC202.

PC-203 Intro Physics II

A calculus-based introduction to basic principles of electricity, magnetism, electromagnetic waves and optics. Additional topics may include atoms and molecules, nuclear physics, relativity and solid state physics.

3 CreditsN, QMPrerequisite: Take PC-202 or PC-204. Corequisite: PC-203L.

PC-203L Intro Physics Lab II

An algebra-based introductory laboratory experience designed to accompany PC-203. The individual experiments will involve topics in circuits, light and optics, and nuclear physics.

1 CreditNPrerequisite: PC-202 or PC-204. Corequisite: PC-203.


UPPER-LEVEL BIOLOGY

Take 18 credits of 300-400 Biology credits. Approved courses from Chemistry, ESS & Psychology are permitted. *Consult with POE advisor to make certain courses selected are correct.

BI-300 General Ecology

Examines the interactions of living organisms with their physical, chemical and biotic environments. Special attention is given to the environmental, biological and historical factors affecting the distribution, abundance, adaptation, and diversity of species in natural communities.

3 CreditsNPrerequisites: BI-101 and BI-102. Corequisite: BI-301.

BI-301 General Ecology Lab

Students work together as research teams to carry out original investigations on the ecology of local species and natural communities. Emphasis on ecological research design, data collection and analysis, and oral and written presentation of results. Frequent field trips are included. Note: a special lab fee is assessed and one field trip may require an additional fee.

1 CreditsNCorequisite: BI300

BI-325 Plant Ecology

Primarily an ecology course, but also included is a significant amount of plant identification/classification and plant epochology. The ecology portion will cover the whole spectrum of this fast-growing field; from communities and ecosystems to theory and adaptation.

3 CreditsNCorequisite: BI326. Prerequisites: BI105 and BI121 and Junior or Senior standing.

BI-326 Plant Ecology Lab

The first 10 weeks are devoted to laboratory work on the identification of the local entophyte flora. Students are required to make a personal collection representing a minimum of 8 families and are expected to become proficient in using a scientific manual. During the 5th and 6th week there is a mandatory all day field trip to collect forest data. An extensive paper on forest succession will be due by semester's end. Note: A special fee is assessed.

1 CreditNCorequisite: BI325

BI-339 Organic Evolution

Presents the theory and facts of organic revolution through a review of modern and historical research on the subject. Major topics include population genetics, adaptations, evolutionary ecology, systematics, the fossil record, molecular evolution, ontogeny and phylogeny, macroevolution, co-evolution, human evolution, and sociobiology.

3 CreditsNPrerequisite: BI207 or BI300.

ESS-325 Conservation Biology

Conservation Biology encompasses biology, politics, ethics, economics and anthropology. The major course objective is the exploration of conservation complexities--important for successful conservation efforts. Other objectives are to gain an understanding of extinction, community conservation, population genetics and demography. This course has a required weekend field trip with a fee added for the trip.

3 CreditsS, NPrerequisites: ESS100 or BI105.

ESS-320 Environmental Monitoring

This course develops skills in monitoring the environment, with a strong focus on water quality monitoring (both chemical and biological) in a variety of habitats. Environmental site assessment will also be conducted. A weekend-long field trip is required.

4 CreditsNPrerequisite: ESS100 and ESS200 or permission.

PY-402 Evolutionary Psychology

This course uses the lens of modern evolutionary theory to understand human behavior. We will look for the influence of human evolutionary history on several modern human behaviors including, among others, dating and marriage, aggression, altruism, child-rearing, and behavioral differences between the sexes.

3 CreditsS, N, CSPrerequisites: PY101 or BI105 and Junior or Senior standing or permission of the instructor.

PY-401 Comparative Psychology

Comparative Psychology examines the continuity of behavioral and psychological mechanisms between nonhuman animals and humans suggested by evolutionary theory. Attention is paid to the comparison between human and nonhuman animals on traditionally human characteristics, including self-recognition, language, culture, tool use, and several other characteristics.

3 CreditsS, N, CSPrerequisites: PY101 or BI105 and Junior or Senior standing or permission of the instructor.

ESS-328 Limnology

An ecology/environmental science course covering inland aquatic environments (lakes and streams). A balanced study of both physical-chemical and biological aspects, it is an appropriate upper level addition to a variety of POE's in natural sciences.

4 CreditsNTake BI105 and BI121 and ESS100 or permission of the instructor.

BI-460 Genetic Analysis

Topics covered will include basic and advanced topics in transmission, quantitative and population genetics, with emphasis on analysis. the methods that modern researchers use to discover the molecular basis of adaptive or disease traits and how they are transmitted over generations in model and non-model species. Case studies will be used to challenge students' understanding of conceptual material in context. Students will present an article from the primary literature and present on a topic of their choice. This class assumes students enter with a basic understanding of Molecular and Mendelian Genetics.

