Department Websites:

Core Faculty:

  • Professor Dennis Johnson (Chair) - ext. 5335
  • Professor Neil Pelkey - ext. 3589
  • Associate Professor Uma Ramakrishnan - ext. 3436
  • Assistant Professor George Merovich - ext. 3954
  • Lecturer Chuck Yohn (Director, Raystown Field Station) - ext. 3572

Mission Statement:

The mission of the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences is to prepare students for a successful post-graduate career in one or more earth and environmental science fields, and instill values of responsible environmental citizenship in all students who interact with our programs. We do this in accordance with the overall mission of Juniata College.

Background Information:

The Environmental Sciences and Studies (ESS) Department strives to train Juniata College students to solve problems related to Environmental system and to understand how these problems influence aesthetic, economic, natural resource, environmental, intellectual, and ethical issues facing society. ESS students have the opportunity to choose from curricula offered by the department including: (1) environmental economics, (2) environmental science, (3) environmental studies, and (4) wildlife conservation. Environmental science focuses on the scientific study of the relationship between humans and the natural world; Environmental studies examines that relationship from a social science and humanities perspective and Wildlife conservation focuses on an understanding and protection of biodiversity. Environmental Economics uses the tools of economics, finance, and psychology to help solve pollution and natural resource harvesting problems.

Special programs, facilities, or equipment:

  • The Raystown Field Station: 365 acres of land available for college use, provides students with environmental research and education opportunities
  • Shuster Hall at the Raystown Field Station: a new "green" building, made with 40% recycled materials and energy-efficient design, as a teaching tool and classroom
  • Field station residence programs in all semesters (including summer).
  • Coastal Marine Science, Semester in India
  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) computer lab
  • Multiple Global Positioning System (GPS) units
  • Remote Field Course, summer course in Southwestern Desert
  • “Hands on experience” starting at the introductory level, through numerous local field trips exploring spectacular geologic sites in the Appalachians
  • Extended field trips (2 to 7 days) associated with several upper-level courses
  • Remote Field Course in the American Southwest, taught collaboratively with faculty in Biology, Environmental Science and Studies, Anthropology, and Physics
  • Student run farm
  • Experimental Forest
  • GIS Certificate Program

Programs of Emphasis:

  • Environmental Economics
  • Environmental Science
  • Environmental Studies
  • Wildlife Conservation

Examples of Individualized Programs of Emphasis:

  • Environmental Policy
  • Marine Science
  • Water and Conflict

Secondary Emphasis:

Take 4 courses from the required courses below:

  • Introduction to ESS (ESS-100)
  • Water Resources I (ESS-209)
  • Natural Resource Management (ESS-324) or Conservation Biology (ESS-325)
  • Environmental Economics(ESS-305) or Environmental Law (ESS-337)

Plus take 2 courses from the optional course below:

  • BI-105, Biological Diversity & Ecology + BI 121, Biology Lab
  • BI-300, General Ecology
  • HS-262, North American Environmental History
  • GL-100, Introduction Physical Geology
  • ESS-324, Natural Resource Management or ESS-325, Conservation Biology
  • ESS-305, Environment Economics or ESS-337, Environmental Law
  • ESS-401, Senior Capstone
  • GL-202, Historical Geology

6 courses are required for the secondary emphasis.

GIS Certification program:

Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial reasoning are a mainstay knowledge base for working professionals in environmental science, resource management, local and regional planning, disease monitoring and evaluation, real estate, military planning, and social science research. The Juniata GIS certificate program is offered jointly by the Environmental Science and Studies and the Computer Sceince and Infomration Technology Departments. We have two tracks to prepare a student for a career in any of the GIS fields. The first track has a focus on Environmental Science. This track has more courses in field methods in GIS and spatial analysis. The second track has a focus on Information Technology. This track has more courses in programming and data mining. The certificate is open to students in all deparments as well as to Juniata alumni.

