The secondary emphasis is for use by students with POEs in other departments. We do not allow a student with a POE in ABE to use one of our own secondary emphases, e.g. Accounting w/secondary emphasis in Finance.

The secondary emphasis is shown on the POE forms using the words "w/secondary emphasis in" (e.g., Communications w/secondary emphasis in Marketing). We suggest that using "and" to connect two disciplines - e.g., Communications and Marketing - implies that the student is a "dual major" and has completed the designated POE in Marketing and sufficient work in the other discipline that a faculty member of that department would approve the POE.


Note that prerequisites for 300/400 courses will NOT automatically be waived.


Secondary Emphasis in Accounting

Take the following courses:

EB-131  Financial Accounting

Introduces fundamental principles and assumptions of accounting as they relate to transaction analysis and basic financial statements.

3 CreditsS

EB-222  Principles of Macroeconomics

Macroeconomic conditions affect individuals and businesses in numerous ways: employment opportunities, the purchasing power of wages and salaries, the cost of borrowing money, sales, profits, and competitiveness against foreign businesses. This course develops the theories relevant to understanding the business cycle, inflation, unemployment, deflation, exchange rates and balance of payments problems. It also examines the options and tradeoffs governments face as they seek to provide a stable macroeconomic environment through monetary and fiscal policies. Case studies of the macroeconomic performance and policies of diverse countries provide a comparative orientation. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: Sophomore, Junior, or Senior standing 

EB-232  Intermediate Accounting I

A comprehensive study and application of generally accepted accounting principles for asset valuation, income measurement, and financial statement presentation for business organizations. 

4 CreditsSPrerequisites: EB131. 

EB-236  Managerial Accounting

Emphasizes accounting concepts for the internal use of management in planning and control. Course focuses on spreadsheet applications to analyze management policies. 

3 CreditsS,QM,CWPrerequisite: EB131. 


Take one of the following courses:

EB-334  Advanced Accounting

Focuses on accounting theory and problems regarding such specialized topics as: partnerships, consolidated financial statements, governmental accounting, multi-national enterprises and corporate bankruptcy. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB233. 

EB-335  Auditing

Emphasizes current auditing principles and the objectives of independent accounting firms. Particular attention is placed on auditing procedures and the ethical and legal responsibilities of the auditor. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB233. 

EB-336  Federal Taxation: Individuals

Examines the federal income tax structure and its relationship to individuals and sole proprietorships. Emphasis is placed on the preparation of the individual income tax return. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB131. 

EB-337  Cost Accounting

An analysis of the use of cost accounting systems to accumulate and allocate manufacturing costs. In order to support inventory valuation and emphasis is on solving real business problems. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB236 and Junior or Senior standing. 


Secondary Emphasis in Economics

Economics Core:

Take the following courses:

EB-105  International Economic Issues

Understanding international economics is increasingly important for private and public decision-makers. In a world of growing economic interdependence, the ability of policy makers to provide a stable environment for business is a key issue. Accordingly, this course develops the principle topics of international economics, including trade theory, the balance of payments, the cause and consequences of exchange rate movements, the flow of capital, currency crises and regional trade issues. The applied topics emphasized will be based on the most pressing current issues.

3 CreditsS,I

EB-222  Principles of Macroeconomics

Macroeconomic conditions affect individuals and businesses in numerous ways: employment opportunities, the purchasing power of wages and salaries, the cost of borrowing money, sales, profits, and competitiveness against foreign businesses. This course develops the theories relevant to understanding the business cycle, inflation, unemployment, deflation, exchange rates and balance of payments problems. It also examines the options and tradeoffs governments face as they seek to provide a stable macroeconomic environment through monetary and fiscal policies. Case studies of the macroeconomic performance and policies of diverse countries provide a comparative orientation. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: Sophomore, Junior, or Senior standing 

EB-223  Principles of Microeconomics

The optimizing behavior of households and firms serves as the focal point in this study of market-based resource allocation. Supply and demand analysis, spending and saving decisions of households, production and employment decisions of firms, alternative market structures, and environmental economics are among the topics covered. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: Sophomore, Junior, or Senior standing. 


