Juniata College, much like any other higher education institution or business, must present a consistent image for its audiences on the Web, on the printed page and in other media. This Visual and Editorial Style Guide should be used when preparing any written or visual communications materials that represent the College.

Juniata's external audiences are current and prospective students, alumni, donors, business and community leaders, media, and many more. Consistent and effective communication with each of these audiences is critical to the College's growth and success.

By using strict and unchanging standards, Juniata can project a strong, unified, and professional image to all audiences, even though communications are coming from many separate units across our campus. These standards indelibly identify your unit as part of the College, increasing brand identity with your audience and making it more likely that your message will be received.

Editorial Style

"Style," as it pertains to writing and language, refers to consistency of usage as well as rules of grammar, punctuation and journalistic style. At Juniata, the dominant style form used for web and print is Associate Press Style, which is used by most American media. These style guidelines are meant to provide a standard by which all of the College's written and Web materials have a consistent readability.

Employees who write for the Web should have a copy of the Associated Press Stylebook. Other useful tools include Webster's Collegiate Dictionary and "The Elements of Style," by Strunk and White.

Juniata College

Write out Juniata College on first reference, but "Juniata" or "the college" is acceptable on second reference.

In internal Juniata publications, such as the Juniata alumni magazine or enrollment materials, the "C" in College should be capitalized in all cases. As in: "The College maintains its rigorous academic curriculum."


DO NOT use JC as a reference to Juniata or Juniata College in any context. To most readers JC does not refer to Juniata College, but rather to Jesus Christ or as a colloquialism for “junior college.”

Spacing after periods in a sentence

In all documents written for any Juniata publication or on the Web, space only once after a period at the end of a sentence. In typesetting, spacing twice after a period results in a large gap. Spacing twice after periods is a convention from typewriting classes.

Table of Contents



Academic and Administrative Titles

Titles are capitalized when they precede names or are used as part of names.
Ex.: President Jim Dandy said...
Ex.: Associate Professor Donald Duck said...

Academic titles are lowercase if they follow names or describe or identify.
Ex.: Sally Port, professor of history

Endowed Professorships or Endowed Chairs, should be capitalized whether it precedes or follows the name.
Ex.: Belle Tuten, W. Newton and Hazel Long Professor of History
Ex.: Donna Weimer, Sedgley and Elizabeth Bailey Thornbury Professor of Communication

Instructor in, not instructor of

visiting instructor in, not of

lecturer in, not lecturer of

Professor emeritus, not emeritus professor
Ex.: Jim Crackcorn, professor emeritus of history

Professor emerita for female faculty
Ex.: Shirley Ugest, professor emerita of history

plural usage is professors emeriti

Professorship in, not of

Research assistant in, not of

Academic Departments

When a title includes the name of a specific department or unit, the name of the unit is capitalized.
Ex.: Sandy Beach, director of development
Ex.: Joseph Smith, chair of the Department of History

On second reference, refer to an office in lowercase- such as “the development office” or “the history department.”

Presidential Title

Capitalize president only when the title precedes the name of the person.
Ex.: President Tom Jones
Ex.: Tom Jones, president of Juniata College

Former presidents of the college should be referred to as president emeritus as a title.
Robert Jones, president emeritus
Robert Jones, former president of Juniata College

For faculty, staff or students, the person should be identified by title.
Ex.: John Law, director of media relations
Ex.: Jim Locker, assistant provost
Ex.: Beverly Hill, a sophomore studying politics

Those who have earned doctoral degrees should not be referred to as Dr. in printed material. This follows the AP style guides that only doctors of dentistry, medicine, osteopathy and podiatry are referred to as Dr. on first reference. If you must must use Dr. in referring to a doctorate-holder, drop the Dr. on subsequent references.

Avoid redundancy--such as Dr. Paul Mall, M.D.

Academic Degrees
Spell out in all cases, using these preferred identifiers: bachelor's degree, master's degree and doctoral degree. Doctorate also is acceptable.

In lists you can abbreviate academic degrees, using periods and no spaces--B.A.; M.S.; M.B.A.; Ph.D.

Academic Year
When referring to an entire year, use the construction 2002-2003 academic year. Do not use 2002-03 academic year in any case. In referring to parts of the academic year, lowercase fall semester and spring semester in all uses except to start a sentence.

Spell out the full name of an acronym during its first use in a piece. Please the acronym in parentheses behind that first, full name. Then, you may refer to the thing as the acronym. Example: The Juniata Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership (JCEL) is located across from Sheetz. JCEL enables students to create their own businesses.