Requirements for GIS (18-21 credits): 

We have designed this certificate based on looking at successful programs. We include tracks in Environmental Science and in Information Technology.  The requirements of the certification are as follows:

A. Quantitative field intro (1 course) (4 credits): This section requires the student to have a quantitative introductory class in their field. The requirement of this course is that it has a lab or quantitative section where Excel or other spreadsheet or database program is used to compile and represent or analyze data.

One course from the following:

Environmental Track ESS100 Introduction to Environmental Science
IT Track: IT111 Principles of Information Technology or CS110 Computer Science I.

B. Core Statistics or data analysis (1 course) (3-4 credits): One course from this section must be taken:

Environmental Track: ESS 230 : Environmetrics or BI 305 Biostatistics
IT Track: IM 241: Information Discovery

C. Core Geographic Information Courses (3 courses )(8 credits)

Both tracks:
• ESS 330: Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (or Methods in Marine Science)
• ESS 337 Advanced Topics in GIS and Remote Sensing

D. Field data collection component (1 course) (3-4 credits): This section is intended to have students exposed to the vagaries of field data collection. It is preferred that students collect spatially explicit data using GPS technoligies or other spatially explicit survey methods. Database manage or other courses that explore the process of data collection will also meet this requirement.

IT Track:
 CS 370 Database Management
Environmental Track: (Pick One From)

  • ESS 399 Ecology of Fishes—(3)
  • ESS 399 Forestry
  • ESS 399 Hydrology at the Station—(3)
  • ESS 399 Wildlife Techniques (3)
  • BIO 399 Field and Stream: Grant & Muth—(4)
  • ESS 350 Field Research Methods—(4)
  • GL 240 Geological Field Meth. I (4)

E. Capstone or project requirement (1-4):

IT Track: This will normally be a GIS related project done via an IT 307/308 and 380 or 480: Innovation for Industry course series, but it may be done as an independent study or project stemming from another course.
Environmental Track: This will normally be a GIS related project done via ESS 410 Senior Capstone class, but it may be done as an independent study or project stemming from another course.


Neil Pelkey, PhD.: Associate Professor Environmental Science and Studies and IT
Email: or (814)641-3589

Dennis Johns, PhD.: Professor and Chair Environmental Science
Email: or (814)641- 5335

Loren Rhodes, PhD.: Professor and Chair, Computer Science and Information Technology
Email: or (814) 641-3620 

Sample Internship/Research Experiences:

  • Kenai Peninsula, Alaska
  • Dept. Fish and Wildlife, Oregon
  • Department of Environmental Protection, Pennsylvania
  • Game Commission, Pennsylvania
  • Army Corps of Engineers
  • Regional Math/Science Center, Frostburg State University, Maryland
  • Coastal Marine Science Semester in India
  • Mangrove Restoration in India Funded by the UN Development Programme
  • Most students complete at least one original research or external internship experience.
  • In recent years, students have completed internships with the US Geological Survey, National Museum (Smithsonian), PA Department of Environmental Protection, PA Department of Transportation, National Parks Service, and numerous private sector firms.


ESS-100   Environmental Systems I (Variable; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; N,WK-SP,CTGIS) This course introduces students to the concept of systems, reviews ecological systems, and then goes on to human systems as these impact the environment. The course will explore the two forces that are at the core of most environmental impacts (climate change, ozone depletion, air and water pollution, and a loss of biodiversity) will be explored as will the fundamental attributes of agriculture, food, soil, and water. Throughout, the influence of culture, society, ethics, and science on the environmental problems will be discussed. Pre-Req or Co-Req: FYC-101 or EN-110 or EN-109

ESS-110   Environmental Systems II (Variable; All Years; 3.00 Credits; N,SW-LE) This course introduces students to the concepts of environmental systems and sustainability, review of ecological systems, and human impact on the environment. Students will work on a restoration/conservation project with a community partner to improve soil/water resource quality in the community. Students will be introduced to scientific writing and write a scientific paper. Pre-req or co-req: FYC-101 or EN-110 or EN-109. (NOTE: ESS-100 is not a prereq for ESS-110.)