Introductory Statistics:

Take one of the following courses:

EB-211  Business Statistics

This course covers basic descriptive and inferential statistics, normal curve and z-score computations, and addresses hypothesis testing using Chi-Square, T-Test, ANOVA, and linear regression modelling.

3 Credits QS,S

MA-220 Introduction to Probability & Statistics

An introduction to the basic ideas and techniques of probability theory and to selected topics in statistics, such as sampling theory, confidence intervals, and linear regression.

4 CreditsN, QS, CTGESPrerequisite: MA130

MA-205 Elementary Statistics

Introduction to traditional statistical concepts including descriptive statistics, binomial and normal probability models, confidence intervals, tests of hypotheses, linear correlation and regression, two-way contingency tables, and one-way analysis of variance.

4 CreditsN, QS, WK-SPPrerequisite: FYC-101 or EN-110 or EN-109


Upper-Level Core:

Take two of the following courses:

EB-320  Intermediate Microeconomics

Microeconomics analyzes the behavior of individual economic units such as consumers and firms. Intermediate microeconomics builds on the topics covered in principles of microeconomics and principles of macroeconomics. While those courses were more intuitive, this course explores microeconomics with a deeper degree of rigor using mathematical models to predict economic behavior. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisites include EB223 and EB222. 

EB-321  Intermediate Macroeconomics

Intermediate Macroeconomics builds upon the concepts developed in principles of microeconomics and principles of macroeconomics. Macroeconomics in general tries to understand the aggregate behavior of economies rather than that of individual economic actors, and in this course we will study and use models that help explain what has happened in the past and predict what will occur. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: EB222 and EB223. 

EB-325  Health Economics

Health Economics applies economic analysis to better understand the functioning of the healthcare industry. Topics willinclude demand for healthcare and health insurance, information problems, healthcare costs, comparative healthcare systems and healthcare policy. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB223 Principles of Microeconomics 

EB-381  International Political Economy

The pursuit of wealth and power, profit and privilege, corporate growth and national security occurs in a global context. This course examines the business agendas and political priorities that find expression in the policy agreements and institutional agreements of the contemporary global economy. The course is conducted as a seminar and requires a substantial research project. 

3 CreditsS,IPrerequisite: EB105. 

EB-463 Financial Markets & Institutions

The role of credit and capital and the function of dollar and Euro bonds in today's internationalized financial markets are investigated empirically and assessed analytically in this course. Numerous economic theories relevant to understanding the behavior of various asset markets are developed, including portfolio and asset models of exchange rate determination and currency speculation. The costs and benefits of alternative government policies such as financial regulation and capital and foreign exchange controls are weighed. 

3 CreditsS,IPrerequisite: EB222. 

EB-465  Financial Theory and Analysis

Financial Theory & Analysis will be a finance elective aimed at juniors and seniors. EB465's purpose is to develop an understanding of traditional modern portfolio theory, recent challenges to this orthodoxy, empirical knowledge of asset performance and how to apply this knowledge to specific contexts, i.e. creating an appropriate portfolio. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: EB211 and EB362. MA220 may be used as a replacement for EB211 only. 


Secondary Emphasis in Entrepreneurship

Take the following courses:

EB-100  Introduction to Management

This course develops an understanding of management principles in the areas of planning, organizing, staffing and control, including but not limited to the aspects of strategy, legal environment, operation/supply chain management.

3 CreditsS

EB-102  Introduction to Entrepreneurship

Students will explore the personal ramification of becoming an entrepreneur. They will generate ideas for new business start-ups and learn how to determine whether an idea represents a viable business opportunity. Students will develop their concepts as far as possible toward the actual startup venture.

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB101 or permission of the instructor.