3 CreditsNPrereqs: BI-101 or 105, and BI-102 or  106.

BI-331 Molecular Microbiology

Focuses on the structure, function, growth, genetics and ecology of viral, bacterial, and fungal microorganisms. Basic concepts are emphasized and topics important to the quality of human life are examined.

3 CreditsN, CTGESCorequisite: BI332. Prerequisites: BI207 and Jr. or Sr. standing.

BI-332 Molecular Microbiology Lab

Presents procedures and experiments which demonstrate basic micro-biological concepts and techniques. Illustrates and augments the content of the lecture. Note: A special fee is assessed.

1 CreditNCorequisite: BI331

CH-418 Advanced Biochemistry

Advanced Biochemistry is the third semester of the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) curriculum for Biochemistry POEs, expanding the content of the previous two semesters. Stressing techniques and instrumentation, the course is comprised of student-led learning modules, which are created around the primary literature with the help of the instructor. Topics may include metabolism, systems biology, or genomics.

3 CreditsNPrerequisite CH342.

BI-316 Molecular & Cellular Biology

A comprehensive approach to the study of cells, with emphasis on molecular techniques and understanding the primary literature. Analysis of the cell at the molecular level emphasizes a unity in the principles by which cells function.

3 CreditsNPrerequisites: BI207 and CH342

BI-318 Developmental Biology

This course offers comprehensive investigation of the concepts and mechanisms of development, including ganetogenesis, fertilization, pattern formation and organogenesis. The course examines classical and molecular approaches examining problems of development. Students are expected to present research from current literature in the field.

3 CreditsNPrerequisites: BI207

BI-340 Medical Microbiology

A lecture and lab course focusing on the biology of microorganisms and microbial interactions with humans. Foundational concepts of microbial cell structure, diversity, metabolism, genetics and impacts on humans are discussed along with medical, biotechnical, and environmental aspects of microbiology. Lab provides hands on experiences with microbiological techniques and handling microorganisms safely and aseptically.

4 CreditsNNote: A special fee is assessed. Prerequisite: BI106 and CH144.

CH-312 Biochemistry

The fourth semester of the introductory Chemistry series, this course pulls content from chemistry, biology, mathematics, and history to provide an integrated view of biochemistry. Topics include the use of thermodynamics, equilibrium, non-covalent interactions, kinetics, separations, biomolecular structure, and genetics to probe and explain biological phenomenon.

3 CreditsNPrerequisites: Take BI-102 (or have instructor's permission) and CH-232.

BI-360 Vertebrate Zoology

Focuses on the vertebrate animals of the Eastern United States. Collection, taxonomic identification and natural history are emphasized.

3 CreditsNSuggested corequisites: BI361. Prerequisites: BI105 and Ecology/Biology related POE.

BI-361 Vertebrate Zoology Lab

Frequent field trips, for observation and specimen collection are followed by exercises in identification, specimen preparation, and museum techniques to illustrate and augment the concepts and content of the lecture. Note: A special fee is assessed and one optional field trip requires an additional fee.

2 CreditsNCorequisite: BI360

BI-350 Invertebrate Zoology

Focuses on the organizational plan, behavioral and ecological adaptation, diversity and economic importance of representative members of the major invertebrate phyla.

2 CreditsNCorequisite: BI351. Prerequisite: BI105 and BI121.

BI-351 Invertebrate Zoology Lab

Illustrates and augments the content and concepts of the lecture through direct observation and/or dissection of selected representative organisms.

2 CreditsNCorequisite: BI350

BI-367 Comparative Anatomy

A study of the structural organization of the human body organized around the major body systems with an emphasis on structure function relationships. To gain deeper understanding of structure function relationships, we will study human anatomy in relation to our position within the vertebrate lineage, comparing human anatomical features with those of other vertebrates.

3 CreditsNPRE-REQ BI 105 CO-REQ BI 367

BI-368 Comp Anatomy Laboratory

Provides additional content to support the lecture using human models, online resources and dissection of selected representative vertebrates with an emphasis on amniote, mammalian and human anatomy. Note: A special fee is assessed.

1 CreditNCorequisite: BI367

BI-327 Botany

This course will provide an in-depth examination of the biology of plants. In lecture and lab we will examine plant reproduction and development, morphology and physiology, evolution and biodiversity, and ecology and conservation. Particular attention will be paid to the aspects of plant biology that are unique to this branch of life and/or are of critical importance to human or other biotic interactions (e.g. photosynthesis, pollination, agriculture, etc.).