Street addresses are always written in numerals, except when the address is part of the building name: One Police Plaza.

Not advisor

Admissions office
The correct term for Juniata College is the Office of Enrollment. Second references should refer to the enrollment office.

An acronym standing for African, Latino, Asian, Native American. It refers specifically to U.S. citizens from racial and ethnic minority groups.

Refers in all cases to the Juniata College yearbook. If referring to the former elementary school or the mythical Native American princess, please explain the context.

Alumnus/Alumni, alumna, alumnae
Use alumnus and alumni in the plural, when referring to a man who has attended any school.
Use alumna (alumnae in the plural) to refer to a woman who has graduated from any school.
Use alumni when referring to men and women in a group.

Alumni Relations
Use the term Office of Alumni Relations or alumni relations office.
Do not use alumni office on first reference.

Never use an ampersand sign (&) in editorial text, only in charts and graphs. Use “and” in text.
Ex.: Jim Smith, vice president for advancement and marketing, is quitting.
Ex.: Joe Smith is professor of accounting, business and economics.

Do not use an ampersand as part of the descriptor for the Juniata academic department.
Accounting, Business, and Economics
Ex.: He is chair of the Department of Accounting, Business, and Economics
Ex.: Mike Johnson, professor of accounting, business, and economics, is leaving.

Areas of work
When making a general reference to where a Juniata employee works, lowercase the reference. Ex.:  She has worked on the facilities crew for 10 years
Ex.:  He has worked in food services for 12 years.

Armed Forces/Military Titles
The full names of all armed services are capitalized (U.S Air Force, U.S. Marine Corps, the Army Corps of Engineers). But lowercase army, navy, etc. when not referring to a specific title and when referring to naval forces of other nations (the British navy).



Baker Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies
Spell out on first reference and refer to it as the Baker Institute or “the institute” on second reference.

Baker House
The Baker House is a guest facility for overnight guests. It has nothing to do with the Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies.

Beeghly Library
Use the formal name on first reference, “the library” on subsequent references.

Blue and Gold
When referring to Juniata’s sports teams, capitalize Blue and Gold.

Ex.: The Blue and Gold football team annihilated Susquehanna in a 48-3 stomping.

The college’s official colors are Yale Blue and Old Gold.

The correct usage is the Juniata College Bookstore on first reference and “the bookstore” after that.

Brand names
Brand names and registered trademarks are capitalized Band-Aid; Kleenex; Styrofoam; Frisbee; Velcro. If possible used generic names such as adhesive bandage or tissue.

BCA Study Abroad
Spell out on first reference and on subsequent references.

Buildings, structure names

Alumni Hall
Refers to the large auditorium in the central hub of Brumbaugh Academic Center. To avoid confusion, please use Alumni Hall in news and College publications instead of the room number A100.

Beeghly Library
Use the formal name on first reference, “the library” on subsequent references.

Bob & Eileen Sill Incubator
Sill Incubator also is acceptable on second reference

Brewed Awakening
Refers to the coffee station inside the library.

Brumbaugh Academic Center
Spell out the building name. Use BAC on second reference.

Within the Brumbaugh Academic Center are three wings: Dale Hall, the Physics Wing and the Biology Wing.

Café au Lait
Refers to the snack bar near the central hub of Brumbaugh Academic Center

Dale Hall
Refers to wing housing business and IT faculty on the upper floor and communication, math and IT faculty on the lower floor

Ellis Hall
Not Ellis College Center

Founders Hall
Not Founder’s Hall

Juniata College Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership
The business incubator is located in a former elementary school on Moore Street and 13th St.

The acronym JCEL is acceptable on second reference. In general, writers do not have to add (JCEL) after the full name. The reference is clear.

Kennedy Sports and Recreation Center

Marlene and Barry Halbritter Center for the Performing Arts
In internal marketing publications, refer to the center on first reference as the Marlene and Barry Halbritter Center for the Performing Arts. In Juniata Magazine, also use the entire name on first reference. In editorial copy for press releases, use the Halbritter Center for the Performing Arts on first reference, Hallbritter Center or “performing arts center” on second reference.

Tom and Pat Kepple Integrated Media and Studio Arts Building
On first reference, write out the full name. In headlines refer to the building as Kepple IMSA Building or for less formal second reference, “the Kepple Arts Building.”

Oller Center for Peace and International Programs
Oller Center is the house containing the Baker Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies and the Center for International Education. On first reference refer to the programs first, as in “the Center for International Education in the Oller Center for Peace and International Programs.”