EB-131  Financial Accounting

Introduces fundamental principles and assumptions of accounting as they relate to transaction analysis and basic financial statements.

3 CreditsS

EB-207   New Venture Creation

Students will analyze business start-up successes and failures, develop their own new ideas for new ventures and learn how to determine when an idea represents a viable business opportunity. Students will pursue those opportunities as far as possible toward actual startup of the venture. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: EB102. 

EB-307  New Venture Start-Ups

Students will develop their new ventures beyond the conceptual and planning stages by establishing actual operations-purchasing, manufacturing, marketing, etc. to generate revenue. They will implement whatever support systems (accounting, human resources, inventory management, etc.) are needed. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB207. 


Secondary Emphasis in Finance

Take the following courses:

EB-100  Introduction to Management

This course develops an understanding of management principles in the areas of planning, organizing, staffing and control, including but not limited to the aspects of strategy, legal environment, operation/supply chain management.

3 CreditsS

EB-131  Financial Accounting

Introduces fundamental principles and assumptions of accounting as they relate to transaction analysis and basic financial statements.

3 CreditsS

EB-222  Principles of Macroeconomics

Macroeconomic conditions affect individuals and businesses in numerous ways: employment opportunities, the purchasing power of wages and salaries, the cost of borrowing money, sales, profits, and competitiveness against foreign businesses. This course develops the theories relevant to understanding the business cycle, inflation, unemployment, deflation, exchange rates and balance of payments problems. It also examines the options and tradeoffs governments face as they seek to provide a stable macroeconomic environment through monetary and fiscal policies. Case studies of the macroeconomic performance and policies of diverse countries provide a comparative orientation. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: Sophomore, Junior, or Senior standing 

EB-236  Managerial Accounting

Emphasizes accounting concepts for the internal use of management in planning and control. Course focuses on spreadsheet applications to analyze management policies. 

3 CreditsS,QM,CWPrerequisite: EB131. 


Take two of the following courses:

EB-361  Financial Management I

The management of business assets and liabilities and the concurrent creation of sources and the use of funds. Special attention is given to financial statement analysis and decisions involving working capital management. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB131 and Junior or Senior standing. 

EB-362  Financial Management II

Special attention to long-term external sources of funds. Capital budgeting under uncertainty, security market processes, strategies for debt/ equity mix, and portfolio theory are covered. 

3 CreditsQM,SPrerequisite: Junior or Senior standing. 

EB-363  Health Care Financial Management

Emphasizes health care decision making using financial information. The course focuses on unique financial characteristics in the health care industry, such as the mix of government and non-government providers and payers, complex payment systems, and the interactions between providers, insurance companies and consumers. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB131. 

EB-463 Financial Markets & Institutions

The role of credit and capital and the function of dollar and Euro bonds in today's internationalized financial markets are investigated empirically and assessed analytically in this course. Numerous economic theories relevant to understanding the behavior of various asset markets are developed, including portfolio and asset models of exchange rate determination and currency speculation. The costs and benefits of alternative government policies such as financial regulation and capital and foreign exchange controls are weighed. 

3 CreditsS,IPrerequisite: EB222. 

EB-465  Financial Theory and Analysis

Financial Theory & Analysis will be a finance elective aimed at juniors and seniors. EB465's purpose is to develop an understanding of traditional modern portfolio theory, recent challenges to this orthodoxy, empirical knowledge of asset performance and how to apply this knowledge to specific contexts, i.e. creating an appropriate portfolio. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: EB211 and EB362. MA220 may be used as a replacement for EB211 only. 


Secondary Emphasis in Human Resource Management

Take the following courses:

EB-100  Introduction to Management

This course develops an understanding of management principles in the areas of planning, organizing, staffing and control, including but not limited to the aspects of strategy, legal environment, operation/supply chain management.

3 CreditsS

EB-131  Financial Accounting

Introduces fundamental principles and assumptions of accounting as they relate to transaction analysis and basic financial statements.

