### MATHEMATICAL CORE

*Take the following courses:*

**MA-130** Calculus I

An introduction to calculus including differentiation and integration of elementary functions of a single variable, limits, tangents, rates of change, maxima and minima, area, volume, and other applications. Integrates the use of computer algebra systems, and graphical, algebraic and numerical thinking.

4 CreditsN, QM

**MA-160** Linear Algebra

An introduction to systems of linear equations, matrices, determinants, vector spaces, linear transformations, eigenvalues, and applications.

3 CreditsN, QM**Prerequisites: MA130.**

**MA-230** Calculus II

Expands the treatment of two-space using polar and parametric equations. Emphasizes multivariable calculus, including vectors in three dimensions, curves and surfaces in space, functions of several variables, partial differentiation, multiple integration, and applications.

4 CreditsN, QM**Prerequisite: MA130**

**MA-235** Calculus III

A continuation of the calculus sequence. Topics include methods of integration by Simpson's Rule, applications, Taylor and Fourier series; introduction to ordinary differential equations; integration in polar, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates; differential and integral vector calculus.

4 CreditsN, QM**Prerequisites: MA230.**

**MA-335** Differential Equations

Theory and application of ordinary differential equations. Emphasis on modern qualitative techniques, with numerical and analytical approaches used when appropriate. Contains a brief introduction to partial differential equations.

4 CreditsN, QM**Prerequisites: MA130 and MA230 and MA235 or MA233.**

### PHYSICS CORE

*Complete one of the following options below:*

OPTION 1:

**PC-202** Intro Physics I

A calculus-based introduction to the basic principles of mechanics (including periodic motion and dynamics), heat and thermodynamics, and special relativity.

3 CreditsN, QM**Corequisite: PC-202L and Corequisite or Prerequisite: MA130.**

**PC-202L** Intro Physics Lab I

This lab is a calculus-based introductory laboratory experience that is designed to accompany PC202. Individual experiments will correlate with the course, including kinematics, Newton's Laws, energy, and momentum. Note: A special fee is assessed.

1 CreditN**Corequisite: PC202.**

OPTION 2:

**PC-204** University Physics

A calculus-based introduction to the basic principles of mechanics (including periodic motion, statics, and dynamics), heat and thermodynamics, and special relativity. This course includes an integrated introductory laboratory experience. This course is designed to be taken by students interested in a POE in Physics or Engineering Physics. Note: a special fee is assessed.

4 CreditsN, QM, WK-FR**Corequisite: MA-130**

*Take the following courses:*

**PC-203** Intro Physics II

A calculus-based introduction to basic principles of electricity, magnetism, electromagnetic waves and optics. Additional topics may include atoms and molecules, nuclear physics, relativity and solid state physics.

3 CreditsN, QM**Prerequisite: Take PC-202 or PC-204. Corequisite: PC-203L.**

**PC-203L** Intro Physics Lab II

An algebra-based introductory laboratory experience designed to accompany PC-203. The individual experiments will involve topics in circuits, light and optics, and nuclear physics.

1 CreditN**Prerequisite: PC-202 or PC-204. Corequisite: PC-203.**

**PC-189** Physics Seminar I

Seminar series, required of all freshmen Physics/Physics-Engineering POEs, consisting of research seminars given by invited speakers and members of the department, both faculty and students. Discussions regarding specific career opportunities and preparation for graduate studies will also be an integral part of the seminar series.

1 Credit ** **

**PC-289** Physics Seminar II

Seminar series, required of all sophomore Physics/Physics-Engineering POEs, consisting of research seminars given by invited speakers and members of the department, both faculty and students. Discussions regarding specific career opportunities and preparation for graduate studies will also be an integral part of the seminar series.

1 Credit **Prerequisites: PC189.**

**PC-300** Modern Physics Lab

The origin and progress of physics in the 20th century, including relativity and quantum theory with applications in atomic and molecular physics, nuclear physics, elementary particles and possibly some solid state physics. Note: A special fee is assessed.

3 CreditsN, CW**Prerequisites: MA230 and PC203. Corequisite: PC301.**

**PC-301 ** Theoretical Modern Physics

The origins and progress of Physics in the 20th century, including relativity and quantum theory with applications in atomic and molecular physics, nuclear physics, elementary particles and possibly some solid state physics.

3 CreditsN**Prerequisites: MA230 or PC203. Corequisite: MA235.**

**PC-307** Advanced Physics Lab

Provides laboratory projects at the intermediate level. A series of projects is offered which best meet the educational needs of the student.

3 CreditsN, QS, CW**Prerequisite: PC300. Special fee assessed.**

**PC-340 ** Mathematical Methods in Physics

An introduction to the mathematics used in advanced physical science courses. The emphasis is on early exposure to mathematical techniques and their applications rather than on rigorous derivation. Topics include series analysis, complex variables, theory, matrix mechanics, ordinary and partial differential equations, vector and tensor analysis, and Fourier series.