Rosenberger Auditorium
The von Liebig Theatre and Rosenberger Auditorium are part of the Halbritter Center for the Performing Arts. Thus, when identifying events in the performing arts, always give the performing venue and add “in the Marlene and Barry Halbritter Center for the Performing Arts.” “Using Halbritter Center for the Performing Arts” also is acceptable

“von Liebig Theatre” and “Halbritter Center” are acceptable on second reference.

Raystown Field Station
Refers to the four-building complex of Shuster Hall, two residence lodges and Grove Farm.

Shuster Hall is the multipurpose building where most of the classroom instruction occurs at the field station.

Lakeside Center
Acceptable on first reference to the complex of buildings that comprise the Juniata College Raystown Field Station. In referring to any project or event, please use Raystown Field Station on first reference. If you wish to avoid confusion with the old center, know known as Grove Farm, use Lakeside Center to avoid confusion.

Ex.: The multipurpose building, Shuster Hall, is part of the Lakeside Center.

Suzanne von Liebig Theatre

William J. Von Liebig Center for Science
If the context is clear that the publication is from Juniata, writers can use von Liebig Center for Science on first reference. On second reference “the science center” is acceptable.

Rockwell Seminar Room

Sill Boardroom
Not Sill Board Room. Also give the building location of the boardroom in the von Liebig Center for Science, when referring to to the room.

Refers to the snack bar in the lobby of the von Liebig science center.

Residence Halls
Cloister Hall
South Hall
Lesher Hall
Tussey-Terrace Hall
Sunderland Hall
East Houses
Sherwood Hall
Nathan Hall 

Refer to residence halls by the formal name in all printed publications.

Names of buildings, roadways, monuments and other structures are capitalized: the White House, the Bud Shuster Highway.



Refers to a Cultural Analysis course. Always use the formal name in describing this part of Juniata’s curriculum. Try to avoid using the acronym.

Refer to all official college fundraising campaigns by its official name on first reference.
Ex.: Juniata is coming to the end of the Uncommon Outcomes campaign.
Lowercase references to fund-raising campaigns on subsequent references.

Use in conjunction with Juniata College unless the context of the sentence makes it obvious you are referring to the Juniata College campus. Use common sense in deciding when to specifically identify the campus.

No words should be capitalized unless they are proper nouns. This includes titles of Programs of Emphasis (POEs). The only exceptions are world languages, which are proper nouns. Thus, a student studying English and information technology should only cap the ‘E’ in English. Named professorships are proper nouns, but other titles are not. So, we capitalize the title of Jane Doe, James Quinter Professor of Biology, but not John Doe, who is assistant professor of history.

Campus Addresses
To designate locations for events or meeting locations ALWAYS put the Room number first, then the building. Use the Room numbering system common to the building. No need to use a comma unless the room reference is part of a full sentence.

If the room is more well known by its name, please use the official name
Neff Lecture Hall
Alumni Hall
Room 422 Good Hall
Room 301 Founders Hall
Room 2011 von Liebig Center for Science
In Brumbaugh Academic Center, designate which wing the room is in, C, B, or P
Room C229, Brumbaugh Academic Center
Room B211 Brumbaugh Academic Center
Room P220 Brumbaugh Academic Center

It is acceptable in all but the most formal college communications to use Acronyms

Information Technology and Library Services
Use in all instances as Juniata’s provider of technology assistance.

Career Services
The Office of Career Services.

Center for International Education
Use the formal title on first reference. The center is located in Oller Center.

central Pennsylvania
Do Not capitalize central in this usage.

Not chairman, chairwoman or chairperson.

classwork/course work

Refer to it by the formal name Cloister Residence Hall in all printed publications.

Coed and coeducational are both spelled as one word.

Colleges and Universities
For names and locations of other colleges and universities, consult American Universities and Colleges, a reference book. Uppercase College when used as a proper name for a college. Lowercase when used alone, whether it refers to a college or not.

In the Juniata magazine, College is uppercase when making a reference to Juniata College, both in text and in quotations.

The word commencement is lowercase. In Juniata magazine, Commencement is uppercase.

Committee Names
In general, committee names are not capitalized.

Capitalize when referring to Pennsylvania.

For faculty on the Department of Communication and for academic titles, there is no “s” at the end of communication.

continuing education
Lowercase when referring to the concept.
Ex: She supports older people taking on continuing education efforts.

Courage to Act 
The name of the College's strategic plan, adopted in 2015, is Courage to Act, italicized in every usage. 

Course Names, Numbers, Descriptions
In all references to a Juniata course, use the reference number, followed by a colon, followed by the title of the course.
He is taking EB 202: Behavioral Analysis of Organizations.