3 CreditsS

EB-202  Behavioral Analysis of Organizations

The broad focus of the course is to examine how individuals come together to form a successful organization. The course is broken into three major sections: people, organizations, and leadership. The course emphasizes student involvement and engages students in a variety of in-class exercises, case analysis role playing exercises, small group exercises, and an off-campus class experience or two. One or more off-campus experiences are required for the course. 

4 CreditsCW,S,WK-SIPrerequisite: Sophomore standing.

EB-371  Human Resource Management.

The early part of the course takes an in-depth look at the fundamental nature of the employer- employee relationship. The fundamental framework is then used to evaluate traditional aspects of Human Resource Management practice: Selection, training, recruitment, performance appraisals, and compensation. Class time involves some lecture, in-class exercises, guest speakers from industry, and case analyses. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: EB202 or PACS202. 

EB-379  Bargaining and Conflict Management

Bargaining and Conflict Management provides students with an opportunity to learn about bargaining and conflict-management theory. Students will have the opportunity to explore and apply this theory, and to examine aspects of bargaining style, in a variety of bargaining simulations. The course will also have an international component by utilizing international bargaining simulations as an instructional tool. 

3 CreditsS,CSPrerequisite: EB202 or PACS202. 


Take one of the following courses:

PY-101 Introduction to Psychology

An overview of the content and methodology in the field. Topics such as the history of psychology, physiological psychology, learning and memory, perception, motivation, child development, personality and social foundations are considered

3 CreditsS

PY-205 Social Psychology

The study of human interaction and interpersonal relationships, including selected areas of current research and theory such as social perception, interpersonal communication, attitude formation and change, conformity, aggression, and interpersonal attraction. 

3 CreditsS 

PY-303 Learning & Conditioning

Explores the issue of how we are changed by experience, using primarily a behaviorist perspective, applied to animal and human data. Both theory and applied applications of theory will be considered.

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: PY101.

PY-304 Cognitive Psychology

Explores an array of issues in human memory, primarily from a cognitive/information processing point of view. Major emphasis is on using research data to formulate answers to both theoretical and applied questions. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: PY101.

CM-130 Introduction to Human Communication

Surveys the fundamental tenets of human communication through application. This course is concerned with how and why we speak, listen, respond, and strategize through the uses of verbal and nonverbal symbol systems.

3 CreditsS 

CM-230 Interpersonal Communication

Introduces students to the various theories and styles of one-on-one communication. It emphasizes the transactional approach in the study of the communication process as it occurs in interpersonal relationships. It explores interaction as a way by which we come to know ourselves and each other.

3 CreditsH, CSPrerequisites: CM130

CM-340 Intercultural Communication

This course examines symbolic patterns of communication as they relate to issues of diversity. Interactive skills needed to open channels of communication between and among people of diverse backgrounds are analyzed and developed. A multi-cultural approach to the study of human communication serves as a basis for exploring issues of diversity that include but are not limited to race, gender, class, ability, orientation, religion and ethnicity.

3 CreditsH, IPrerequisite: CM230.

CM-405A Women, Work & Identity

Women. Work. Identity. These three words are related in a complex web that many of us struggle to untangle for our entire working lives. In this course, we identify and name the components of the relationships among these words--all in the context of the unique perspective that the communication discipline offers.

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: CM130 or CM230 or CM220 or CM365 or permission of the instructor.

PACS-105  Introduction to Conflict Resolution

A survey of the field of conflict, this course explores the causes and consequences of social conflict. Theory and case studies are used to understand interpersonal disputes, the intricacies of groups in conflict and international issues and crisis. Emphasis is given to understanding the basic theoretical concepts of the field and developing basic conflict resolving skills.