ESS-118   Global Justice Film (Variable; Yearly; 1.00 Credit) Through the medium of film, this one-credit course showcases environmental and sustainability issues within a global context. The themes and documentaries presented in the course will focus on intersecting elements of the environment, culture, access, class, gender, sustainability, and innovation. Based on the documentaries and discussion in the course, opportunities to engage in local sustainable measures will be possible.

ESS-119   Environmental Film (Variable; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; F) This course explores classic and current environmental and nature films and documentaries as both art and information. Students will watch and discuss 10 films.

ESS-121   Environmental Film Lab (Variable; Yearly; 2.00 Credits; F) Create a short nature or environmental film. The course will cover filming, sound interviewing experts, and post-production. Students will use Adobe Premier and Audition.

ESS-199   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Allows departments to offer topics not normally scheduled. Prerequisites, corequisites, and fees vary by title.

ESS-206   Global Environmental Issues (Variable; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; N,WK-SI) Global Environmental Issues is a global public health course. Environmental problems create some of the most pressing public health issues of our time. This course seeks to train the participants to identify the public health challenges created by environmental problems in various parts of the world and exploring practical solutions for those problems.

ESS-212   Kenyan Cultures & Natural Resources I (Spring; Variable; 2.00 Credits; SW-GE) This short-term study abroad course series provides an interdisciplinary and intercultural introduction to Kenya though a wide range of experiences. Kenya is a diverse country with many different ecosystems, languages, and cultural traditions, making it a dynamic and vibrant place. Apart from visiting national parks, the students will examine wildlife management as a tool to build economic resilience in communities. NOTE: This is a two-course sequence that includes a predeparture course (ESS-212) on campus in spring semester and a two-week travel course in summer term (ESS-213). The total fee for the experience is split between the two courses. Pre- or Co-Req: FYC-101 or EN-110 or EN-109.

ESS-213   Kenyan Cultures and Natural Resources II (Summer; Variable; 2.00 Credits; SW-GE) This short-term study abroad course series provides an interdisciplinary and intercultural introduction to Kenya though a wide range of experiences. Kenya is a diverse country with many different ecosystems, languages, and cultural traditions, making it a dynamic and vibrant place. Apart from visiting national parks, the students will examine wildlife management as a tool to build economic resilience in communities. NOTE: This is a two-course sequence that includes a predeparture course (ESS-212) on campus in spring semester and a two-week travel course in summer term (ESS-213). The total fee for the experience is split between the two courses. Pre-Req: ESS-212.

ESS-219   Agroecology (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; N) This course will explore alternate production systems in agriculture as ecological systems.

ESS-224   Wildlife Mgmt (Spring; Variable; 3.00 Credits; N) Wildlife management incorporates the science and management of wild animals, both rare and common species. Threatened species may require particular knowledge of population structure and processes for effective management, while common species may need control or might be exploited as novel production products. Prerequisites: ESS-100 or BI-101 or BI-105.

ESS-225   Wildlife Management Techniques (Variable; Yearly; 2.00 Credits; N) Course will provide students with knowledge of common field research techniques employed by wildlife biologists.

ESS-230   Environmetrics (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N,QS,CTGES,CTGIS) This course is a survey of the various visual, statistical, and modeling approaches commonly used in the analysis of environmental data. The course covers: (1) visual literacy from exploratory data inquisition to poster creation; (2) elementary group comparisons such as t-test and ANOVA and their non-parametric analogs;(3) basic systems modeling; and (4) regression modeling techniques based on the generalized linear model framework.

ESS-235   Environmental Reading (Variable; Variable; 1.00 Credit; N,CW) This class will explore 2-3 classic and/or modern works in environmental studies and natural history. The writers list includes: Aldo Leopold, Annie Dillard, Dan Dagett, Saul Alinski, Wangari Maathai, Gifford Pinchot, Bill McKibben, Mary Kingsley, Ian McHarg, Wendel Berry, Andrew Lytle, Ester Boserup, Roderick Nash, Vandana Shiva, Rose Reuter, Barry Lopez, Bernd Heinrich and others.