Course titles should be capitalized but not italicized. They should be set apart by quotation marks.
 Ex.: Jeff was flunking his ‘Sword and Scimitar’ class.

Cultural movements, periods, styles
Numerical period designations are lowercased unless they are part of a proper name (eighteenth century) Generally, most historical or cultural period names are lowercase except for proper nouns and adjectives (baroque period; classical period, romantic period, but Victorian era; Edwardian age) Also, capitalize to avoid confusion (Bronze Age; Enlightenment; Middle Ages; Reformation; Renaissance). Cultural Movements should be capitalized if they were inspired by proper nouns (Doric; Gothic; but cubist, dadaist,; postmodernist)

Always use numerals: 3 credits; 15 credits in politics; a 3-credit course. Credits are earned in a subject, not of it. A POE may require 25 credits in politics, but it does not require 25 credits “of” politics.

Refers to College Writing Seminar. Always use the formal title on first reference and try to avoid using the acronym in any printed materials.

One word.



Data is plural, datum is singular.

Month, day, year--June 6, 1957

Month and year only, no comma--September 1902

Dean’s List
Lowercase in all uses.
Ex.: She made the dean’s list last semester.

No apostrophe for decades: 1920s, 1870s, 1950s. In some cases you can spell out decades (fifties, sixties) or use an abbreviation (’60s, ’70s).

Department Names
Capitalize when used as a formal name: Department of Physics; but lowercase as an informal name: the physics department, the department.

A person with disabilities is the preferred usage. Avoid using the word handicapped.


Separated by a slash, not a hyphen.

One word.

Dots per inch, a measure of photo and screen resolution. For reproduction in print, photos must be either 200 dpi or 300 dpi.



Early Childhood Education Center
Always use this formal title in editorial publications. If appropriate include the center’s location, in Lesher Hall. Never use ECEC in a publication if at all possible.

Ellis Hall
The correct title for this building is Ellis Hall. Always use this designation in editorial material.

Within Ellis Hall are:

Baker Refectory, the dining facility. Autocorrect programs will change this to Refactory or Reflectory, so be aware of possible changes.

Eagles Landing is the casual food facility.

The Juniata College Bookstore, which is operated by Follett Inc.

Non-hyphenated. But, e-book, e-business, e-commerce and e-shopping.

Endowed professorships, named professorships, chairholders

Capitalize all nouns in the title, whether the title appears before or after the person’s name.

List of Endowed Professorships
John Downey Benedict Professor of English
George “Fritz” Blechschmidt ’54 Professorship in Environmental Science
William I. and Zella Book Professor of Physics
I. Harvey Brumbaugh Professor of Russian
W. Clay and Kathryn H. Burkholder Professor of Conflict Resolution
Charles A. Dana Professor of
Martin G. Brumbaugh Professor of Education
John and Irene Dale Professorship in Information Technology, Computer Science and Mathematics
Dilling Endowed Chair in Early Childhood Education
J. Omar Good Professor of Religion
David K. Goodman Endowed Chair in Biology
Elma Stine Heckler Professor of Music
Dr. Charles R. and Shirley A. Knox Chair in History
W. Newton and Hazel A. Long Professor of History
Rosenberger Chair of Christian and Religious Studies
Swigart Associates Supported Assistant Professor of Business and Economics
Sedgley and Elizabeth Bailey Thornbury Professor of Communication
William W. Woolford Professorship in Physics

This refers to Extended Orientation component of College Writing Seminar. This is never to be used in any editorial copy. It’s better to explain this as a part of the seminar program than to confuse people with an alphabet soup of acronyms.

Ethnic Group Designations

African American
On first reference African American, without a hyphen. On subsequent references black is preferred. Note that the terms are not interchangeable.

Asian and Pacific American
Use Asian Pacific American, Asian American or Pacific American. Never use the word Oriental in describing people. The identifier Asian should be applied only to international students.

Latino/a and Hispanic American
On first reference use Latino/a or Hispanic American; for subsequent references use Latino/a/x, depending on whether gender identity is known or preferred. If you need to be more specific use a regional designation; Peruvian, Colombian, Cuban, Mexican. People from Spain are Spanish, not Spaniards.

American Indian/Alaska Native,
Use whatever identifier the individual or group prefers. Whenever possible the name of the tribe or Alaskan native village should be used. Spellings are published by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The word Indian is always uppercased, then the words tribe, nation or village is part of the name, that should be capitalized too.