3 CreditsS 

PACS-205  Conflict Intervention

The course explores the roles third parties play in managing and resolving conflicts. Students become familiar with both the central components of intervention design and the nature and structure of third party roles ranging from managers as mediators to conflict intervention in community disputes, or third party intervention in international disputes. The focusing questions of the course center on issues of how and when third parties can effectively and ethically intervene in conflicts. Research, case studies, and simulations are used to explore the answers of these questions and to increase students understanding of how third parties affect the course of conflict. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: PACS105 or PACS108. 

PACS-305  Gender and Conflict

This course looks at the intersection of gender and conflict to understand what it means to say that a conflict is gendered. It uses gender as an organizing concept to study issues of gender equality, justice, and peace, challenging andinterrogating dichotomous, oppositionalconstructions of masculinity and femininity to understand how they contribute to direct, structural, and cultural violence. 

3 CreditsS,I,CW,SW-ERPrerequisite: FYC-101 or EN-110 or EN-109


Secondary Emphasis in International Business

Given the unique requirements built into the designated POE in International Business, a secondary emphasis should only be used in rare instances wherein the student has met most of the requirements for the designated, but somehow missed "something." For example, student did not go abroad. Please seek the advice of an ABE faculty member.


Secondary Emphasis in Investing

Take the folowing courses:

EB-100  Introduction to Management

This course develops an understanding of management principles in the areas of planning, organizing, staffing and control, including but not limited to the aspects of strategy, legal environment, operation/supply chain management.

3 CreditsS

EB-140   Investing: Your Future

Saving too little can cost you a secure future. In this course you will learn to make informed judgments about how to save, how much to save, how to invest, what to believe, who to ask for advice, and how to choose among investments. Students with no investing knowledge but who are interested are especially encouraged to take this course.

1 CreditsS 

EB-222  Principles of Macroeconomics

Macroeconomic conditions affect individuals and businesses in numerous ways: employment opportunities, the purchasing power of wages and salaries, the cost of borrowing money, sales, profits, and competitiveness against foreign businesses. This course develops the theories relevant to understanding the business cycle, inflation, unemployment, deflation, exchange rates and balance of payments problems. It also examines the options and tradeoffs governments face as they seek to provide a stable macroeconomic environment through monetary and fiscal policies. Case studies of the macroeconomic performance and policies of diverse countries provide a comparative orientation. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: Sophomore, Junior, or Senior standing 

EB-131  Financial Accounting

Introduces fundamental principles and assumptions of accounting as they relate to transaction analysis and basic financial statements.

3 CreditsS

EB-340  Investing Analysis

The course is meant to train portfolio managers. Students will maintain an online trading account and learn about fiduciary responsibility. They will assist portfolio managers by analyzing investments and with other tasks. This course prepares students to become portfolio managers. 

1 CreditsSPrerequisites: EB140 

EB-361  Financial Management I

The management of business assets and liabilities and the concurrent creation of sources and the use of funds. Special attention is given to financial statement analysis and decisions involving working capital management. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB131 and Junior or Senior standing. 

EB-440  Portfolio Management I

Students manage the Juniata College student portfolio, making all investment decisions about policy, trading, and long term goals. They present a progress report to the public, benchmark and account for the investments, and defend their choices. 

1 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB-340 or EB-362

EB-463 Financial Markets & Institutions

The role of credit and capital and the function of dollar and Euro bonds in today's internationalized financial markets are investigated empirically and assessed analytically in this course. Numerous economic theories relevant to understanding the behavior of various asset markets are developed, including portfolio and asset models of exchange rate determination and currency speculation. The costs and benefits of alternative government policies such as financial regulation and capital and foreign exchange controls are weighed. 

3 CreditsS,IPrerequisite: EB222. 


Secondary Emphasis in Management

Take the following courses:

EB-105  International Economic Issues

Understanding international economics is increasingly important for private and public decision-makers. In a world of growing economic interdependence, the ability of policy makers to provide a stable environment for business is a key issue. Accordingly, this course develops the principle topics of international economics, including trade theory, the balance of payments, the cause and consequences of exchange rate movements, the flow of capital, currency crises and regional trade issues. The applied topics emphasized will be based on the most pressing current issues.