4 CreditsNPrerequisites: BI105. Note: A special course fee is applied.

BI-324 Ornithology

This course provides a comprehensive survey of the comparative biology, ecology, and behavior of birds with a special focus on issues pertaining to conservation and management. Laboratory activities focus on field identification of birds and research and monitoring techniques. Several field trips are possible with one possible 3 day trip to Assatteague Island.

3 CreditsNPrerequisite: BI105

BI-323 Mammalogy

Examines the comparative biology of living mammals, including taxonomy, evolution, biogeography, ecology, morphology, physiology and behavior. Special attention is given to conservation issues, the relevance of mammals in modern biological research, and field techniques for studying mammals.

3 CreditsNPrerequisites: BI105 or permission of the instructor.

BI-370 Herpetology

This course presents the biology of amphibians and reptiles from an evolutionary, anatomical and ecological perspective. Phylogenetic diversity of modern taxa will be presented, focusing on North American groups. Instruction will be in the form of lectures, discussions, laboratory activities and field trips to observe local herpetological species.

3 CreditsNPrerequisites: BI105. Note: A special course fee will be applied.

BI-310 Physiology

A combined laboratory and lecture course which examines the function of cells, tissues, organs, and systems. Physical, Mathematical, chemical, and anatomical concepts are integrated to gain a comprehensive appreciation of the dynamics of living organisms. Students are introduced to the use of physiological instrumentation, experimental design, collection and statistical analysis of data, and preparation of scientific manuscripts. Laboratory experiments amplify and complement the lectures.

4 CreditsN 

BI-305 Biostatistics

This course deals centrally with quantitative and statistical methodology in the biological sciences. It includes experimental design and the conventions of generating, analyzing, interpreting and presenting biological data. Counts as a math course for graduate and professional school requirements.

4 CreditsN, QS, CTGESPrerequisites: BI106 or ESS100

BI-399 Special Topics

Offered at the discretion of the department to qualified students. Topic titles may vary from semester to semester and more than one may be offered per semester. Note: Students may take each Special Topics course for credit and a special fee is assessed.

1-4 CreditsCTGESPrerequisite: permission of the instructor, or as indicated.

BI-450 Neurobiology

Neurobiology is a lecture course that addresses concepts ranging from the molecular biology of ion channels to signal integration and behavior. This course is experimentally based and will focus on the biophysics, chemistry, and mechanisms of signal production and integration in the nervous system. Particular attention will be paid to sensory systems and memory consolidation. In addition to lecture exams, students will gain valuable experience in scientific writing through the preparation of a review paper on a neurobiological topic of their choosing.

3 CreditsNPrerequisites: BI207 or PY238 or permission.

BI-432 Environmental Toxicology

Broadly integrative in nature, this class compounds in environmental systems and focuses on the potential for deleterious consequences in wildlife species and humans. Examines aspects of chemistry, cell biology and ecology in considering environmental contamination. Instruction includes lectures and student presentations/writing exercises.

3 CreditsNPrerequisites: Take 2 courses from BI105 or CH142 or ESS100 and permission of the instructor.

BI-432CW Environmental Toxicology

Broadly integrative in nature, this class examines the fate and actions of xenobiotic compounds in environmental systems and focuses on the potential for deleterious consequences in wildlife species and humans. Examines aspects of chemistry, cell biology and ecology in considering environmental contamination. Instruction includes lectures and student presentations/writing exercises.

4 CreditsN, CWPrerequisites: Take 2 courses from BI-105 or CH-142 or ESS-100 and permission of the instructor.

BI-417 Reproductive Biology

This course examines reproductive biology by integrating aspects of development, anatomy, cell biology, and hormone physiology with the behavior and ecology of vertebrates.

3 CreditsNPrerequisites: BI06

BI-334 Immunology

Covers the properties of antigens, antibodies and complement, humoral and cell-mediated immunological systems, antigen-antibody interactions and hypersensitivity reactions.

4 CreditsNPrerequisites: BI106 and CH342.


EDUCATION CORE

Take the following courses:

ED-110 Foundations of Education

Discusses the historical and contemporary bases of major political, economic, legal, sociological, and psychological issues affecting public school systems. Students review current issues in education and write a personal philosophy statement.

3 CreditsSCorequisite: ED111.

ED-111 Foundations of Education Field Experience

Provides a classroom experience for freshmen and students who are interested in education to explore teaching as a career and observe the application of multiple philosophies, theories, and teaching strategies.

1 CreditSCorequisite: ED-110

ED-130 Adolescent Development

Examines human physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development from preadolescence through emerging adulthood. Topics include: identity, sexuality, and gender issues; emotional and behavioral challenges of adolescence, the impact of culture, language, and disability on adolescents, and the role of family, schools, and peers on development.