Philippines; Filipino
One of the most commonly misspelled ethnic identifiers

White American

Shared identity based on cultural practices, perspectives, and  socially defined distinctions such as ancestry, a sense of history, language, religion, and forms of dress. (eg. Latino, Chicano, Arabic, Dine, etc.)



Facilities Services
Please refer to all employees in this department as employees of facilities services. Never use the term “Blue Army” in any printed material and try to refrain from using just the word “Facilities” as an identifier.

Lowercase with a sentence in all uses.

Faculty is used with the singular form of the verb when referring to a single unit and the plural form of the verb when referring to a group of individuals

Ex.: The faculty include all disciplines in their group. The faculty decides which students are allowed to participate.

Lowercase unless it is the first word in a contact line such as a business card or form.

federal, state
Ex.: He has worked for federal and state agencies.

When used to refer to an academic Fellow, capitalize on all references. Fellowship should be lowercase, unless referring to the name of a specific fellowship.

Ex.: He is a Fellow in the Academy of Science and Industry. She is looking for a fellowship that will allow her to do her research.

Fields of study, programs
Do not capitalize names of fields of study, such as history, psychology, etc. Capitalize the name of a program if it is an official college program.

Ex.: He studied history at Juniata. She went through the Health Professions Program.

Final Four
The Final Four is a trademarked name referring only to the NCAA Division I basketball finals. DO NOT refer to the volleyball tournament as the Final Four in print. It should be referred to as the Division III Volleyball National Semifinals and Finals.

first lady
Do not capitalize in reference to the wife of a president or head of state. The president of a college or university does not have a first lady. That title is generally reserved for the wife of the President of the United States.

Founders Hall
Not Founder's Hall.

Generally use numerals separated by a slash. 1/4, 3/8. In cases of clarity, spelling out one-third, half, two-thirds is often easier to read. Each case is personal preference.

First-year students
Juniata College uses this phrase to describe students in their first year of study. Do not use “freshman” or “freshmen” to describe first-year students.



Refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that individuals choose to present and or identify themselves through masculinity, femininity and/or androgynous. Gender is a broad category which includes expression, identification, and roles, but does not include biological sex.

Gender-inclusive Housing
Permits male and female Juniata students, who would be uncomfortable in a traditional housing arrangement, to room together on campus. It aims to be more inclusive and sensitive to the needs of all students, especially those in LGBT communities.

Global Nomad
Global nomad refers to a student who may have U.S. citizenship but may have been born abroad or has lived a significant period of time abroad.

grade-point average
Hyphenate grade-point average and try to avoid abbreviating it. In lists or memos, or if you absolutely have to use the abbreviation, use all caps, no periods.

G.I. Bill
Caps, with periods on G.I, no space. Bill is capitalized. To be accurate, differentiate between the original GI Bill, post World War II, the Vietnam-Era GI Bill, the Montgomery GI Bill of 1978 and the Post 9/11 GI Bill.

Graduation years
For external publications, DO NOT include graduation years as part of the identifier. Write out a descriptive clause.

Ex.: Jim Miller, a 1955 Juniata graduate

For all internal publications and the magazine, list the graduation year directly after the name.

Ex.: Jim Miller ’55 is a high-ranking officer in the Navy.

If you are identifying a graduate as part of a longer story, the graduation year is considered part of his name in punctuation matters.

Ex.: Jim Miller ’55, a high ranking Navy officer, is dead.

Grove Farm
Refer to the century-old farmhouse that served as the original Raystown Field Station facility as Grove Farm.



Halbritter Center for the Performing Arts
In internal marketing publications refer to the center on first reference as the Marlene and Barry Halbritter Center for the Performing Arts. In Juniata Magazine, also use the entire name on first reference. In editorial copy for press releases, use the Halbritter Center for the Performing Arts on first reference, Hallbritter Center or performing arts center on second reference.

High schools with state designations
Elyria (Ohio) High School
Santa Rosa (Calif.) High School
Greenbelt (Md.) High School
Altoona (Pa.) Area High School

In editorial materials, do not use HOBO to refer to the business course Behavioral Analysis of Organizations. In copy, use the formal title and feel free to add the aside, “formerly known as HOBO,” HOBO refers to the same course that was taught under another name, Human Behavior in Organizations.

Capitalized in internal publications, lowercase when referring to events in material intended for external audiences or for general use.

Ex.: He awaited his daughter’s homecoming.
Ex.: The Homecoming dance is cancelled.

home page
Two words, lowercase.



ID card
Refers to the Juniata College student identification card. Capitalize ID, with no periods or spaces.

Stands for Interdisciplinary Colloquium

Do not set off Inc. with commas when referring to a business. J.C. Penney Inc. has declared poor earnings this quarter.