3 CreditsS,I

EB-222  Principles of Macroeconomics

Macroeconomic conditions affect individuals and businesses in numerous ways: employment opportunities, the purchasing power of wages and salaries, the cost of borrowing money, sales, profits, and competitiveness against foreign businesses. This course develops the theories relevant to understanding the business cycle, inflation, unemployment, deflation, exchange rates and balance of payments problems. It also examines the options and tradeoffs governments face as they seek to provide a stable macroeconomic environment through monetary and fiscal policies. Case studies of the macroeconomic performance and policies of diverse countries provide a comparative orientation. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisites: Sophomore, Junior, or Senior standing 

EB-223  Principles of Microeconomics

The optimizing behavior of households and firms serves as the focal point in this study of market-based resource allocation. Supply and demand analysis, spending and saving decisions of households, production and employment decisions of firms, alternative market structures, and environmental economics are among the topics covered. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: Sophomore, Junior, or Senior standing. 


Take the following courses:

EB-100  Introduction to Management

This course develops an understanding of management principles in the areas of planning, organizing, staffing and control, including but not limited to the aspects of strategy, legal environment, operation/supply chain management.

3 CreditsS

EB-131  Financial Accounting

Introduces fundamental principles and assumptions of accounting as they relate to transaction analysis and basic financial statements.

3 CreditsS

EB-202  Behavioral Analysis of Organizations

The broad focus of the course is to examine how individuals come together to form a successful organization. The course is broken into three major sections: people, organizations, and leadership. The course emphasizes student involvement and engages students in a variety of in-class exercises, case analysis role playing exercises, small group exercises, and an off-campus class experience or two. One or more off-campus experiences are required for the course. 

4 CreditsCW,S,WK-SIPrerequisite: Sophomore standing.


Take two EB courses at the 300/400 level: (except EB-490/EB-495)


Secondary Emphasis in Marketing

Take the following courses:

EB-100  Introduction to Management

This course develops an understanding of management principles in the areas of planning, organizing, staffing and control, including but not limited to the aspects of strategy, legal environment, operation/supply chain management.

3 CreditsS

EB-131  Financial Accounting

Introduces fundamental principles and assumptions of accounting as they relate to transaction analysis and basic financial statements.

3 CreditsS

EB-351  Marketing Management

Analyzes consumer behavior leading to selection of product as well as pricing, promotion and distribution strategies. Research projects help students apply concepts to the complexities of decision making in marketing. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB201. 

EB-355  Marketing Strategies

Examines in depth the development and implementation of marketing strategies, for businesses and not-for-profits, for domestic and international businesses. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB351. 

EB-358  Marketing Research and Analytics

This course covers the three core pillars of analytics: Descriptive Analytics, Predictive Analytics, and Prescriptive Analytics, which helps students understand, conduct, interpret and evaluate basic statistics that are widely used in marketing research and in the process being able to critique research reports. Students will be trained to utilize computer software in conducting statistical analyses. 

3 CreditsSPrerequisite: EB-351 

EB-359  Advertising & Promo Mgmt

This promotion management course is designed to give students an in-depth examination of integrated marketing communication and how it relates to handling promoting an organization, a campaign, a product and (or) service, or any other specific cause. The course will look at various promotional techniques such as public relations, various sources of advertising and marketing, and the utilization of direct sales approaches, with the focus on the marketing mix to the various aspects of communications that take place between the firm and its customers. At the same time, this course lends itself to studying both " applied " and " theoretical " issues to give students both a real-world view of advertising and promotions, as well as frameworks for understanding such real-world decisions. Specifically, it will focus on the concept of " what is in it for me " and the attempt to establish a two-way dialogue with consumers. The course will offer an insight into strategies that can be developed and implemented to manage promotional activities.

3 Credits