ESS-261   Marine Biology I (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; N) This course takes a biological, physiological, and ecological approach to studying life in the oceans. We start with a basic review of the ocean. We will then provide an overview of the oceans as the course has a global focus. We then take a biological tour up the food chain.

ESS-262   Fluid Mechanics (Variable; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N) An introductory course in the basic principles of fluid properties and fluid flow. The course will cover fluid system/control volume relationship analysis for continuum, energy, and momentum study

ESS-265   Food Fermentation (Variable; Variable; 1.00 Credit; N) Salt, pH, bacteria, fungi, heat, and evaporation have been used by cultures around the work to preserve and enhance food. We will explore these processes by reading about the processes and then producing some of the simpler products from these traditions including jerky (drying and salting), cheese (bacterial and enzymatic fermentation), artisanal bread (fungal and bacterial fermentation), kimchi (bacterial fermentation), kombucha (Fungal and Bacterial fermentation), essential oils (evaporation and precipitation), and fermented but non-alcoholic ciders (fungal fermentation and pH reduction).

ESS-297   Fire Ecology & Management (Variable; Variable; 2.00 Credits) This course provides students with an understanding of wildland fire fighting and controlled burns as tools for forest management. The successful student will have satisfied the minimum training requirements to participate in controlled burns and fight wildland fires.

ESS-298   Animal Care, Training , and Education (Variable; Variable; 4.00 Credits; N) The Animal Care, Training, and Education course covers all aspects of operating an educational wildlife center. Topics include permitting, housing, husbandry, training, and conservation outreach with native wildlife. The course will provide the scientific foundations of animal husbandry, behavioral science, and educational methodology. A strong hands-on component, utilizing Shaver's Creek Environmental Center's Animal Care Facilities, provides students with an immersive experience to develop these skills under the guidance of the centers' staff. Select field sessions will enhance conservation connections to Shaver's Creek's live animal exhibits.

ESS-299   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-3.00 Credits; N) Allows the departments to offer special topics not normally offered. Departments may offer more than one special topic. Prerequisites, corequisites, and fees vary by title.

ESS-301   Environmental Methods (Either Semester; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N) This course deals with a variety of environmental issues and problems. This includes the causes and the scientific and social backgrounds needed to understand them. It also introduces the student to the roles of scientists and engineers in dealing with them. The course involves both quantitative and qualitative assessments. Prerequisites: ESS100 and 1 year of chemistry or permission of the instructor.

ESS-305   Environmental Economics (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; S) This course will cover the basics of microeconomic analysis as it applies to the environmental decision making and environmental policy with respect to pollution abetment, resource harvesting, and sustainability analysis. The course will also explore the strengths and weaknesses of economic models of human behavior. Finally, the course explores the growing concern of sustainable and resilient economies. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing or permission of the instructor.

ESS-309   Econometrics (Spring; Yearly; 2.00 Credits; N,Q) A first course in econometrics with forays into regression, optimization, and modeling. Prerequisites: Introductory economics course.

ESS-310   Water Resources I (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; QM,N) This course provides the student with a working overview of the hydrologic cycle, providing the student with the basic concepts of all aspects of hydrology. Particular emphasis is placed on the integrative nature of ecosystems within the watershed, including the interdependencies and driving forces of energy, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the land, and the biosphere. Prerequisites: ESS100.

ESS-315   Environmental Chemistry (Variable; Yearly; 4.00 Credits) Environmental Chemistry is an application of chemical principles to the study of the environment. It includes natural processes and pollution problems related to air, water, and soil.

ESS-318   Environmental Water Quality (Either Semester; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; N) The objective of this course is to provide an overview of surface and groundwater quality and the impacts of human and natural influences on both human and environmental health. Analytical methods for water quality assessment. Physical, chemical, and biological factors of water quality. Introduction to water/wastewater treatment processes. Prereqs: CH-142 and BI-101.

ESS-320   Environmental Monitoring (Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; N) This course develops skills in monitoring the environment, with a strong focus on water quality monitoring (both chemical and biological) in a variety of habitats. Environmental site assessment will also be conducted. A weekend-long field trip is required. Prerequisite: ESS100 and ESS200 or permission.