3 CreditsSEnrollment priority in this course is given to Education POEs.

ED-201 Educational Technology

Introduces educational technology and computer systems and their current applications in the classroom. Topics to be covered include office programs, Web 2.0 programs, multimedia programs, course management systems and web-page construction; classroom presentation software; use of assistive technology and software evaluation.

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: ED110 and ED111 or ED101 and ED120 and ED121. ED130 may be taken as an alternate prerequisite for ED120/ED121 only.

ED-240 Introduction to Students With Exceptionalities

Introduces the culture of exceptionalities within the public special education system. Historical, philosophical, educational, and legal perspectives will be presented. Students will learn the categories of exceptionalities, general characteristics of individuals with exceptionalities eligibility criteria, and the referral process for special education services. Professional and community resources, inclusion and other current issues will be discussed.

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: ED110 and ED111 and ED120 and ED121 or ED130.

ED-314 English Language Learners

Focuses on the historical, legal, and cultural issues pertaining to meeting the educational needs of English language learners. Students are be introduced to research based best practices in instruction and assessment strategies for working with English language learners in the general education classroom setting.

1 CreditSPrerequisite: ED120 or ED130.

ED-315 ELL Field Experience

Provide students with 30 hours of field experience and participation in a variety of multi-cultural and multi-lingual environments in order to broadentheir own experiences, prepare to teach English learners, and work with diverse families. Students accumulate required hours throughout their program, but they formally register for course credit during student teaching or their final semester at Juniata College.

1 CreditSPrerequisites: ED314. Graded S (satisfactory) or U(unsatisfactory).

ED-341 Adaptations for Students With Exceptionalities

The purpose of this course is to learn how to develop and manage effective inclusive learning environments for students with disabilities at the secondary level. Content will focus on the knowledge and skills necessary to create an instructional environment that communicates challenging expectations to students while utilizing and modifying research based instructional strategies/resources/technologies. Students will learn the critical components of effective collaboration with parents and professionals. Successful completion of a field experience in an educational setting is also a requirement.

4 CreditsCW, SPrerequisites: ED110, ED111 and ED240.

ED-419 Pre-Student Teaching Field Experience

Secondary pre-student-teaching practicum is a required 80-hour minimum practicum in the linked placement where you will be going for student teaching. Students should plan to spend four consecutive hours in their placement each week.Reliable transportation is REQUIRED.

1 CreditSCo-Requisite: ED-420.

ED-420 General Secondary Methods

Requires the application and practice of evaluation and assessment of learning and classroom management. Students are required to complete a field experience in their upcoming student teaching placement.

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: ED341 and junior or senior standing. Corequisite: ED419. Note: Students must have reliable transportation. (3.0 overall GPA required).

ED-423 Secondary Education Field Trip

Secondary Education Field Trip (1 credit): Join in an interdisciplinary course that will design and execute a field trip for local secondary students. This is a practical application course that will highlight the importance of field trips and provide an opportunity for designing and executing a successful field trip.

1 CreditS 


ED-450 Student Teaching

Student teaching is the capstone experience for students preparing for certification to teach in their content area(s). Students synthesize and apply knowledge of developmental theory, content, and teaching methodology as they design, implement, and evaluate learning experiences in an intensive internship in the classroom. Corequisite: ED451 and completion of all clearances and requirements. Note: A special fee is assessed. Secondary level student teaching is in the fall semester; PreK-4th, and foreign language education student teaching is in the spring semester. Students must have access to reliable transportation.

14 CreditsS,SW-LE 

ED-451 Student Teaching Seminar

In conjunction with student teaching, students attend weekly seminars that are led by the college supervisors. These meetings focus on professional topics and allow students to reflect upon and share their student teaching experience. In addition, students develop interviewing techniques, become familiar with employment seeking strategies, and develop a portfolio that includes but is not limited to a resume, a philosophy of education statement, lesson plans, and documentation of professional experiences.

1 CreditSCorequisite: ED450.


**ED 450 & ED 451 (Student Teaching and Seminar) may be taken only in the FALL semester of the senior year. Secondary Foreign Language Education majors take ED 450 & ED 451 in the SPRING semester. ED 450 requires students' full-time participation and no other courses may be taken during this semester without the education advisor's approval. Students must have reliable transportation.


NOTE: It is imperative that students work closely with their advisors to met all current certification requirements. All students are required to take six credits of English composition (or equivalent) and literature (or the equivalent) and two college level mathematics courses (or the equivalent) prior to being admitted to a certification program. See Section I of the Education Department Student Handbook for explanation of all certification requirements.


Students must have an advisor who is a member of the Biology Department faculty and Dr. Kathleen Jones in the Education Department.


POE Credit Total = 86-90

Students must complete at least 18 credits at the 300/400-level.  Any course exception must be approved by the advisor and/or department chair.