Innovations for Industry
This three-semester IT course should be referred to by its full name on first reference, preferably with a clause explaining what the course is. After that, use I-4-I on subsequent references. Capital I, hyphen, 4, hyphen, Capital I.

International Programs
The correct term to use for Juniata College’s international program is the Center for International Education. The dean of the program is referred to as dean of international programs. When referring to these programs colloquially, it is acceptable to use the term study abroad program.



Spell out information technology on first reference. Always refer to the Juniata Information Technology department or Department of Information Technology. Never use IT as part of an identifier for an academic program.



DO NOT use as an abbreviation for Juniata College

The acronym stands for Juniata College Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership. Located in the former Alfarata School in Huntingdon. On first reference use the formal name. In subsequent references, use the acronym.

Juniata College Sports Hall of Fame
To be used on first reference. On second reference, refer to the Hall of Fame or Juniata’s Hall of Fame.

Juniata Eagles
To be used in all references to all Juniata sports teams, men's and women’s. The women’s teams are not to be referred to as the Lady Eagles in any editorial material.

Juniata Indians
The use of the term “Indians” in referring to any Juniata College sports team should only be used in a historical context when referring to past accomplishments. Preferably, writers should only mention the former name in an historical aside.

Ex.: “The 1928 Juniata baseball team, then known as the Indians, were the first collegiate team to post a winning record at Juniata.”

If possible, avoid the use of this former nickname by referring to past accomplishments by using less defined terms like “the football team” or “the Juniata baseball squad.” Never use the Indians nickname for any marketing or educational materials, no matter how informal.

Juniata College, known as Brethren Normal School
A historical reference. For a short period of time, the college was known by this name.

Refers in all cases to the student newspaper. In informal magazine usage, writers can call a graduate of Juniata a Juniatian.

Jr., Sr. III
Do not use a comma after the last name of a person when it is followed by a Jr., Sr., II, III, IV, etc.



Kennedy Sports and Recreation Center
Always spell out all parts of the title. Do not use the plus sign as part of the title in any editorial copy.



Lakeside Center
Acceptable on first reference to the complex of buildings that comprise the Juniata College Raystown Field Station. In referring to any project or event, please use Raystown Field Station on first reference. If you wish to avoid confusion with the old center, know known as Grove Farm, use Lakeside Center to avoid confusion. The multipurpose building, Shuster Hall, is part of the Lakeside Center.

Legislative titles
On first reference, use the abbreviation Rep. or Sen. as formal titles before a name. For multiple names, use Reps. or Sens. In a direct quotation, spell out and capitalize these titles. Spell out other legislative titles and capitalize when they are used before a name.

Ex.: Assemblyman John Smith is dead. John Smith, assemblyman, died today.

Acronym for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual,Transgender and Queer individuals. This acronym is used as it is the most commonly accepted though it is not exhaustive of the full diaspora of sexual orientation and gender expression.  Other groups that may be included in this grouping include but are not limited to those who may be queer, questioning, allies, asexuals, pansexuals, polyamorous, etc.



Do not refer to the Office of Marketing as the Office of External Relations and Marketing.

In referring to a degree earned at a business program, periods are not needed. However when referring to a program or to a person who has earned the degree, use MBA, with no periods, no spaces.

Ex.: Randy Rossman will lead the group in the workshop on MBA negotiating skills.
More than 200 MBAs attended the tailgate.

Mathematics and Computer Science
No ampersand

If figure is less than a dollar list the numeral followed by lowercased cents: 12 cents

If figure is more than a dollar, use the $ sign and decimals: $1.25, $2.45.

Use figures and the $ sign in all cases except casual conversations:

Ex.: The book cost $4. Dad, give me a dollar.

For amounts more than 1 million use the $ sign and figures up to two decimal places $ 3 million, $1.2 Million, $4.75 million. Never add .00 to a dollar amount.

More than/over
When referring to something that can be counted, use “more than” in all cases, rather than over.

Ex.: Jim ate more than 20 doughnuts. Jason is over six feet tall.

Musical Notes, keys
Use Roman caps for major notes and keys and roman lowercase for minor notes and keys. It is a good idea to include the words major and minor when naming keys.

Ex.: Beethoven’s best works are in g minor, although Aaron Copland preferred G major. middle C; key of F minor; key of B major.



National Origin/Nationality
Country of citizenship and/or birth

Naturalized Citizen
Naturalized Citizen refers to a student who became a citizen after immigration to the U.S. or due to adoption.