ESS-321   Water & Wastewater Treatment (Variable; Yearly; 4.00 Credits) Theory and design of water and waste treatment systems for industrial, municipal, and hazardous pollutants and natural biotransformation of pollutants in the environment. Laboratory experience in startup, operation, and analysis of systems that biodegrade pollutants and produce useful forms of energy.

ESS-323   Aquatic Ecology (Variable; Variable; 4.00 Credits; N) A study of the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes. Emphasis on the role of water chemistry, pollution, and biotic interactions on the distribution of aquatic life. Laboratory includes field sampling and identification of aquatic organisms.

ESS-324   Natural Resource Management (Either Semester; Variable; 3.00 Credits; N) This course provides a comprehensive coverage of local, regional, national, and global resource and environmental issues from population growth to wetlands to sustainable agriculture and natural resource policies and legislation. It considers renewable and non-renewable resources such as water, land, soil, air, wildlife, and their associated habitats. Prerequisites: ESS-100 and either BI-101 or BI-105.

ESS-325   Conservation Biology (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; S,N) Conservation Biology encompasses biology, politics, ethics, economics and anthropology. The major course objective is the exploration of conservation complexities--important for successful conservation efforts. Other objectives are to gain an understanding of extinction, community conservation, population genetics and demography. This course has a required weekend field trip with a fee added for the trip. Prerequisites: ESS-100 or BI-101 or BI-105.

ESS-328   Limnology (Fall; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; N) An ecology/environmental science course covering inland aquatic environments (lakes and streams). A balanced study of both physical-chemical and biological aspects, it is an appropriate upper-level addition to a variety of POEs in natural sciences. Pre-Reqs: ESS-100 and either BI-101 or BI-105.

ESS-330   Geographical Information Systems (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; CTGIS) This course is an introduction to a Geographical Information System (GIS), and the course objective is that students gain a basic, partial understanding of GIS concepts, technical issues, and applications using Arc View GIS. It encourages thinking in spatial context. A diverse array of hands-on computer applications and projects are used to understand how geographical data can be analyzed spatially. Students explore analysis techniques in a problem basis learning approach using small team projects. Note: A special course fee is assessed. Prerequisite: ESS100.

ESS-335   Quantitative Ecology (Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; QS) The goal of the course is to advance student understanding of a broad range of numerical and graphical techniques used to analyze complex data sets encountered in the environmental sciences. Students will learn the context to properly apply these techniques to address research questions. The purview is ecological, but is applicable to all other quantitative endeavors. The course emphasizes conceptual understanding, relevant applications, and proper interpretation rather than gory, though interesting, statistical theory. Students will apply the R language and environment for statistical computing to tailor analyses to specific circumstances. Pre-reqs: ESS-110 and ESS 230.

ESS-337   Environmental Law (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; S,CTGIS) This course will examine the major environmental laws in the United States and major Supreme Court cases covering these statutes. The status covered will be National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), The Clean Water Act (CWA), Clean Air Act (CAA), Endangered Species Act (ESA), Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), Toxic Substances Control Act (TOSCA), Forest Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Prerequisites: ESS-100 and sophomore standing or above.

ESS-340   Forestry (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; N,CTGIS) This course provides a comprehensive survey of the discipline of forestry and forest ecology with special emphasis on tree identification, timber mensuration, and forest management issues in central Pennsylvania. Prerequisites: ESS100.

ESS-345   Ichthyology (Spring; Odd Years; 4.00 Credits; N,QS,CTGIS) This course provides an in-depth and active hands-on study of fishes within an evolutionary framework. Lecture explores fish ecology, evolution, diversity, systematics, zoogeography, and conservation. Laboratory focuses on fish classification, fish biology and morphology, and skills needed to identify fishes of the central Appalachians. Prerequisites: BI-101 or BI-105 and BI-102 or BI-121 plus junior standing, or permission of instructor.