3 CreditsN**Prerequisites: PC203 and MA230.**

**PC-389 ** Physics Seminar III

Seminar series, required of all junior Physics/Physics-Engineering POEs, consisting of research seminars given by invited speakers and members of the department, both faculty and students. Discussions regarding specific career opportunities and preparation for graduate studies will also be an integral part of the seminar series.

1 Credit **Prerequisite: PC289.**

**PC-402 ** Quantum Mechanics

This course continues the discussion of the Schrodinger Equation, the particle-in-a-box, the harmonic oscillator, angular momentum, the hydrogen atom, and electron spin started in PC300 and/or CH305, but at a level that is mathematically much more detailed and proceeds from the postulates of quantum mechanics in a logical manner. With this beginning, the course then focuses on more complex problems such as the behavior of multi-electron atoms and molecules. Issues of the meaning of measurement such as embodied in the EPR paradox, the Bell Inequality, and the interpretation of associated experiments are also discussed. The course is heavily problem oriented requiring a strong mathematical background.

4 CreditsN**Additional mathematics background such as PC340 and/or MA335 is suggested in addition
to the formal prerequisites of MA235 and PC300 or CH305.**

**PC-410 ** Mechanics

A study of classical mechanics including Newtonian, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches. Emphasis is placed on developing the student's ability to analyze physical problems involving particles, systems of particles and rigid bodies. Insight is provided into a variety of techniques for solving such problems.

4 CreditsN**Prerequisites: PC203 and PC340.**

**PC-489 ** Physics Seminar IV

Seminar series, required of all senior Physics/Physics-Engineering POEs, consisting of research seminars given by invited speakers and members of the department, both faculty and students. Discussions regarding specific career opportunities and preparation for graduate studies will also be an integral part of the seminar series. Prerequisite: PC389, and restricted to Seniors with POE of Physics or Engineering Physics.

1 Credit ** **

**PC-491 ** Electricity & Magnetism

A study of electromagnetic phenomena, including electrostatics, electric fields in matter, magnetostatics, magnetic fields in matter, introductory electrodynamics including Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic waves, potentials, and fields.

4 CreditsN**Corequisite: PC340. Prerequisite: PC203.**

### PHYSICS ELECTIVES

*In addition to the required Physics and Mathematics courses, at least two of the following
courses must be taken (graduate schools may expect additional courses):*

**PC-209** Electronics

An introduction to the theory and application of analog and digital electronics, starting with basic AC and DC circuits. The unit explains the principles of operation of the power supply, amplifier, oscillator, logic circuits, micro controllers, and other basic circuits. An associated laboratory component allows construction of and measurements on the circuits under consideration. Note: a special fee is assessed.

3 CreditsN** **

**PC-239 ** Nuclear Threat

This course examines the development and ramifications of nuclear weapons. Students will learn the basic physics upon which these devices operate, and explore moral issues that arose in the interactions of communities impacted by their construction, use, and testing, including the perspectives of scientists, government officials, and affected citizenry. Current issues and concerns regarding nuclear weapons will be studied as well.

4 CreditsCA,N,H,CW,WK-SP** **

**PC-350 ** Thermodynamics

An intermediate level course treating the concept of temperature and its measurement, the concepts of heat and work, the laws of thermodynamics, applications of these concepts to physical systems, the elements of statistical mechanics and as many topics of current concern as time allows.

3 CreditsN**Prerequisites: MA235 and PC301.**

**PC-430 ** Optics

The wave theory of light as applied to interference, diffraction, polarization, and image formation. Major emphasis on Fourier techniques. Study of geometrical optics, quantum optics, and radiometry as time permits.

3 CreditsN**Prerequisites: PC300 or PC301.**

#### POE Credit Total = 60-62

Students must complete at least 18 credits at the 300/400-level. Any course exception must be approved by the advisor and/or department chair.

Physics is the science that explores all aspects of the complex interactions of matter and energy, from the forces that bind atoms to those that build bridges. Physicists study and develop concepts that are used in a precise mathematical description of nature and construct experiments to test their ideas. Skills cultivated in a study of Physics include critical reasoning, problem-solving, logical thought, and the ability to clearly communication the value of this work to both peers and the public. Physics is at the core of a liberal arts education in a technological society.

The Physics Program of Emphasis is structured to allow a student to prepare for graduate school or to seek immediate employment. The first two years of physics consists of a broad introduction to the field, providing basic knowledge and initial analytical skill development. Some laboratory work is included to insure contact with concrete phenomena, while the mathematics sequence offers the necessary problem-solving techniques and discipline required for the upper-level physics courses at Juniata. At the upper level this program trains students in the fundamentals of experimentation and theory.

The program as stated provides minimal preparation for graduate school and many schools would expect more of their entrants. A person starting early in the field and heading clearly toward graduate school needs to develop a program with greater depth. The Department therefore recommends that a serious student take as large a fraction of the elective courses in physics as possible, and, in addition, acquire research experience.