Neff Lecture Hall
The large lecture hall in the von Liebig Center for Science is to be referred to in print solely by the name Neff Lecture Hall, preferably followed by the phrase “in the von Liebig Center for Science.”

The numbers one through nine should be spelled out in editorial copy. Number 10 and above are not spelled out. Spell out any number (except a year) that starts a sentence. Often it’s better to rewrite the sentence. Ages should be written in numerals.



Office names
Capitalize the formal name of the office, but lowercase in informal usage.

Ex.: Lee is going to the Office of Student Financial Planning.
 Joe left the student financial planning office.

Oller Center
Oller Center houses the Baker Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies and the Center for International Education. It has nothing to do with Oller Hall.

In most cases, lowercase: orientation; orientation programs; orientation workshops.

Oxford Comma
Use the Oxford comma in all publications (digital or print) except where it is stated that you should not use it (according to a style guide). For example, according to Associated Press style, one should not use the Oxford comma, therefore, our news releases at www.juniata.edu/news do not include it.



Pennsylvania General Assembly
Capitalize, but Pennsylvania legislature is lowercase.

Always use numerals and spell out percent in text. The the % sign only in charts, graphs and scientific and mathematical material.

Permanent Resident
Permanent resident refers to a student who is considered a nonimmigrant (not a citizen) but has a permanent residency status in the U.S.

Phone numbers
The accepted Juniata style for phone numbers is (814) 555-1212. The area code is set off by parentheses followed by the number.

Pink or Pink Palace
Do not refer to this student residence by this name in external editorial copy.

Plus sign
Never use the + sign in text, always use “and” in text.

Ex.: The Kennedy Sports and Recreation Center is not open today.

Stands for Program of Emphasis, Juniata’s system that is the equivalent of majors at other institutions.

POE is always capitalized with no periods. When referring to a student’s field of study, try to avoid using POE in print. In general use the term “studying.”

Ex.: Jim Lowe, a sophomore studying politics and history, is dead.

Ex.: Becky is studying biology and history at Juniata College.

In general, use the term POE in publications where the audience is knowledgeable enough to not require an explanation of the concept. If you must use POE, then add a sentence to explain the POE to the reader.

Refers in all cases to professors of politics at Juniata College. The college does not use the term political science in its academic titles.

Prelaw; premedicine
One word

President James A. Troha
President Troha should be referred to in official Juniata news articles and magazine stories on first reference as James A. Troha. In less formal publications, such as social media and second reference stories, Jim Troha is acceptable. On second reference, Troha can be used.

Never abbreviate and lowercase before a name unless starting a sentence. Do not continue using the title on second reference unless in a direct quotation. Never use “prof” in a quotation, either. You can clean up the speaker’s grammar by writing out professor.

Professorial pecking order is: assistant professor, associate professor and professor. Do not abbreviate assistant or associate unless the document is a very informal internal publication. 

In a writing situation when addressing all three ranks in the same sentence, use the term “full professor.” At some universities, attaining the rank of associate professor means the professor has obtained tenure. At Juniata, that is not always the case. At Juniata an associate professor may or may not have tenure.

Program names
Programs should be capitalized only as part of a formal name.



Broad sweeping category to categorize individuals primarily by skin color. Example include: White, Black, Asian, and American Indian. Race is a sociopolitical, not biological, construct that is created and reinforced by social and institutional norms and practices, as well as individual attitudes and behaviors.

Raystown Field Station
Use Juniata College Raystown Field Station on first reference and then field station on subsequent references. In internal publications, Raystown Field Station on first reference is acceptable. If referring to the old Raystown field station, couch it in terms that makes it clear you are writing about the original structure. The multipurpose building, the first structure built for the field station, is known as Shuster Hall. It is preferable to refer to the entire complex as the Raystown Field Station. The original Raystown Field Station farmhouse should be called Grove Farm.

Capitalize in all cases.

Ex.: Students can go to the Registrar’s office for help.

Ex.: The Registrar will conduct workshops for incoming students.

An organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence (e.g. Catholic, Muslim, Judaism, Buddhism, etc.)

Religious titles
The first reference to a clergyman or clergywoman should include a capitalized title. The Rev. is the accepted designation for most denominations. However Cardinal, Archbishop and Bishop should be used before individual names. Sister before a singular or full name for nuns of all orders. Rabbi should be used before a name on first reference.

Residence hall
Use the term residence hall, not dormitory.

In addition, residence hall is always lowercase, as is resident assistant. Use RA, no periods, in subsequent uses. Plural of RA is RAs, no apostrophe.