ESS-346   Freshwater Invertebrates (Spring; Even Years; 4.00 Credits; N,QS) This course provides an applied experience studying aquatic invertebrates that occupy freshwater ecosystems of North America. Lecture focuses on invertebrate ecology, sampling, monitoring, and analysis strategies for bioassessment, conservation, and description of taxa. Laboratory focuses on taxonomy, classification, and identification of families of invertebrates of the local central Appalachians. Prerequisites: BI-101 or BI-105 and junior standing.

ESS-350   Field Research Methods (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N,CTGIS) Field Methodologies is intended for students interested in gaining experience in conducting filed based ecological or environmental research. Students will be lead through the process of investigation, including the generation of research questions, research planning and design, analysis of data, and presentation methods, while giving them the opportunity to conduct independent projects. This is not a techniques/equipment training course; it will fulfill the independent study requirement of the ESS POE. This course will be particularly useful to students considering a field based senior research project. A course in statistics or ecology is highly recommended. Prerequisites: ESS100.

ESS-352   Restoration Ecology (Variable; Variable; 4.00 Credits; N) This course provides an overview of how ecological knowledge can be used to guide the recovery or restoration of degraded ecosystems. Although many restoration projects are constrained logistically (money, people power, statutes, etc.), we focus largely on ecological processes, biological and landscape constraints, and what the science of ecology can bring to the field of ecological restoration.

ESS-355   Ornithology (Summer; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N) This course provides a comprehensive survey of the comparative biology, ecology, and behavior of birds with a special focus on issues pertaining to conservation management. Laboratory activities focus on field identification of birds and research and monitoring techniques. Prerequisite: BI-101 or BI-105.

ESS-361   Field Methods in Marine Systems (Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; N,Q) Taught in India. This is the methods portion of the course including field techniques, quantitative methods, and a scientific writing seminar. The student requirements will be a short paper, four section quizzes and a final exam Prerequisites: GL111 and ESS100. Permission of instructor required.

ESS-362   Island Ecosystems (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N) Taught in India. This course will introduce the students to island ecosystems from both applied and theoretical viewpoint. The course will run in the Andaman Islands in India. The topics covered will include island fauna, island flora, reef ecosystems, and a ridge to reef view of these complex biotas. Prerequisites: GL111 and ESS100.

ESS-363   Upland Process and Estuaries (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N) Taught in India. This course will introduce students to estuaries and upland processes. About 50% of the course will be on site with the discussion and activities intended to give a very close view of the processes, ecology, and issues in coastal watersheds and estuaries. Prerequisites: GL111 and ESS100 and permission of instructor.

ESS-364   Culture, Class and Gender (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; CA,S,I,CW) Taught in India. This course will cover issues of gender and other disadvantaged groups in coastal management. Fishing villages are often composed of people who are ethnically, religiously, or class-wise distinct from upland populations. Women also have culturally distinct roles in the harvesting, production, and processing of natural resources. Prerequisites: ESS100 and permission of the instructor and the Center for International Education. A trip fee is applied.

ESS-365   Sustainable Development (Summer; Variable; 3.00 Credits; I,N) This course is a combination of sustainable agriculture, sustainable forestry, coastal fisheries, very low impact living, and ecotourism. We will travel from Chennai to Pondicherry, then to the foothills of the Western Ghats, onward to the coastal port of Kochi in Kerala, and finally to the ecotourism resorts in Kovalam. Prerequisites: SO, JR, or SR standing.

ESS-377   GIS Advanced Topic (Fall; Variable; 4.00 Credits; N,QS) This course explores spatial decision support systems, hot spot modeling for home range, disease and crime, intermediate image analysis, habitat classification from multispectral and hyperspectral imagery. Prerequisites: ESS310 or ESS330 or permission of the instructor.

ESS-380   Sense of Place Seminar (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; CA,CW) Taught at Raystown Field Station. This is the " cornerstone " of the Sense of Place semester, managed by one faculty, but comprised of a series of modules taught by various faculty and guest speakers. Module topics cover a range of environmental, ecological, and societal issues connecting to the region. Students will be expected to journal their experiences at RFS as well as complete other writing assignments. Note: There is a course fee assessed. Prerequisites: ESS100 or permission of the instructor.

ESS-399   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Topics vary from year to year. They will focus one or more special environmental skills, methods, approaches or technologies. A laboratory fee will be assessed.

ESS-399L   Special Topics Lab (1.00 Credit)

ESS-400   Senior Capstone I (Fall; Yearly; 1.00-3.00 Credits; S,CTGIS) The Senior Capstone course is intended to provide a real-world, project-based experience working on an advanced-level project. The student teams utilize skills they have acquired in their academic career to evaluate and provide potential solutions to realistic environmental tasks. The project will be chosen each semester based on needs and opportunities in local agencies to provide an advanced project that can be done in one semester. Prerequisite: Senior standing or permission of the instructor.

ESS-401   Senior Capstone II (Spring; Yearly; 1.00-3.00 Credits; N,S,CTGIS) This course is the spring semester Senior Capstone option. It is intended to provide a real-world, project-based experience working on an advanced-level project. The student teams utilize skills they have acquired in their academic career to evaluate and provide potential solutions to realistic environmental tasks. The project will be chosen each year based on needs and opportunities in local agencies to provide an advanced project that can be done in one year. Prerequisite: ESS-100 and Senior standing or instructor permission.

ESS-410   Water Resources II (Spring; Odd Years; 3.00 Credits; QS,N,CTGIS) This is an advanced hydrology course aimed at furthering the students understanding of the complex interactions of the hydrologic cycle. Particular emphasis will be placed on mathematically modeling the process including precipitation, runoff, infiltration, soil moisture and stream flow. Prerequisites: ESS310 and MA130

ESS-415   Fate & Transport of Pollutants (Variable; Yearly; 4.00 Credits) The course is designed to provide an understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern the distribution of contaminants through the environment, as well as the processes that are involved in the transformation or degradation of a contaminant. Knowledge of these processes is essential for designing pollution prevention, control, monitoring, and remediation strategies, and for risk assessment. We will cover the distribution of pollutants in air, water, soil, and biological tissues, with particular emphasis on toxic organic pollutants.

ESS-445   Fishery Science & Management (Fall; Odd Years; 4.00 Credits; H,N,QS) This course is a survey of the elements of fisheries science and management including the biology, ecology, management, and conservation of fisheries and aquatic resources. Emphasis is on whole ecosystem approaches to ecology and management of inland freshwater fisheries of North America and associated habitats. Prerequisites: BI-101 or BI-105 and BI-102 or BI-121 or permission of instructor.

ESS-450   Environmental Research (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 1.00-6.00 Credits; S) An independent research experience that includes the preparation of a research proposal. Students present research results during weekly meetings with instructor. A research paper is the end point of the research experience. Presentation of results at national meetings is encouraged. May be repeated for up to 15 credits. Prerequisite: ESS100 and ESS300 and permission of the instructor.

ESS-460   Coastal Zone Management (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; S) Taught in India. This course will cover the current legal status, international treaties, state and central government coastal zone management regulations, and the history and current status of conflict and the attempts to overcome that conflict in India. This includes shrimp farming, over fishing, pollution, shipping, oil spills changes in beach morphology and coastal topography from weirs dams, etc. Prerequisites: GL111 and ESS100.

ESS-490   Environmental Science and Studies Internship (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 2.00-9.00 Credits; N) Note: May be repeated up to a total of 9 hours of credit. Prerequisite: Permission and Jr. or Sr. Standing. Corequisite: ESS495.

ESS-495   ESS Research Seminar (Either Semester; Yearly; 2.00-6.00 Credits; N) Requires students to reflect on experience and/or pursue relevant research. Corequisite: ESS490. Prerequisite: Permission and Jr. Sr. standing.

ESS-499   Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 3.00 Credits) Allows the departments to offer special topics not normally offered. Departments may offer more than one special topic. Prerequisites vary by title.

ESS-TUT   ESS Teaching Assistant (Variable; Variable; 1.00-3.00 Credits; N)