Rockwell Seminar Room
Identify this room by including the phrase “in the von Liebig Center for Science” on first reference.

Room numbers and building names
Use the room number first, then the building name.

Ex.: The meeting is in 202 Good Hall.

Ex.: The lecture is in 1006 von Liebig Center for Science

If the building name is used without a room number, use the full name on every reference and capitalize it.

Ex.: Good Hall, Alumni Hall in the Brumbaugh Science Center.



Scientific Names/Plants and Animals
The genus name is capitalized, species name is lowercased, and the entire name is always in italics.

The four seasons are lowercased, as are semesters.

Biological sex refers to objectively defined characteristics of organs, hormones and chromosomes which categorize them as male, female or intersex.

Sexual Orientation
Type of sexual, romantic, physical, and/or spiritual attraction one feels for others, often labeled based on the gender relationship between the person and the people they are attracted to. Examples include but are not limited to: heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, pansexual, asexual, etc.

Sill Boardroom
Not Sill Board Room. Also give the building location of the boardroom in the von Liebig Center for Science, when referring to to the room.

Sill Business Incubator
In most instances for external audiences, refer to the business incubator as the Sill Business Incubator. For formal or internal publications use the Bob and Eileen Sill Business Incubator on first reference.

Social Security
Capitalize Social Security, but do not cap number, tax, or office when those words follow the term Social Security.

States and Abbreviations
In previous Associate Press (AP) Stylebooks, prior to 2018, all states had designated abbreviations. Now, the AP recommends spelling out all state and commonwealth names. We are adapting their rule, partially. Please spell out states in prose, but feel free to use abbreviations in captions or shorter bits of text.

Stone Church of the Brethren
Use this title in all references. Do not use “Stone House” to refer to the house where Finance and Print Publications are located except in informal writing. Use the address instead.

Office of Student Financial Planning
Use this title on first reference and use financial planning office on second reference,. Do not refer to the office as the “financial aid office,” the “tuition office” or the “aid office.”



teachers college
No apostrophe.

teaching assistant
It is teaching assistant on first reference; try to avoid using TA as an abbreviation, but if you must, use caps, no periods.

Technology Solutions Center
In editorial copy for external audiences spell the entire name out. Never use the acronym TLT. That acronym is no longer in use.

Juniata uses the British spelling of theatre.

Times of Day
Always use numerals followed by a.m. or p.m. except for noon and midnight. Do Not use :00 in any time reference. Do not use a numeral or a.m./p.m. reference for noon or midnight (12 noon is redundant).

Ex.: 1 p.m., 3 a.m., 1:15 p.m., 4:23 a.m.

When noting a period of time, do not repeat an a.m. or p.m.

Ex.: The meeting is from 3 to 5 p.m. and the people will meet again from 10 to 11 a.m. tomorrow.

Ex.: The meeting ran from noon to 2 p.m. and the next meeting ran from 10 p.m. to 1 a.m.

Titles of works
In general, the following should be italicized in text for Juniata publications.
book titles,
magazine and periodicals,
movie titles,
musical compositions, plays,
TV and radio programs,
plus works of art.

In press releases to media, use AP style for movie titles, book titles, works of art, plays, musical compositions, TV and radio programs and poems. AP style dictates that these should be set off by quotation marks -- “Chicago,” “Guernica,” “Mysteries of Pittsburgh,” etc.
 For AP style, magazine and periodical names and newspaper names are not italicized or set off with quotation marks.

On internal publications, capitalize Board of Trustees. For external audiences, lowercase board of trustees. On second reference use board or trustees as context dictates.



United States/U.S.
Spell out when used as a noun and abbreviate as an adjective.

Ex.: The immigrants arrived in the United States.

Ex.: He joined the U.S. Air Force.

U.S. News & World Report
In this case use the & sign because it’s part of the magazine title.



Veteran Status
Position of a former member of the armed forces. Includes Vietnam-era veteran, disabled veteran, recently separated veteran, other protected veterans and Armed Forces service medal veteran.

vice president
No hyphen.



William J. von Liebig Center for Science
In official College publications, use the entire formal name on first reference. In external publications that are used to identify location for a class or an event, use of “the von Liebig Center for Science” is acceptable. In casual usage, “the science center” is preferable to “the center for science.” Never refer to the building using the terms “von Liebig” or “the von Liebig Center.”

World Languages and Cultures
No ampersand.

Ex.: Henry Spain is professor of Spanish in the Department of World Languages and Cultures.

World Wide Web
All caps.

lowercase web, no space. But, Web page and Web feed.

webcam, webmaster, webcast

One word.